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NAME ^

CIPP - Reference Manual

SYNOPSIS ^

  perldoc CIPP::Manual

DESCRIPTION ^

This is the reference manual for CIPP, the powerful preprocessor language for embedding Perl and SQL in HTML. This documentation module is part of the CIPP distribution which is available on CPAN.

The manual describes CIPP's basic syntax rules, classifies its execution environments and describes all CIPP commands in alphabetical order. Each reference contains syntax notation, textual description and examples.

Configuration hints for CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP can be found in the correspondent manpages.

QUICK FIND A COMMAND DESCRIPTION ^

If your perldoc is using 'less' or 'view' for paging, it is quite easy to jump to a particular command description.

E.g. if you want to read the <?FOO> section, simply type this.

  /COMMAND...FOO

Introduction ^

The name CIPP is an acronym for CgI Perl Preprocessor. With CGI, a web server calls a program which generates a HTML page. The CGI allows passing of parameters, so the returned page might look different depending on the input to the program. This is what is commonly refered to as a "dynamic" page.

CGI programms are just like normal ones, only there is a lot of code printing out HTML statements. The majority of the code is concerned about the layout of the generated page. This is a nuisance for two reasons: first, it is difficult to see the structure of the generated page by looking at the source code, second, a lot of the code just consists of ,print" statements - these are boring to write.

CIPP takes another approach to CGI programming: you basically write an ordinary HTML page and insert into the page the code, which is responsible for the dynamic parts. This way, you can easily see the structure of the page and for generating HTML, you can simply write the HTML directly onto the page.

CIPP generates Perl code

CIPP is a preprocessor which generates pure Perl code out of your CIPP embedded HTML pages. Depending on your environment, this Perl code can either be installed as a CGI program on the webserver or is executed immediately through an appropriate handler. More details about the different environments and their properties are discussed later in this document.

Here is a little example of a CIPP code snippet to demonstrate the simplicity of the preprocessing mechanism (this anticipates some basics of the CIPP programming language, a detailed description of the language follow beyond this chapter).

  <?IF COND="$event eq 'show'">

    The value of the variable 'foo' is:<BR>

    <B>$foo</B>

  <?/IF>

You will get a HTML formatted content of the Perl variable $foo, assumed the variable $event contains the string 'show'.

CIPP will generate Perl code similar to this.

  if ( $event eq 'show' ) {

    print "The value of the variable 'foo' is:<BR>\n";

    print "<B>$foo</B>\n";

  }

This was really a simple example. The CIPP <?IF> is translated to a Perl 'if' command. The non CIPP text blocks (usually containing some HTML) are translated to a Perl 'print' command. There are many, more complex CIPP commands that save you a lot of work.

So, here you can see the difference between CIPP and ordinary CGI programming. With CIPP, HTML is normal and code is embedded in a way which almost looks like HTML. CGI programs, on the other hand, contain a lot of print statements which makes them hard to read.

Ok, message understood. Now you know what CIPP basically does for you. In the next chapter you will learn in what way and environment you can apply it.

Environments where CIPP can be used ^

As mentioned above there are three different environments where you can use CIPP programs:

CIPP::CGI

using CIPP via a central CGI wrapper program

Apache::CGI

using CIPP as a module inside the Apache webserver

new.spirit

managing projects of many CIPP files, generating standalone CGI programs for production web systems.

A discussion of these three possible use cases follows, where the architecture of each environment is described briefly. There are extra chapters with configuration details about all of them.

CGI::CIPP

CGI::CIPP is a Perl module which enables you to use CIPP on every CGI capable webserver. It is based on a central wrapper script, which does all the preprocessing. It executes the generated Perl code directly afterwards. Additionally, it implements a filesystem based cache for the generated code. Preprocessing is done only when the corresponding CIPP source code changed on disk, otherwise this step is skipped.

CGI::CIPP is prepared for usage inside a persistent Perl environment, e.g. in conjunction with the CGI::SpeedyCGI module, which is not part of the CIPP distribution, but freely available on CPAN. CGI::CIPP will cache the Perl compiled programs as subroutines. Subsequent calls to the same CIPP page are answered immediately, because neither CIPP preprocessing nor Perl compiling needs to be done in this case.

Your CIPP source files are placed in a particular directory on a webserver. With some additional webserver configuration you can handle them as ,normal" HTML documents beneath other webserver documents like images or traditional static HTML documents. See the chapter about CGI::CIPP configuration for details.

Apache::CIPP

The architecture of the Apache::CIPP is very similar to the one of CGI::CIPP. The main difference is that the central CGI wrapper of CGI::CIPP is plugged into the Apache webserver as a Request Handler using mod_perl, which extends the Apache webserver with a Perl interpreter. Another difference ist that the configuration options for Apache::CIPP are placed into the webserver configuration file.

All the caching is done exactly like CGI::CIPP does. See the chapter about Apache::CIPP configuration for details.

new.spirit

new.spirit uses CIPP in a different way. new.spirit is a web based development environment for creating software projects based on CIPP. In this environment the Perl code generated by CIPP for each page will be stored as a CGI executable, installed in a cgi-bin path of your webserver. This prevents you from installing your CIPP sources on the productive webserver system, only the preprocessed Perl code is installed there.

Another difference using CIPP with new.spirit is the naming convention for adressing CIPP programs. CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP use URL's as adresses, new.spirit expects a special dot-separated notation. See the chapter ,Basic syntax rules" for details. For new.spirit CIPP configuration please refer to the new.spirit documentation.

Basic Syntax Rules ^

This chapter describes the CIPP syntax rules.

CIPP command structure

CIPP commands are embedded into HTML code, so the syntax is related to the HTML syntax. CIPP commands are written as tags, like HTML does. The main difference is that CIPP command tags begin with <? instead of <.

Like in HTML, there are two kinds of commands: single commands and block commands. Block commands have a start and end tag. A block command influences the HTML respectively CIPP code surrounded by it.

  <?COMMAND [ par=value ... ] >

  or

  <?COMMAND [ par=value ... ]>

    HTML or CIPP code

  <?/COMMAND [ par=value ... ]>

Whitespace between <? and COMMAND is ignored. The command names are not case sensitive. Parameters are written als par=value pairs. Assigning a value to a parameters is optional. A parameter without a value is called a switch.

A parameter with value has the following syntax:

  parameter_name = parameter_value

Whitespaces before and behind the = sign are ignored. If the value you want to assign contains whitespaces you must quote the value using double quotes.

  <?COMMAND par_1=value_without_whitespaces
            par_2="value with whitespaces">

If your value contains double quotes you must escape them using the backslash character.

  <?COMMAND par_2="value with \"double quotes\"">

You may place Perl variables inside your value string, they are expanded in the usual way (there is one exception regarding return parameters, see section below).

A switch without a value has this simple syntax:

  <?COMMAND SWITCH_NAME>

Case sensitivity of CIPP parameters

Due to historical reasons parameter names are also not case sensitive. Actually the CIPP preprocessor converts all parameter names to lower case at a very early stage. So the exact case notation of the parameters is lost for later processing. This is usually no problem and works as you expect. HTML behaves the same.

Important Note: This approach has some side effects which you need to be aware of. For certain CIPP commands, you will be expected to specify Perl variables in the same syntactical manner of CIPP parameters. Not matter what you do, CIPP will always work on the lower case version of these names - without giving you any warning.

The CIPP commands affected by this are: <?MY>, <?INCLUDE>, <?GETURL> and <?HIDDENFIELDS>. Please refer to the CIPP Reference chapter for details about these commands.

Important Hint: Always use lower case variable names!

CIPP return parameters

There are many CIPP commands that return parameters back to you. Since commands are inside tags, there is no way to use them in an assignment. This means that you have to specify a variable (or more than one) which should hold the return values.

These return variables are treated different from input variables.

  $foo = "whatever"; $bar = "x";

  ...

  <?COMMAND input=$foo output=$bar>

is the same as

  <?COMMAND input="whatever" output=$bar>

but no the same as

  <?COMMAND input=$foo output="x">

So, the return value from the command will be placed inside $bar. You cannot see from the syntax alone which parameter is expanded and which isn't. However, for each CIPP command there is a desription of return parameters (if there are any).

Context of CIPP commands

There are three different contexts which CIPP knows. They are listed and explained below. CIPP switches from one context to another only by certain block commands. Normal CIPP commands do not change the context.

1. HTML

This is the default context your CIPP program is in. That means, if your program does not contain any CIPP commands, you will produce a simple, static HTML page.

Inside HTML context, Perl variables are expanded with their content, like Perl does it if you use variables in a double quoted string.

In fact HTML contexts are translated to a Perl print command, which prints the whole HTML block using some kind of double quotes.

You can force the HTML context using the <?HTML> command, if you are in a Perl context (see below).

2. Variable Assignment

This is a special context which is only existent inside of a <?VAR> block. Inside this block no other CIPP commands are allowed. Perl variables will be expanded. Perl expressions are also possible - see the command description for details.

With <?/VAR> you terminate the assignment block and CIPP goes back to HTML context.

3. Perl

The block command <?PERL> switches to this context. The whole block will be interpreted as pure Perl code. No automatic HTML output is done here, you have to use print yourself to do that. You may also use only certain CIPP commands inside a Perl block, which are <?INCLUDE> and <?SQL>. This list of such commands will be expanded in future.

With <?/PERL> you terminate the command block and CIPP goes back to HTML context.

Add comments to your source

CIPP uses a similar mechanism for writing comments like Perl does. Each line which begins with a # sign is interpreted as a comment and is fully ignored. Leading whitespace is ignored; you're free to indent your comments.

It is not possible to preceed a CIPP comment by a CIPP command or HTML code. This would prevent you from using # in HTML code (and the least things that we want is to mess up HTML code - that is any more than it already is).

You can use the CIPP command <?#> for nestable multiline comments.

These lines show valid CIPP comments:

  <?PERL>
    # this is indented comment
  <?/PERL>

  # this comment is not indented

  <?#>
    this is a multiline comment
  <?/#>

The following example is invalid. The comment will be printed, because it is interpreted in HTML context (see section above about HTML context).

  <?PERL> $path = '/' <?/PERL> # setting the path

The corresponding web page will contain your comment:

  # setting the path

Error messages

There are two kinds of error messages a CIPP developer must handle, depending on the stage the error occured: in CIPP preprocessing or Perl execution. Both stages have their own error messages.

CIPP errors

These errors occur while translating your CIPP code to Perl. They regard only the CIPP syntax, no Perl syntax checking is done at this stage. The corresponding error messages and line numbers point to the appropriate sections of your CIPP program. In CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP environments you'll get a HTML page with the CIPP error messages. The source code is printed out with the according sections highlighted.

Perl errors

Perl errors occur while executing the Perl program, which has been generated by CIPP. There are two classes of Perl errors: compiler and runtime errors.

Normally, a compiler error in a CGI program results in a ,Server Error", if you execute it on your webserver. The error messages may be written to the webserver error log file, depending on your webserver software and configuration.

With CIPP generated programs you should never see a ,Server Error". All CIPP environments (CGI::CIPP, Apache::CIPP and new.spirit) initiate a Perl syntax check after translating the CIPP code and before executing the Perl code the first time. Perl compiler errors are caught this way and a HTML error page is generated for you. This saves you the hassle of digging into your webserver error log file for detailed information.

Runtime errors are caught by the CIPP execption handler and can appear in different ways, depending on the location inside your program, where the error occurs. The exception handler prints out the error message, at the actual position, where the error occured. Maybe you produced already some HTML output, the error message will appear right beyond it. If you're using some complex table layout, it can happen, that your webbrowser is unable to render the page correctly and the error message is invisible due to this. You have to look into the produced HTML source code to see the error message in this case.

All Perl error messages refer to the generated Perl code, not to your CIPP code. So line numbers are not comparable with the line numbers of your CIPP program.

CIPP preprocessor commands

There are several preprocessor commands. Those commands always begin with an exclamation mark:

  <?!COMMAND [ par=value ... ] >

  or

  <?!COMMAND [ par=value ... ]>

    ...

  <?/!COMMAND>

The special about these commands is, that they take effect at the preprocessor time and not at runtime. They modify the internal state of the preprocessor and do not create Perl code directly, like most of the other CIPP commands do.

Due to this the lexical environment of preprocessor commands does not matter the usual way. E.g. you may want to place a <?!AUTOPRINT> command inside of an <?IF> block to advice the preprocessor to generate print statements for HTML blocks or not (see the description of the <?!AUTOPRINT> command for details). But this will not work. See this example:

  <?IF COND="$user_wants_an_image_file">

    <?!AUTOPRINT OFF>

    <?PERL>

      print "Content-Type: image/gif\n\n";

      system ("cat /tmp/image.gif");

    <?/PERL>

  <?ELSE>

    Ok, you want no image, so you will

    get some nice <b>html</b> code.

  <?/IF>

Looks ok but will not work!

1. The <?AUTOPRINT> command causes CIPP not to generate any HTTP headers for you. So the <?ELSE> block will not work, because no HTTP headers are printed. You'll get a 500 Server Error.

2. But even if you print headers there (with ,Content-type: text/html"): the HTML block will not be printed either. The <?!AUTOPRINT> command does not care about the logical context. The preprocessor reads the file from the top to the bottom and will switch off autoprinting when recognizing the <?!AUTOPRINT OFF>. It will not be switched on and the end of the <?IF> block. Autoprinting will be disabled for the rest of the file. So the HTML code inside the <?ELSE> block will never be printed out.

So use preprocessor commands with care and keep this special implementation always in mind. Each preprocessor command description in this manual will give you hints about the corresponding special behaviour.

LIST OF CIPP COMMANDS ^

This is a alphabetical list of all CIPP commands with a short description, divided into sections of command types.

Variables and Scoping

<?BLOCK>

Creation of a block context to limit the scope of private variables

<?MY>

Declaring a private (block local) variable

<?VAR>

Definition of a variable

Control Structures

<?DO>

Loop with condition check after first iteration

<?ELSE>

Alternative execution of a block

<?ELSIF>

Subsequent conditional execution

<?EXIT>

Abort the program

<?FOREACH>

Loop iterating with a variable over a list

<?HTML>

Switches to HTML context

<?IF>

Conditional execution of a block

<?PERL>

Insertion of pure Perl code

<?SUB>

Definition of a Perl subroutine

<?WHILE>

Loop with condition check before first iteration

Import

<?CONFIG>

Import a config file

<?INCLUDE>

Insertion of a CIPP Include file in the actual CIPP code

<?MODULE>

Definition of a CIPP Perl Module

<?REQUIRE>

Import a CIPP Perl Module

<?USE>

Import a standard Perl module

Exception Handling

<?CATCH>

Execution of a block if a particular exception was thrown in a preceding TRY block.

<?LOG>

Write a entry in a logfile.

<?THROW>

Explicite creation of an exception.

<?TRY>

Secured execution of a block. Any exceptions thrown in the encapsulated block are caught.

SQL

<?AUTOCOMMIT>

Control of transaction behaviour

<?COMMIT>

Commit a transaction

<?DBQUOTE>

Quoting of a variable for usage in a SQL statement

<?GETDBHANDLE>

Returns the internal DBI database handle

<?ROLLBACK>

Rollback a transaction

<?SQL>

Execution of a SQL statement

URL- and Form Handling

<?GETURL>

Creation of a CIPP object URL

<?HIDDENFIELDS>

Producing a number of hidden formular fields

<?HTMLQUOTE>

HTML encoding of a variable

<?URLENCODE>

URL encoding of a variable

HTML Tag Replacements

<?A>

Replaces <A> tag

<?FORM>

Replaces <FORM> tag

<?FRAME>

Replaces <FRAME> tag

<?IMG>

Replaces <IMG> tag

<?INPUT>

Replaces <INPUT> tag, with sticky feature

<?OPTION>

Replaces <OPTION> tag, with sticky feature

<?SELECT>

Replaces <SELECT> Tag, with sticky feature

<?TEXTAREA>

Replaces <TEXTAREA> tag

Interface

<?GETPARAM>

Recieving a non declared CGI input parameter

<?GETPARAMLIST>

Returns a list of all CGI input parameter names

<?INCINTERFACE>

Declaration of a interface for CIPP Include

<?INTERFACE>

Declaration of a CGI interface for a CIPP program

<?FETCHUPLOAD> (was <?SAVEFILE>)

Storing a client side upload file

Apache

<?APGETREQUEST>

Returns the internal Apache request object

<?APREDIRECT>

Redirects to another URL internally

Preprocessor

<?!AUTOPRINT>

Controls automatic output of HTML code

<?!HTTPHEADER>

Dynamic generation of a HTTP header

<?!PROFILE>

Initiate generation of profiling code

Debugging

<?DUMP>

Dumps preformatted contents of data structures

Miscellaneous

<?>

Print arbitrary Perl expressions

<?_>

Do l10n with Locale::TextDomain

COMMAND <?> ^

Type

Miscellaneous

Syntax

 <?>
   # arbitrary Perl Expression to be printed
 <?/>

Description

This result of the Perl expression inside this block will be printed. Do not use this construct to print simple variables or generally Perl expressions which can be evaluated in a quoted string context. Simply write such expressions direct inside a HTML context into your document (see examples below).

Examples

 These examples show some handy cases for this construct:

 # method call with printing the result

 <?>$object->get_attribute<?/>

 # print actual unix timestamp

 <?>time<?/>

 # calculate something and print the result

 <?>(time + 34800) * $$<?/>

 # This is possible, but unnecessary

 Value of a variable: <?>$foo<?/>

 # instead simply write this:

 Value of a variable: $foo

COMMAND <?#> ^

Type

Multi Line Comment

Syntax

 <?#>
 ...
 <?/#>

Description

This block command realizes a multiline comment. Simple comments are introduced with a single # sign, so you can only comment one line with them. All text inside a <?#> block will be treated as a comment and will be ignored. Nesting of <?#> is allowed.

Example

This is a simple multi line comment.

  <?#>
    This text will be ignored.
    All CIPP tags too.
    So this is no syntax error
    <?IF foo bar>
  <?/#>

You may nest <?#> blocks:

  <?#>
    bla foo
    <?#>
       foo bar
    <?/#>
  <?/#>

COMMAND <?A> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?A HREF=hyperlinked_object_name[#anchor]
     [ additional_<A>_parameters ... ] >
 ...
 <?/A>

Description

This command replaces the <A> HTML tag. You will need this in a new.spirit environment to set a link to a CIPP CGI or HTML object.

Parameter

HREF

This parameter takes the name of the hyperlinked object. You may optionally add an anchor (which should be defined using <A NAME> in the referred page) using the # character as a delimiter.

This parameter is expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment.

additional_A_parameters

All additional parameters are taken into the generated <A> tag.

Example

Textual link to 'MSG.Main', in a new.spirit environment.

  <?A HREF="MSG.Main">Back to the main menu<?/A>

Image link to '/main/menu.cgi', in a CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment:

  <?A HREF="/main/menu.cgi">
  <?IMG SRC="/images/logo.gif" BORDER=0>
  <?/A>

COMMAND <?APGETREQUEST> ^

Type

Apache

Syntax

 <?APGETREQUEST [ MY ] VAR=request_variable >

Description

This command is only working if CIPP is used as an Apache module.

It returns the internal Apache request object, so you can use Apache specific features.

Parameter

VAR

This is the variable where the request object will be stored.

MY

If you set the MY switch, the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the APGETREQUEST command.

Example

The Apache request object will be stored in the implicitely declared variable $ar.

  <?APGETREQUEST MY VAR=$ar>

COMMAND <?APREDIRECT> ^

Type

Apache

Syntax

 <?APREDIRECT URL=new_URL >

Description

This command is only working if CIPP is used as an Apache module.

It results in an internal Apache redirect. That means, the new url will be 'executed' without notifying the client about this.

Parameter

URL

This expression is used for the new URL.

Note:

The program which uses <?APREDIRECT> should not produce any output, otherwise this may confuse the webserver or the client, if more then one HTTP header is sent. So you should use <?AUTOPRINT OFF> at the top of the program to circumvent that.

Example

This commands redirect internally to the homepage of the corresponding website:

  <?AUTOPRINT OFF>
  <?APREDIRECT URL="/">

COMMAND <?AUTOCOMMIT> ^

Type

SQL

Syntax

 <?AUTOCOMMIT ( ON | OFF )
              [ DB=database_name ]
              [ DBH=database_handle ]
              [ THROW=exception ] >

Description

The <?AUTOCOMMIT> command corresponds directly to the underlying DBI AutoCommit mechanism.

If AutoCommit is activated each SQL statement will implicitely be executed in its own transaction. Think of a <?COMMT> after each statement. Explicite use of <?COMMIT> or <?ROLLBACK> is forbidden in AutoCommit mode.

If AutoCommit is deactivated you have to call <?COMMIT> or <?ROLLBACK> yourself. CIPP will rollback any uncommited open transactions at the end of the program.

Enabling AutoCommit when AutoCommit is already enabled (or disabling when it's already disabled) is prohibited and will result in an runtime exception.

Parameter

ON | OFF

Switch AutoCommit modus either on or off.

DB

This is the CIPP internal name of the database for this command. In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment this name has to be defined in the appropriate global configuration. In a new.spirit environment this is the name of the database configuration object in dot separated notation.

If DB is ommited the project default database is used.

If DB is a variable name (resp. something containing a $ sigil) the content of this variable will be evaluated to the corresponding database name at runtime.

DBH

Use this option to pass an existing DBI database handle, which should used for this SQL command. You can't use the DBH option in conjunction with DB.

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception which should be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is autocommit.

If the underlying database is not capable of transactions setting AutoCommit to ON will throw a runtime exception.

Example

Switch AutoCommit on for the database 'foo'.

  <?AUTOCOMMIT ON DB="foo">

Switch AutoCommit off for the database 'bar' and throw the user defined exception 'myautocommit' on failure.

  <?AUTOCOMMIT OFF DB="bar" THROW="myautocommit">

COMMAND <?!AUTOPRINT> ^

Type

Preprocessor

Syntax

 <?!AUTOPRINT ( OFF | ON ) >

Description

With the <?!AUTOPRINT> command the preprocessor can be advised to suppress the generation of print statements for non CIPP blocks, resp. switching the generation of print statements on.

In earlier versions of CIPP this command was named <?AUTOPRINT>. This notation is depreciated, but will work for compatability reasons.

Parameter

OFF

Automatic generation of print statements for non CIPP blocks will be deactivated.

ON

Automatic generation of print statements for non CIPP blocks will be switched on again.

Note

This is a preprocessor command. Please read the chapter about preprocessor commands for details about this.

You should use this command at the very top of your program file. CIPP will not generate any HTTP headers for you, if you use <?!AUTOPRINT OFF>, so you have to do this on your own. If you only want to generate a special HTTP header, use <?!HTTPHEADER> instead.

The "CIPP Introduction" Chapter contains a paragraph about CIPP Preprocessor Commands. Please refer to this discussion for details of <?!AUTOPRINT>.

Example

This program sends a GIF image to the client, after generating the proper HTTP header. (For another example, see <?APREDIRECT>)

  <?AUTOPRINT OFF>

  These line will never be printed, it's fully ignored!!!

  <?PERL>
    my $file = "/tmp/image.gif";
    my $size = -s $file;

    print "Content-type: image/gif\n";
    print "Content-length: $size\n\n";

    open (GIF, $file) or die "can't open $file";
    binmode GIF; # help dump operating systems...
    print while <GIF>;
    close GIF;
  <?/PERL>

COMMAND <?BLOCK> ^

Type

Variables and Scoping

Syntax

 <?BLOCK>
 ...
 <?/BLOCK>

Description

Use the <?BLOCK> command to divide your program into logical blocks to control variable scoping. Variables declared with <?MY> inside a block are not valid outside.

Example

The variable $example does not exist beyond the block.

  <?BLOCK>
    <?MY $example>
    $example is known.
  <?/BLOCK>

  $example does not exist here. This will result in a Perl
  compiler error, because $example is not declared here.

COMMAND <?CATCH> ^

Type

Exception Handling

Syntax

 <?CATCH [ THROW=exception ]
         [ MY ]
         [ EXCVAR=variable_for_exception ]
         [ MSGVAR=variable_for_error_message ] >
 ...
 <?/CATCH>

Description

Typically a <?CATCH> block follows after a <?TRY> block. You can process one particular or just any exception with the <?CATCH> block.

<?CATCH> and <?TRY> has to be placed inside the same block.

See the description of <?TRY> for details about the CIPP exception handling mechanism.

Parameter

THROW

If this parameter is omitted, all exceptions will be processed here. Otherwise the <?CATCH> block is executed only if the appropriate exception was thrown.

EXCVAR

Names the variable, where the exception identifier should be stored in. Usefull if you use <?CATCH> for a generic exception handler and omitted the THROW parameter.

MSGVAR

Name the variable, where the error message should be stored in.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?CATCH> command.

Example

We try to insert a row into a database table, which has a primary key defined, and commit the transcation. We catch two exceptions: the possible primary key constraint violation and a possible commit exception, maybe the database is not capable of transactions.

  <?TRY>
    <?SQL SQL="insert into persons
              (firstname, lastname)
               values ('John', 'Doe')"><?/SQL>
    <?COMMIT>
  <?/TRY>

  <?CATCH THROW=sql MY MSGVAR=$message>
    <?LOG MSG="Can't insert data: $message"
          TYPE="database">
  <?/CATCH>

  <?CATCH THROW=commit MSGVAR=$message>
    <?LOG MSG="COMMIT rejected: $message"
          TYPE="database">
  <?/CATCH>

COMMAND <?COMMIT> ^

Type

SQL

Syntax

 <?COMMIT [ DB=database_name ]
          [ DBH=database_handle ]
          [ THROW=exception ] >

Description

The <?COMMIT> command concludes the actual transaction and makes all changes to the database permanent.

Using <?COMMIT> in <?AUTOCOMMIT ON> mode is not possible and will result in a runtime exception.

If you are not in <?AUTOCOMMIT ON> mode a transaction begins with the first SQL statement and end either with a <?COMMIT> or <?ROLLBACK> command.

Parameter

DB

This is the CIPP internal name of the database for this command. In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment this name has to be defined in the appropriate global configuration. In a new.spirit environment this is the name of the database configuration object in dot separated notation.

If DB is ommited the project default database is used.

If DB is a variable name (resp. something containing a $ sigil) the content of this variable will be evaluated to the corresponding database name at runtime.

DBH

Use this option to pass an existing DBI database handle, which should used for this SQL command. You can't use the DBH option in conjunction with DB.

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception which should be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is commit.

If the underlying database is not capable of transactions (e.g. MySQL) execution of this command will throw an exception.

Example

We insert a row into a database table and commit the change immediately. We throw a user defined exeption, if the commit fails. So be safe we first disable AutoCommiting.

  <?AUTOCOMMIT OFF>
  <?SQL SQL="insert into foo (num, str)
             values (42, 'bar');">
  <?/SQL>
  <?COMMIT THROW="COMMIT_Exception">

COMMAND <?CONFIG> ^

Type

Import

Syntax

 <?CONFIG NAME=config_file
          [ RUNTIME ] [ NOCACHE ]
          [ THROW=exception ] >

Description

The <?CONFIG> command reads a config file. This is done via a mechanism similar to Perl's require, so the config file has to be pure Perl code defining global variables.

<?CONFIG> ensures a proper load of the configuration file even in persistent Perl environments.

In contrast to "require" <?CONFIG> will reload a config file when the file was altered on disk. Otherwise the file will only be loaded once.

Parameter

NAME

This is the name of the config file, expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment.

RUNTIME

This switch makes sense only in a new.spirit environment. If you set it the NAME parameter will be resolved at runtime, so it can contain variables. new.spirit will not check the existance of the file in this case. Normally you'll get a CIPP error message, if the adressed file does not exist.

In CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP environments the NAME parameter will always be resolved at runtime.

NOCACHE

This switch is useful in persistant Perl environments. It forces <?CONFIG> to read the config file even if it did not change on disk. You'll need this if your config file does some calculations based on the request environment, e.g. if the value of some variables depends on the clients user agent.

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception to be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is config.

An exception will be thrown, if the config file does not exist or is not readable.

Example

Load of the configuration file "/lib/general.conf", with disabled cache, used in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment:

  <?CONFIG NAME="/lib/general.conf" NOCACHE>

Load of the configuration file object x.custom.general in a new.spirit environment:

  <?CONFIG NAME="x.custom.general">

Load of a config file with a name determined at runtime, in a new.spirit environment, throwing "myconfig" on failure:

  <?CONFIG NAME="$config_file" RUNTIME
           THROW="myconfig">

COMMAND <?DBQUOTE> ^

Type

SQL

Syntax

 <?DBQUOTE VAR=variable
           [ MY ]
           [ DBVAR=quoted_result_variable ]
           [ DB=database_name ]
           [ DBH=database_handle ] >

Description

<?SQL> (and DBI) has a nice way of quoting parameters to SQL statements (called parameter binding). Usage of that mechanism is generally recommended (see <?SQL> for details). However if you need to construct your own SQL statement, <?DBQUOTE> will let you do so.

<?DBQUOTE> will generate the string representation of the given scalar variable as fit for an SQL statement. That is, it takes care of quoting special characteres.

Parameter

VAR

This is the scalar variable containing the parameter you want to be quoted.

DBVAR

This optional parameters takes the variable where the quoted content should be stored. The surrounding ' characters are part of the result, if the variable is not undef. A value of undef will result in NULL (without the surrounding '), so the quoted variable can be placed directly in a SQL statement.

If you ommit DBVAR, the name of the target variable is computed by placing the prefix 'db_' in front of the VAR name.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?DBQUOTE> command.

DB

This is the CIPP internal name of the database for this command. In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment this name has to be defined in the appropriate global configuration. In a new.spirit environment this is the name of the database configuration object in dot separated notation.

If DB is ommited the project default database is used.

If DB is a variable name (resp. something containing a $ sigil) the content of this variable will be evaluated to the corresponding database name at runtime.

DBH

Use this option to pass an existing DBI database handle, which should used for this SQL command. You can't use the DBH option in conjunction with DB.

Example

This quotes the variable $name, the result will be stored in the just declared variable $db_name.

  <?DBQUOTE MY VAR="$name">

This quotes $name, but stores the result in the variable $quoted_name.

  <?DBQUOTE VAR="$name" MY DBVAR="$quoted_name">

The quoted variable can be used in a SQL statement this way:

  <?SQL SQL="insert into persons (name)
             values ( $quoted_name )">

COMMAND <?DO> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?DO>
 ...
 <?/DO COND=condition >

Description

The <?DO> block repeats executing the contained code as long as the condition evaluates true. The condition is checked afterwards. That means that the block will always be executed at least once.

Parameter

COND

This takes a Perl condition. As long as this condition is true the <?DO> block will be repeated.

Example

Print "Hello World" $n times. (note: for n=0 and n=1 you get the same result)

  <?DO>
    Hello World<BR>
  <?/DO COND="--$n > 0">

COMMAND <?DUMP> ^

Type

Debugging

Syntax

 <?DUMP [LOG] [STDERR] $var_1 ... $var_n>

Description

The <?DUMP> command dumps the contents of the given variables using Data::Dumper, inside of a HTML <pre></pre> block. By default the data is written to STDOUT (into the HTML page), but you can alternatively write the data to CIPP's logfile and/or STDERR.

Parameter

LOG

Dumps the data to CIPP's logfile, instead of STDOUT.

STDERR

Dumps the data to STDERR (and thus the webserver's error log), instead of STDOUT.

$var_1 .. $var_n

Variable, which should be dumped.

Example

  <?DUMP $hash_ref $list_ref>

COMMAND <?ELSE> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?ELSE>

Description

<?ELSE> closes an open <?IF> or <?ELSIF> conditional block and opens a new block (which is later terminated by <?/IF>). The block is only executed if the condition of the preceding block was evaluated and failed.

<?MY> variables are only visible inside this block.

(Or short: it works as you would expect.)

Example

Only Larry gets a personal greeting message:

  <?IF COND="$name eq 'Larry'">
    Hi Larry, you're welcome!
  <?ELSE>
    Hi Stranger!
  <?/IF>

COMMAND <?ELSIF> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?ELSIF COND=condition >

Description

<?ELSIF> closes an open <?IF> or <?ELSIF> conditional block and opens a new block. The condition is only evaluated if the condition of the preceding block was evaluated and failed.

<?MY> variables are only visible inside this block.

(Or short: it works as you would expect.)

Parameter

COND

Takes the Perl condition.

Example

Larry and Linus get personal greeting messages:

  <?IF COND="$name eq 'Larry'">
    Hi Larry, you're welcome!
  <?ELSIF COND="$name eq 'Linus'">
    Hi Linus, you're velkomma!
  <?ELSE>
    Hi Stranger!
  <?/IF>

COMMAND <?EXIT> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?EXIT>

Description

<?EXIT> aborts the current program. You can use it at CGI program level and in an Include at any time, but not inside a <?TRY> resp. eval {} block! <?EXIT> issues a special exception, which is catched by the default exception handler and does the necessary request cleanup (e.g. closing pending database connections).

Note

Due to the internal implementation as an exception, you can't use <?EXIT> inside a <?TRY> or eval{} block, unless you catch the special exception "_cipp_exit_command" and throw it upwards yourself.

Example

Exit the program if the user doesn't know the preconfigured secret:

  <?INTERFACE INPUT="$secret">

  <?IF COND="$secret ne $conf::the_ultimate_secret">
    <p>
    You don't know the secret. Go away!
    </p>
    <?EXIT>
  <?/IF>

  You're welcome, secret keeper!

COMMAND <?FETCHUPLOAD> ^

Type

Interface

Syntax

 <?FETCHUPLOAD FILENAME=server_side_filename
               VAR=upload_formular_variable
             [ THROW=exception ] >

Description

This command fetches a file which was uploaded by a client and saves it in the webservers filesystem. It replaces the deprecated CIPP 2.x command <?SAVEFILE> and has a cleaner interface.

Parameter

FILENAME

This is the fully qualified filename where the file should be stored.

VAR

This is the variable which holds the value of the correspondent HTML file upload field (mostly declared with <?INTERFACE> or fetched with <?GETPARAM>).

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception which should be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is "fetchupload".

Note

The client side file upload will only function proper if you set the encoding type of the HTML form to ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data". Otherwise you will get a exception, that the file could not be fetched.

There is another quirk you should notice. The variable which corresponds to the <INPUT NAME> option in the file upload form is a GLOB reference (due to the internal implementation of the CGI module, which CIPP uses). That means, if you use that variable in string context you get the client side filename of the uploaded file. But also you can use the variable as a filehandle, to read data from the file (this is what <?FETCHUPLAOD> actually does for you).

This GLOB thing is usually no problem, as long as you don't pass the variable as a binding parameter to a <?SQL> command (because you want to store the client side filename in the database). The DBI module (which CIPP uses for the database stuff) complains about passing GLOBS as binding parameters.

The solution is to create a new variable assigned from the value of the file upload variable enforced to be in string context using double quotes.

  <?INTERFACE INPUT="$upfilename">
  <?MY $client_filename>
  <?PERL> $client_filename = "$upfilename" <?/PERL>

Example

First we provide a HTML form with the file upload field.

  <?FORM METHOD="POST" ACTION="/image/save.cgi"
         ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data">

  Fileupload:
  <INPUT TYPE=FILE NAME="upfilename" SIZE=45>
  <P>
  <INPUT TYPE="reset">
  <INPUT TYPE="submit" NAME="submit" VALUE="Upload">

  <?/FORM>

The /image/save.cgi program has the following code to store the file in the filesystem.

  <?FETCHUPLOAD FILENAME="/tmp/upload.tmp"
                VAR="upfilename"
                THROW=my_upload>

COMMAND <?FOREACH> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?FOREACH [ MY ] VAR=running_variable
           LIST=perl_list >
 ...
 <?/FOREACH>

Description

<?FOREACH> corresponds directly the Perl foreach command. The running variable will iterate of the list, executing the enclosed block for each value of the list.

Parameter

VAR

This is the scalar running variable.

LIST

You can write any Perl list here, e.g. using the bracket notation or pass a array variable using the @ notation.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created running variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?FOREACH> command.

Note: this is a slightly different behaviour compared to a Perl "foreach my $var (@list)" command, where the running variable $var is valid only inside of the foreach block.

Example

Counting up to 'three':

  <?FOREACH MY VAR="$cnt"
            LIST="('one', 'two', 'three')">
    $cnt
  <?/FOREACH>

COMMAND <?FORM> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?FORM ACTION="target_action_object[#anchor]"
        [ additional_<FORM>_parameters ... ] >
 ...
 <?/FORM>

Description

<?FORM> generates a HTML <FORM> tag, setting the ACTION option to the appropriate URL. The request METHOD defaults to POST if no other value is given.

Parameter

ACTION

This is the name of the form target CGI program, expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment. You may optionally add an anchor (which should be defined using <A NAME> in the referred page) using the # character as a delimiter.

additional_FORM_parameters

All additional parameters are taken over without changes into the produced <FORM> tag. If you ommit the METHOD parameter it will default to POST.

Example

Creating a named form with a submit button, pointing to the CGI object "x.login.start", in a new.spirit environment:

  <?FORM ACTION="x.login.start" NAME="myform">
  <?INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT VALUE=" Start ">
  <?/FORM>

Creating a similar form, but the action is written as an URL because we are in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment:

  <?FORM ACTION="/login/start.cgi" NAME="myform">
  <?INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT VALUE=" Start ">
  <?/FORM>

COMMAND <?FRAME> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?FRAME SRC=hyperlinked_object_name[#anchor]
     [ additional_<FRAME>_parameters ... ] >

Description

This command replaces the <FRAME> HTML tag. You can use this in a new.spirit environment to embed CIPP or HTML object as a frame.

Parameter

SRC

This parameter takes the name of the embedded object. You may optionally add an anchor (which should be defined using <A NAME> in the referred page) using the # character as a delimiter.

This parameter is expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment.

additional_FRAME_parameters

All additional parameters are taken into the generated <FRAME> tag.

Example

A frameset with two frames in a new.spirit environment:

  <FRAMESET ROWS="50,*">
    <?FRAME SRC="x.frame.top"    FRAMEBORDER="no">
    <?FRAME SRC="x.frame.bottom" FRAMEBORDER="no">
  </FRAMESET>

COMMAND <?GETDBHANDLE> ^

Type

SQL

Syntax

 <?GETDBHANDLE [ DB=database_name ] [ MY ]
               VAR=handle_variable >

Description

This command returns a reference to the internal Perl database handle, which is the object references returned by DBI->connect.

With this handle you are able to perform DBI specific functions which are currently not directly available through CIPP.

Parameter

VAR

This is the variable where the database handle will be stored.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?GETDBHANDLE> command.

DB

This is the CIPP internal name of the database for this command. In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment this name has to be defined in the appropriate global configuration. In a new.spirit environment this is the name of the database configuration object in dot separated notation.

If DB is ommited the project default database is used.

If DB is a variable name (resp. something containing a $ sigil) the content of this variable will be evaluated to the corresponding database name at runtime.

Example

We get the database handle for the database object 'x.Oracle' in a new.spirit environment and perform a select query using this handle.

Ok, you simply can do this with the <?SQL> command, but now you can see how much work is done for you through CIPP :)

  <?GETDBHANDLE DB="MSG.Oracle" MY VAR="$dbh">

  <?PERL>
    my $sth = $dbh->prepare ( qq{
        select n,s from TEST_table
        where n between 10 and 20
    });
    die "my_sql\t$DBI::errstr" if $DBI::errstr;

    $sth->execute;
    die "my_sql\t$DBI::errstr" if $DBI::errstr;

    my ($n, $s);
    while ( ($n, $s) = $sth->fetchrow ) {
      print "n=$n s=$s<BR>\n";
    }
    $sth->finish;
    die "my_sql\t$DBI::errstr" if $DBI::errstr;

  <?/PERL>

COMMAND <?GETPARAM> ^

Type

Interfaces

Syntax

 <?GETPARAM NAME=parameter_name
            [ MY ] [ VAR=content_variable ] >

Description

With this command you can explicitely get a CGI parameter. This is useful if your CGI program uses dynamically generated parameter names, so you are not able to use <?INTERFACE> for them.

Refer to <?INTERFACE> to see how easy it is to handle standard CGI input parameters.

Parameter

NAME

Identifier of the CGI input parameter

VAR

This is the variable where the content of the CGI parameter will be stored. This can be either a scalar variable (indicated through a $ sign) or an array variable (indicated through a @ sign).

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?GETPARAM> command.

Example

We recieve two parameters, one staticly named parameter and one scalar parameter, which has a dynamic generated identifier.

  <?GETPARAM NAME="listparam" MY VAR="@list">
  <?GETPARAM NAME="scalar$name" MY VAR="$scalar">

COMMAND <?GETPARAMLIST> ^

Type

Interfaces

Syntax

 <?GETPARAMLIST [ MY ] VAR=variable >

Description

This command returns a list containing the identifiers of all CGI input parameters.

Parameter

VAR

This is the variable where the identifiers of all CGI input parameters will be stored in. It must be an array variable, indicated through a @ sign.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created list variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?GETPARAMLIST> command.

Example

The list of all CGI input parameter identifiers will be stored into the array variable @input_param_names.

  <?GETPARAMLIST MY VAR="@input_param_names">

COMMAND <?GETURL> ^

Type

URL and Form Handling

Syntax

 <?GETURL NAME=object_file
          [ MY ] VAR=target_variable
          [ RUNTIME ] [ THROW=exception ] >
          [ PARAMS=parameters_variables ]
          [ PATHINFO=pathinfo ]
          [ PAR_1=value_1 ... PAR_n=value_n ] >

Description

This command returns a URL, optionally with parameters. In a new.spirit environment you use this to resolve the dot separated object name to a real life URL.

In CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP environments this is not necessary, because you work always with real URLs. Nevertheless it also useful there, because its powerfull possibilities of generating parmeterized URLs.

Parameter

NAME

This is the name of the specific file, expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment.

VAR

This is the scalar variable where the generated URL will be stored in. In earlier versions of CIPP this option was named URLVAR. The usage of the URLVAR notation is depreciated, but it works for compatibility reasons. To prevent from logical errors CIPP throws an error if you use URLVAR and VAR inside of one command (e.g. to create an URL which contains a parameter called VAR or URLVAR).

URLVAR

Depreciated. See description of VAR.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?GETURL> command.

RUNTIME

This switch makes only sense in a new.spirit environment. The NAME parameter will be resolved at runtime, so it can contain variables. CIPP will not check the existance of the file in this case. Normally you get a CIPP error message, if the adressed file does not exist.

In CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP environments the NAME parameter will always be resolved at runtime.

THROW

With this parameter you can define the exception to be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is geturl.

An exception will be thrown, if the adressed file does not exist.

PARAMS

This takes a comma separated list of parameters, which will be encoded and added to the generated URL. You may pass scalar variables (indicated through the $ sign) and also array variables (indicated through the @ sign).

With the PARAMS option you can only pass parameters whose values are stored in variables with the same name (where case is significant). The variables listed in PARAMS will be treated case sensitive.

PATHINFO

You can specify the PATH_INFO part of the url using this option. The content of PATHINFO will be added to the filename part of the URL, delimited with a slash. All query parameters are added after PATHINFO, delimited with a question mark. In case of dynamically generated file downloads some browsers use the PATHINFO as a default for the filename. Also you can use this for beautifying URL's, resp. hiding URL parameters.

PAR_1..PAR_n

Any additional parameters to <?GETURL> are interpreted as named parameters for the URL. You can pass scalar and array values this way (using $ and @). Variables passed this way are seen by the called program as lower case written variable names, no matter which case you used in <?GETURL>.

Note

It is highly recommended to use lower case variable names. Due to historical reasons CIPP converts parameter names to lower case without telling you about it. If this ever gets "fixed" and you have uppercase latters, your code will break. So, use lowercase.

Example

We are in a new.spirit environment and produce a <IMG> tag, pointing to a new.spirit object (btw: the easiest way of doing this is the <?IMG> command):

  <?GETURL NAME="x.Images.Logo" MY VAR=$url>
  <IMG SRC="$url">

Now we link the CGI script "/secure/messager.cgi" in a CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment. We pass some parameters to this script. (Note the case sensitivity of the parameter names, we really should use lower case variables all the time!)

  <?VAR MY NAME=$Username>hans<?/VAR>
  <?VAR MY NAME=@id>(1,42,5)<?/VAR>
  <?GETURL NAME="/secure/messager.cgi" MY VAR=$url
           PARAMS="$Username, @id" EVENT=delete>
  <A HREF="$url">delete messagse</A>

The CGI program "/secure/messager.cgi" recieves the parameters this way (note that the $Username parameter is seen as $Username, but EVENT is seen as $event). If you find this confusing, use always lower case variable names.

  <?INTERFACE INPUT="$event, $Username, @id">
  <?IF COND="$event eq 'delete'">
    <?MY $id_text>
    <?PERL>$id_text = join (", " @id)<?PERL>
    You are about to delete
    $username's ID's?: $id_text<BR>
  <?/IF>

This is an example for the usage of PATHINFO:

  <?GETURL NAME="/pub/download.cgi"
           PATHINFO="manual.pdf" oid=42
           MY VAR="$down_url">

  <a href="$down_url">Download</a>

This will produce the following HTML code:

  <a href="/pub/download.cgi/manual.pdf?oid=42">Download</a>

COMMAND <?HIDDENFIELDS> ^

Type

URL and Form Handling

Syntax

 <?HIDDENFIELDS [ PARAMS=parameter_variables ]
                [ PAR_1=value_1 ... PAR_n=value_n ] >

Description

This command produces a number of <INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN> HTML tags, one for each parameter you specify. Use this to transport a bunch of parameters via a HTML form. This command takes care of special characters in the parameter values and quotes them if necessary.

Parameter

PARAMS

This takes a comma separated list of parameters, which will be encoded and transformed to a <INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN> HTML tag. You may pass scalar variables (indicated through the $ sign) and also array variables (indicated through the @ sign).

With the PARAMS option you can only pass parameters whose values are stored in variables with the same name (where case is significant).

PAR_1..PAR_n

Any additional parameters to <?HIDDENFIELDS> are interpreted as named parameters. You can pass scalar and array values this way (using $ and @). Variables passed this way are seen by the called program as lower case written variable names, no matter which case you used in <?HIDDENFIELDS>.

Example

This is a form in a new.spirit environment, pointing to the object "x.secure.messager". The two parameters $username and $password are passed via PARAMS, the parameter "event" is set to "show".

  <?FORM ACTION="x.secure.messager">
  <?HIDDENFIELDS PARAMS="$username, $password"
                 event="show">
  <INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT VALUE="show messages">
  <?/FORM>

COMMAND <?HTML> ^

Type

Control Structures

Syntax

 <?HTML>
   ...
 <?/HTML>

Description

This command switches the CIPP program context to HTML. It's handy if you're doing a lot of logic and control structure stuff inside a <?PERL> block, but occasionally need some HTML output. You can nest <?PERL> and <?HTML> block arbitrarily.

Example

Some useless code in a <?PERL> block, with some <?HTML> output:

  <?PERL>
    if ( $foo ne $bar ) {
      <?HTML>
        <p>
        Sorry, I have to tell you, that \$foo and \$bar
        differ.
        </p>
      <?/HTML>
    }
  <?/PERL>

COMMAND <?HTMLQUOTE> ^

Type

URL and Form Handling

Syntax

 <?HTMLQUOTE VAR=variable_to_encode
             [ MY ] HTMLVAR=target_variable >

Description

This command quotes the content of a variable, so that it can be used inside a HTML option or <TEXTAREA> block without the danger of syntax clashes. The following conversions are done in this order:

  &  =>  &amp;

  <  =>  &lt;

  "  =>  &quot;

Parameter

VAR

This is the scalar variable containing the parameter you want to be quoted.

HTMLVAR

This non-optional parameter takes the variable where the quoted content will be stored.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?HTMLQUOTE> command.

Example

We produce a <TEXTAREA> tag with a quoted instance of the variable $text. Note: you can also use the <?TEXTAREA> command for this purpose.

  <?HTMLQUOTE VAR="$text" MY HTMLVAR="$html_text">
  <TEXTAREA NAME="text">$html_text</TEXTAREA>

COMMAND <?!HTTPHEADER> ^

Type

Preprocessor

Syntax

 <?!HTTPHEADER [ MY ] VAR=http_header_hash_ref >
   # Perl Code which modifies the
   # http_header_hash_ref variable
 <?/!HTTPHEADER>

Description

Use this command, if you want to modify the standard HTTP header response. CIPP generates by default a simple HTTP header of this form:

   Content-type: text/html\n\n

In a new.spirit environment you can define a project wide default HTTP header extension, e.g. ,Pragme: no-cache", or something similar.

If you want to modify the HTTP header at runtime, you can use this command. The <?!HTTPHEADER> command switches to Perl context, so you write Perl code inside the block. The variable you declared with the VAR option is accessable inside this block and will contain a reference to a hash containing the default HTTP header tags. Your Perl code now can delete, add or modifiy HTTP header tags.

But be careful: because <?!HTTPHEADER> is a preprocessor command, the position of the <?!HTTPHEADER> command inside your CIPP program (even if you use it inside an Include), does not indicate the time, on which your HTTP header code is executed.

CIPP inserts the code you write in the <?!HTTPHEADER> block at the top of the generated CGI code, so it is executed before any other code you wrote in you CIPP program or Include, because the HTTP header must appear before any content.

So it is not possible to access any lexically scoped variables declared outside the <?!HTTPHEADER> block within the block. Usually you statically add or delete HTTP header fields. Your code may depend on CGI environment variables, or on a result of a SQL query, but that's it. If you want to access configuration variables, you must use the <?CONFIG> command inside your <?!HTTPHEADER> block.

Note

This command is not implemented for Apache::CIPP and CGI::CIPP environments, but you can use it with new.spirit .

Parameter

VAR

The actual HTTP header will be assigned to this variable, as a reference to a hash. This keys of this hash are the HTTP header tags.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the <?!HTTPHEADER> block .

Example

A HTTP header is created, which tells proxies how long they may cache the content of the produces HTML page.

  <?!HTTPHEADER MY VAR="$http">
    # delete a Pragma Tag (may be defined
    # globally in a new.spirit environment)
    delete $http->{Pragma};

    # read a global config
    <?CONFIG NAME="x.global">

    # get cache time
    my $cache_time = $global::cachable_time || 1200;

    # set Cache-Control header tag
    $http->{'Cache-Control'} =
        "max-age=$cache_time, public";
  <?!/HTTPHEADER>

COMMAND <?IF> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?IF COND=condition >
   ...
 [ <?ELSIF COND=condition > 
   ... ]
 [ <?ELSE> 
   ... ]
 <?/IF>

Description

The <?IF> command executes the enclosed block if the condition is true. <?ELSE> and <?ELSIF> can be used inside an <?IF> block in the common manner.

Parameter

COND

This takes a Perl condition. If this condition is true, the code inside the <?IF> block is executed.

Example

Only Larry gets a greeting message here.

  <?IF COND="$name eq 'Larry'">
    Hi Larry!
  <?/IF>

COMMAND <?IMG> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?IMG SRC="image_file"
       [ NOSIZE ]
       [ additional_<IMG>_parameters ... ] >

Description

A HTML <IMG> Tag will be generated, whoms SRC option points to the appropriate image URL.

If no WIDTH or HEIGHT is given and not NOSIZE, CIPP tries at compile time to determine the image's dimensions using the Perl module Image::Size and sets WIDTH and HEIGHT accordingly in the generated <IMG> tag. If the Image::Size module isn't installed on the system, this step is silently skipped.

Parameter

SRC

This is the name of the image, expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment.

NOSIZE

Set this if you don't want CIPP to determine the image dimensions and to set WIDTH/HEIGHT accordingly.

additional_IMG_parameters

All additional parameters are taken without changes into the produced <IMG> tag.

Example

In a new.spirit environment we produce a image link to another page, setting the border to 0.

  <?A HREF="x.main.menu">
  <?IMG SRC="x.images.logo" BORDER=0>
  <?/A>

In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment we provide an URL instead of a dot separated object name.

  <?A HREF="/main/menu.cgi">
  <?IMG SRC="/images/logo.jpg" BORDER=0>
  <?/A>

COMMAND <?INCINTERFACE> ^

Type

Interface

Syntax

 <?INCINTERFACE [ INPUT=list_of_variables ]
                [ OPTIONAL=list_of_variables
                [ NOQUOTE=list_of_variables ]
                [ OUTPUT=list_of_variables ] >

Description

Use this command to declare an interface for an Include file. You can use this inside the Include file. In order to declare the interface of a CGI file this, use the <?INTERFACE> command.

You can declare mandatory and optional parameters. Parameters are always identified by name, not by position like in many programming languages. You can pass all types of Perl variables (scalars, arrays and hashes, also references). Also you can specify output parameters, which are passed back to the caller. Even these parameters are named, which requires some getting used to for most people. However it is very useful. :)

All input parameters declared this way are visible as the appropriate variables inside the Include file. They are always declared with my to prevent name clashes with other parts of the program.

Parameter

All parameters of <?INCINTERFACE> expect a comma separated list of variables. All Perl variable types are supported: scalars ($), arrays (@)and hashes (%). Whitespace is ignored. Read the note beneath the NOQUOTE section about passing non scalar values to an Include.

Note: You have to use lower case variable names, because the <?INCLUDE> command converts all variable names to lower case.

INPUT

This parameters takes the list of variables the caller must provide in his <?INCLUDE> command (mandatory parameters).

OPTIONAL

The variables listed here are optional input parameters. They are always declared with my and visible inside the Include, but are set to undef, if the caller ommits them.

OUTPUT

If you want your Include to pass values back to the caller, list the appropriate variables here. This variables are declared with my. Set them everywhere in your Include, they will be passed back automatically.

Note: the name of the variable receiving the output from the include must be different from the name of the output parameter. This is due to restrictions of the internal implementation.

NOQUOTE

By default all input parameters are defined by assigning the given value using double quotes. This means it is possible to pass either string constants or string expressions to the Include, which are interpreted at runtime, in the same manner. Often this is the behaviour you expect.

You have to list input (no output) parameters in the NOQUOTE parameter if you want them to be interpreted as a real Perl expression, and not in the string context (e.g. $i+1 will result in a string containing the value of $i concatenated with +1 in a string context, but in an incremented $i otherwise).

Note: Also you have to list all non-scalar and reference input parameters here, because array, hash and reference variables are also computed inside a string context by default, and this is usually not what you expect.

Note: Maybe this will change in future. Listing array and hash parameters in NOQUOTE will be optional, the default behaviour for those variables will change, so that they are not computed in string context by default.

Notes

The <?INCINTERFACE> command may occur several times inside one Include file. The position inside the source code does not matter. All declarations will be added to an interface accordingly.

If you ommit a <?INCINTERFACE> command inside your Include, its interface is empty. That means, you cannot pass any parameters to it. If you try so this will result in an error message at CIPP compile time.

Example

This example declares an interface, expecting some scalars and an array. Note the usage of NOQUOTE for the array input parameter. The Include also returns a scalar and an array parameter.

  <?INCINTERFACE INPUT="$firstname, $lastname"
                 OPTIONAL="@id"
                 OUTPUT="$scalar, @list"
                 NOQUOTE="@id">
  ...

  <?PERL>
    $scalar="returning a scalar";
    @list= ("returning", "a", "list");
  <?/PERL>

The caller may use this <?INCLUDE> command. Note that all input parameter names are converted to lower case.

  <?INCLUDE NAME="/include/test.inc"
            FIRSTNAME="Larry"
            lastname="Wall"
            ID="(5,4,3)"
            MY
            $s=SCALAR
            @l=LIST>

COMMAND <?INCLUDE> ^

Type

Import

Syntax

 <?INCLUDE NAME=include_name
         [ input_parameter_1=Wert1 ... ]
         [ MY ]
         [ variable_1=output_parameter_1 ... ] >

Description

Use Includes to divide your project into reusable pieces of code. Includes are defined in separate files. They have a well defined interface due to the <?INCINTERFACE> command. CIPP performs parameter checking for you and complain about unknown or missing parameters.

The Include file code will be inserted at the same position you write <?INCLUDE>, inside of a Perl block. Due to this variables declared inside the Include are not valid outside.

Please refer to the <?INCINTERFACE> chapter to see how parameters are processed by an Include.

Parameter

NAME

This is the name of the Include file, expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment.

INPUT-PARAMETERS

You can pass parameters to the Include using the usual PARAMETER=VALUE notation. Note that parameter names are converted to lower case. For more details about Include input parameters refer to the appropriate section of the <?INCINTERFACE> chapter.

OUTPUT-PARAMETERS

You can recieve parameters from the Include using the notation

{$@%}variable=output_parameter

Note that the name of the output parameters are automatically converted to lower case. Note also that the caller must not use the same name like the output parameter for the local variable which recieves the output parameter. That means for the above notation that variable must be different from output_parameter, ignoring the case.

For more details about Include output parameters refer to the appropriate section of the <?INCINTERFACE> chapter.

MY

If you set the MY switch all created output parameter variables will be declared using 'my'. Their scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?INCLUDE> command.

Important note

The actual CIPP implementation does really include the Include code at the position where the <?INCLUDE> command occurs. This affects variable scoping. All variables visible at the callers source code where you write the <?INCLUDE> command are also visible inside your Include. So you can use these variables, although you never declared them inside your Include. Use of this feature is discouraged, in fact you should avoid the usage of variables you did not declared in your scope.

Example

See example of <?INCINTERFACE>.

COMMAND <?INPUT> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?INPUT [ NAME=parameter_name ]
         [ VALUE=parameter_value ]
         [ SRC=image_object ]
         [ TYPE=input_type ] [ STICKY[=sticky_var] ]
         [ additional_<INPUT>_parameters ... ] >

Description

This generates a HTML <INPUT> tag where the content of the VALUE option is escaped to prevent HTML syntax clashes. In case of TYPE="radio" or TYPE="checkbox" in conjunction with the STICKY Option, the state of the input widget will be preserved.

Parameter

NAME

The name of the input widget.

VALUE

This is the VALUE of the corresponding <INPUT> tag. Its content will be escaped.

SRC

This is the name of the image, expected as an URL in CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environments and in dot separated object notation in a new.spirit environment.

TYPE

Only the TYPEs ,radio" and ,checkbox" are specially handled when the STICKY option is also given.

STICKY

If this option is set and the TYPE of the input widget is either "radio" or "checkbox" CIPP will generate the CHECKED option automatically, if the value of the corresponding Perl variable (which is $parameter_name for TYPE="radio" and @parameter_name for TYPE="checkbox") equals to the VALUE of this widget. If you assign a value to the STICKY option, this will be taken as the Perl variable for checking the state of the widget. But the default behaviour of deriving the name from the NAME option will fit most cases.

additional_INPUT_parameters

All additional parameters are taken without changes into the generated <INPUT> tag.

Note

If you use the STICKY feature in conjuncion with checkboxes, please note that the internal implementation may be ineffective, if you handle large checkbox groups. This is due the internal representation of the checkbox values as a list, so a grep is neccesary to check, wheter a checkbox is checked or not. If you feel uncomfortable about that, use a classic HTML <INPUT> tag, maybe with a loop around it, and check state of the checkboxes using a hash.

Example

We generate two HTML input fields, a simple text and a password field, both initialized with some values. Also two checkboxes are generated, using the STICKY feature to initalize their state genericly.

  <?VAR MY NAME="$username">larry<?/VAR
  <?VAR MY NAME="$password">this is my "password"<?/VAR>
  <?VAR MY NAME="@check">42<?/VAR>

  <?INPUT TYPE="TEXT" SIZE="40" VALUE="$username">
  <?INPUT TYPE="PASSWORD" SIZE="40" VALUE="$password">
  <?INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="check" VALUE="42"
          STICKY> 42
  <?INPUT TYPE="CHECKBOX" NAME="check" VALUE="43"
          STICKY> 43

This will produce the following HTML code:

  <INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=40 VALUE="larry">
  <INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=40
         VALUE="this ist my &quot;password&quot;">

  <INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="check" VALUE="42"
         CHECKED>
  <INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="check" VALUE="43">

COMMAND <?INTERFACE> ^

Type

Interface

Syntax

 <?INTERFACE [ INPUT=list_of_variables ]
             [ OPTIONAL=list_of_variables ] >

Description

This command declares the interface of a CGI program. You can declare mandatory and optional parameters. Parameters are always identified by their name. You can recieve scalar and array parameters.

All input parameters declared this way are visible as the appropriate variables inside the CGI program. They are always declared with my to prevent name clashes with other parts of the program.

Using <?INTERFACE> is optional, your program officially has no input parameters, if you ommit it (it's still possible to get parmeters using the <?GETPARAM> command. But use this with care, because defining a unique interface at the top of your program is good coding style, whereas picking arbitary paramters from the environment anywhere in the program is rather confusing.)

Parameter

All parameters of <?INTERFACE> expect a comma separated list of variables. Scalars ($) and arrays (@) are supported. Whitespaces are ignored.

Note: It is recommended that you use lower case variable names for your CGI interfaces, because some CIPP commands for generating URLs (e.g. <?GETURL>) convert parameter names to lower case.

INPUT

This parameters takes the list of variables the caller must pass to the CGI program.

OPTIONAL

The variables listed here are optional input parameters. They are always declared with my and visible inside the program, but are set to undef, if the caller ommits them.

Notes

The <?INTERFACE> command may occur several times inside a CGI program, the position inside the source code does not matter. All declarations will be added to an interface accordingly.

Example

We specify an interface for two scalars and an array.

  <?INTERFACE INPUT="$firstname, $lastname"
              OPTIONAL="@id">

A HTML form which adresses this CGI program may look like this (assuming we are in a CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment).

  <?VAR MY NAME="@id" NOQUOTE>(1,2,3,4)<?/VAR>

  <?FORM ACTION="/user/save.cgi">
    <?HIDDENFIELDS PARAMS="@id">
    <P>firstname:
    <?INPUT TYPE=TEXT NAME=firstname>
    <P>lastname:
    <?INPUT TYPE=TEXT NAME=lastname>
  <?/FORM>

COMMAND <?L> ^

Type

Miscellaneous

Syntax

 <?l [key="value" ...] >
   Message to be translated with Locale::TextDomain,
   including placehoders: {key}
 <?/l>

IMPORTANT NOTE

This syntax is functionally functional, but currently implemented without any active translation. The message text is passed through as-is, including placeholder substitution. Translation functionality will follow, inlcuding the neccessary command line tools to extract the message catalog from CIPP source files.

Description

This command uses (resp. will use) the Locale::TextDomain module to translate the text in the enclosed block, including the substitution of placeholders with actual values.

Placeholder names are written in curly brackets. The actual values are passed as options to the <?L> command. Note that the placeholder names are treated case sensitive.

You may use this command in HTML and PERL context as well. In HTML context the translated text is printed into the HTML page. In PERL context a Perl expression is generated which can be used in any expression context, e.g. a simple variable assignment or as a part of a arbitrary complex Perl expression.

Examples

 Print a translated "Hello World":
 
 <?l>Hello World<?/l>

 Placeholder example:

 <?l cnt="$age">You are {age} year(s) old.<?/l>

 Use in Perl Context
 
 <?PERL>
   #-- Simple variable assignment
   my $translated = <?l age="42">You You are {age} year(s) old.<?/l>;

   #-- Assign a bold message to a variable
   my $translated_bold =
        "<b>".
        <?l age="42">You are {age} year(s) old.<?/l>.
        "</b>";

   #-- Throw a translated error message
   die <?l>A fatal error occured<?/l>;
 <?/PERL>

COMMAND <?LOG> ^

Type

Exception Handling

Syntax

 <?LOG MSG=error_message
       [ TYPE=type_of_message ]
       [ FILENAME=special_logfile ]
       [ THROW=exception ] >

Description

The <?LOG> command adds a line to the project specific logfile, if no other filename is specified. In new.spirit environments the default filename of the logfile is prod/log/cipp.log. In CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP environments messages are written to /tmp/cipp.log (c:\tmp\cipp.log under Win32) by default.

Log file entries contain a timestamp, client IP adress, a message type and the message itself.

Parameter

MSG

This is the message.

TYPE

You can use the TYPE parameter to speficy a special type for this message. This is simply a string. You can use this feature to ease logfile analysis.

FILENAME

If you want to add this message to a special logfile you pass the full path of this file with FILENAME.

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception to be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is log.

An exception will be thrown, if the log file is not writable or the path is not reachable.

Example

If the variable $error is set a simple entry will be added to the default logfile.

  <?IF COND="$error != 0">
    <?LOG MSG="internal error: $error">
  <?/IF>

The error message "error in SQL statement" is added to the special logfile with the path /tmp/my.log. This entry is marked with the special type dberror. If this file is not writable an exception called fileio is thrown.

  <?LOG MSG="error in SQL statement"
        TYPE="dberror"
        FILENAME="/tmp/my.log"
        THROW="fileio">

COMMAND <?MODULE> ^

Type

Import

Syntax

 <?MODULE NAME=perl_module_name
        [ ISA=list_of_isa_modules ] >
   ...
 <?/MODULE>

Description

With this command you define a CIPP Perl Module. This works currently in a new.spirit environment only.

The generated Perl code will be installed in the project specific lib/ folder and can be imported with the <?USE> or <?REQUIRE> command, resp. with the correspondent Perl commands.

Parameter

NAME

This is the Perl name of the module you want to use. Nested module names are delimited by ::.

It is not possible to use a variable or expression for NAME, you must always use a literal string here.

ISA

You can specify a comma separated list of module names, which should be added the the module's @ISA array (that means: the modules from which the actual module is derived). All modules listed here will be loaded dynamically using Perl's require command. If you need compile time loading of the modules (e.g. for importing symbols in the actual namespace), use Perl's "use base" instead or load all modules explicitely with the "use" command.

Example

  <?MODULE NAME="Test::Module" ISA="Test::Base">

  #-- Using CIPP's <?SUB> command enables a lexical
  #-- variable check inside the sub, which prevents
  #-- the sub from accessing lexicals defined outside.
  <?SUB NAME="new">
    <?PERL>
      my $class = shift;
      return bless {
         foo => 1,
      }, $class;
    <?/PERL>
  <?/SUB>

  #-- But you can write the sub still as a sub ;)
  <?PERL>
    sub print_foo {
      my $self = shift;
      print $self->{foo},"<p>\n";
    }
  <?/PERL>

  <?/MODULE>

COMMAND <?MY> ^

Type

Variables and Scoping

Syntax

 <?MY [ VAR=list_of_variables ]
      variable_1 ... variable_N >

Description

This command declares private variables, using the Perl command my internally. Their scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?MY> command, for example only inside a <?IF> block.

All types of Perl variables (Scalars, Arrays and Hashes) can be declared this way.

If you want to initialize the variables with a value you must use the <?VAR> command or Perl commands directly. <?MY> only declares variables. Their initial value is undef.

Parameter

VAR

This parameter takes a comma separated list of variable names, that should be declared. With this option it is possible to declare variables which are not in lower case.

variable_1..variable_N

You can place additionel variables everywhere inside the <?MY> command.

Note:

If you need a new variable for another CIPP command, you can most often use the MY switch of that command, which declares the variable for you. This saves you one additional CIPP command and makes your code more readable.

Example

See <?BLOCK>

COMMAND <?OPTION> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?OPTION [ VALUE=parameter_value ]
          [ additional_<OPTION>_parameters ... ] >
 ...
 <?/OPTION>

Description

This command generates a HTML <OPTION> tag, where the text inside the <OPTION> block is HTML escaped and the VALUE is quoted. The usage of the <?OPTION> command outside of a <?SELECT> block is forbidden. If the surrounding <?SELECT> command has its STICKY option set, the select state of the options are preserved (see <?SELECT> for more information about the STICKY feature).

Parameter

VALUE

This is the VALUE of the generated <OPTION> tag. Its content will be escaped.

additional_OPTION_parameters

All additional parameters are taken over without changes into the produced <OPTION> tag.

Example

See the description of the <?SELECT> command for a complete example.

COMMAND <?PERL> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?PERL [ COND=condition ] >
 ...
 <?/PERL>

Description

With this command you open a block with pure Perl commands. You may place any valid Perl code inside this block.

You may use the Perl print statement to produce HTML code (or whatever output you want) for the client.

At the moment, there are only two CIPP commands which are actually supported inside a <?PERL> block: <?INCLUDE> and <?SQL>. Support of more commands will be added in the future.

Parameter

COND

If you set the COND parameter, the Perl block is only executed, if the given condition is true.

Example

All occurences of the string 'nt' in the scalar variable $str will be replaced by 'no thanks'. The result will be printed to the client.

  <?PERL>
    $text =~ s/nt/no thanks/g;
    print $text;
  <?/PERL>

If this list contains some elements a string based on the list is generated.

  <?PERL COND="scalar(@list) != 0">
    my ($string, $element);
    foreach $element ( @list ) {
      $string .= $element;
    }
    print $string;
  <?/PERL>
  # OK, its easier to use 'join', but it's
  # only an example... :-)

COMMAND <?!PROFILE> ^

Type

Preprocessor Command

Syntax

 <?!PROFILE [ NAME="profile_name" ]
            [ DEEP ]
            [ FILENAME="profile_filename" ]
            [ FILTER="minimum_duration" ]
            [ SCALEUNIT="" ] > 
   ...
 <?!/PROFILE>

Description

This preprocessor command controls the generation of profiling code for a specific block.

Currently two tasks are profiled: SQL statements and Include executions. If profiling is active, a line is added to the given log file for every executed SQL and Include command, giving a protocol of the execution durations. You need the Perl module Time::HiRes installed on your system if you want to use profiling.

The profile log file will be truncated automatically, if the size exceeds 8MB.

Parameter

NAME

Gives a name to this profile action, which will appear in the log output.

DEEP

If you set the DEEP option, the content all included Includes will be profiled, too. Otherwise only the document itself, where the <?!PROFILE> command stands, will be profiled.

Note that the DEEP switch can produce lots of output.

FILENAME

Specifies the filename for the profile output. This defaults to "$project_log_dir/profile.log".

FILTER

You can filter very fast executed sections by defining a minimum duration here. E.g. set this to "1.2" if you want to omit all entries which need less than 1.2 seconds. This defaults to 0.

SCALEUNIT

Each profile log entry has a "time meter", which prints five o's, for a duration of 1 second (see example output beyond). That's a SCAULEUNIT of 0.2. Change this default to get higher or lower precision here.

Note

You can tag specific <?SQL> commands in the profile log by specifying the PROFILE option in the corresponding <?SQL> commands. This helps identifying specific SQL statements inside the log output.

Example

The following SQL Statement and Include will be profiled as "foobar", to "/tmp/profile.log", with all inclusion levels, but only code sections which need longer than 0.005 seconds.

  <?!PROFILE
        NAME="foobar"
        FILENAME="/tmp/profile.log"
        FILTER="0.005"
        DEEP>

    <?SQL SQL="select foo, bla
               from   bar
               where  baz=?"
          PARAMS="$baz"
          MY VAR="$foo, $bla">
      $foo $bla<br>
    <?/SQL>

    <?INCLUDE NAME="/foo/bar.inc">

  <?!/PROFILE>

  #-- no profiling here
  <?INCLUDE NAME="/bar/foo.inc">

Here some example profiling output (it's not from the code example above):

  PROFILE 923 foobar START    ----------------------------------        
  PROFILE 923 foobar inc in   + Login/Check.code        
  PROFILE 923 foobar inc out  + Login/Check.code ............... 0.0665
  PROFILE 923 foobar sql      + select count(*) from MSG_Message
  PROFILE 923 foobar sql out  + select count(*) from MSG_Message 1.0039 ooooo
  PROFILE 923 foobar END      SUMMARY ========================== 1.0704 ooooo

923 is the PID of the corresponding process, "foobar" the NAME specified in the <?!PROFILE> tag. START/END mark a profiled block. "inc in" and "inc out" stands for "entering Include" and "leaving Include", "sql" and "sql out" appropriatly for <?SQL> statements. The needed time is printed on the right, followed by the o-Meter.

COMMAND <?REQUIRE> ^

Type

Import

Syntax

 <?REQUIRE NAME="cipp_perl_module" >

Description

This command loads a module at runtime. A module created with new.spirit in conjunction with the <?MODULE> command, or any other Perl module, which can be found in the Perl library directories.

Parameter

NAME

This is the name of the module you want to use. Nested module names are delimited by ::. This is the name of the module you provided with the <?MODULE> command.

You may also place a lexical scalar variable here (must not contain colons), which has the name of the module. So it is possible to load modules dynamically at runtime.

Example

  # refer to the description of <?MODULE> to see
  # the implementation of the Test::Module module.
  <?REQUIRE NAME="Test::Module">

  <?PERL>
    my $t = Test::Module->new;
    $t->print_foo;
  <?/PERL>

COMMAND <?ROLLBACK> ^

Type

SQL

Syntax

 <?ROLLBACK [ DB=database_name ]
            [ DBH=database_handle ]
            [ THROW=exception ] >

Description

The <?ROLLBACK> command concludes the actual transaction and cancels all changes to the database.

Using <?ROLLBACK> in <?AUTOCOMMIT ON> mode is not possible and will result in a runtime exception.

If you are not in <?AUTOCOMMIT ON> mode a transaction begins with the first SQL statement and ends either with a <?COMMIT> or <?ROLLBACK> command.

Parameter

DB

This is the CIPP internal name of the database for this command. In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment this name has to be defined in the appropriate global configuration. In a new.spirit environment this is the name of the database configuration object in dot separated notation.

If DB is ommited the project default database is used.

If DB is a variable name (resp. something containing a $ sigil) the content of this variable will be evaluated to the corresponding database name at runtime.

DBH

Use this option to pass an existing DBI database handle, which should used for this SQL command. You can't use the DBH option in conjunction with DB.

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception which should be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is rollback.

If the underlying database is not capable of transactions (e.g. MySQL) execution of this command will throw an exception.

Example

We insert a row into a database table and rollback the change immediately. We throw a user defined exeption, if the rollback fails, maybe the database is not capable of transactions.

  <?SQL SQL="insert into foo (num, str)
             values (42, 'bar');">
  <?/SQL>
  <?ROLLBACK THROW="ROLLBACK_Exception">

COMMAND <?SAVEFILE> ^

Type

Interface

Syntax

 <?SAVEFILE FILENAME=server_side_filename
            VAR=upload_formular_variable
            [ SYMBOLIC ]
            [ THROW=exception ] >

Description

This command is deprecated. Use <?FETCHUPLOAD> instead.

This command saves a file which was uploaded by a client in the webservers filesystem.

Parameter

FILENAME

This is the fully qualified filename where the file will be stored.

VAR

This is the identifier you used in the HTML form for the filename on client side, the value of the <INPUT NAME> parameter) .

SYMBOLIC

If this switch is set, VAR is the name of the variable which contains the <INPUT TYPE=FILE> identifier. Use this if you want to determine the name of the field at runtime.

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception which should be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is savefile.

Note

The client side file upload will only function proper if you set the encoding type of the HTML form to ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data". Otherwise you will get a exception, that the file could not be fetched.

There is another quirk you should notice. The variable which corresponds to the <INPUT NAME> option in the file upload form is a GLOB reference (due to the internal implementation of the CGI module, which CIPP uses). That means, if you use that variable in string context you get the client side filename of the uploaded file. But also you can use the variable as a filehandle, to read data from the file (this is what <?SAVEFILE> does for you).

This GLOB thing is usually no problem, as long as you don't pass the variable as a binding parameter to a <?SQL> command (because you want to store the client side filename in the database). The DBI module (which CIPP uses for the database stuff) complains about passing GLOBS as binding parameters.

The solution is to create a new variable assigned from the value of the file upload variable enforced to be in string context using double quotes.

<?INTERFACE INPUT="$upfilename">

<?MY $client_filename>

<?PERL> $client_filename = "$upfilename" <?/PERL>

Example

First we provide a HTML form with the file upload field.

  <?FORM METHOD="POST" ACTION="/image/save.cgi"
         ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data">
Fileupload:

  <INPUT TYPE=FILE NAME="upfilename" SIZE=45><BR>
  <INPUT TYPE="reset">
  <INPUT TYPE="submit" NAME="submit" VALUE="Upload">
  </FORM>

The /image/save.cgi program has the following code to store the file in the filesystem.

  <?SAVEFILE FILENAME="/tmp/upload.tmp"
             VAR="upfilename"
             THROW=my_upload>

The same procedure using the RUNTIME parameter.

  <?VAR MY=$field_name>upfilename<?/VAR>
  <?SAVEFILE FILENAME="/tmp/upload.tmp"
             SYMBOLIC
             VAR="$field_name"
             THROW=upload>

COMMAND <?SELECT> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?SELECT [ NAME=parameter_name ]
          [ MULTIPLE ] [ STICKY ]
          [ additional_<SELECT>_parameters ... ] >
 ...
 <?/SELECT>

Description

This command generates a selection widget providing preservation of the selection state (similar to the STICKY feature of the <?INPUT> command).

Parameter

NAME

The name of the formular widget.

MULTIPLE

If this is set, a multi selection list will be generated, instead of a single selection popup widget.

STICKY

If the STICKY option is set, the <?OPTION> commands inside the <?SELECT> block preserve their state in generating automatically a SELECTED option, if the corresponding entry was selected before. This is done in checking the value of the corresponding Perl variable (which is $parameter_name for a popup and @parameter_name for MULTIPLE selection list). If you assign a value to the STICKY option, this will be taken as the Perl variable for checking the state of the widget. But the default behaviour of deriving the name from the NAME option will fit most cases.

additional_SELECT_parameters

All additional parameters are taken over without changes into the produced <SELECT> tag.

Note

If you use the STICKY feature in conjuncion with a MULTIPLE selection list widget, please note that the internal implementation may be ineffective, if you handle large lists. This is due the internal representation of the list values as an array, so a grep is neccesary to check, wheter a list entry is selected or not. If you feel uncomfortable about that, use classic HTML <SELECT> and <OPTION> tags, maybe with a loop around it, and check state of the checkboxes using a hash.

Example

This is a complete CIPP program, which provides a mulitple selection list and preservers its state over subsequent executions of the program.

  <?INCINTERFACE OPTIONAL="@list">

  <?FORM ACTION="sticky.cgi">

  <?SELECT NAME="list" MULTIPLE STICKY>
  <?OPTION VALUE="1">value 1<?/OPTION>
  <?OPTION VALUE="2">value 2<?/OPTION>
  <?OPTION VALUE="3">value 3<?/OPTION>
  <?/SELECT>

  <?INPUT TYPE="submit" VALUE="send">

  <?/FORM>

COMMAND <?SQL> ^

Type

SQL

Syntax

 <?SQL SQL=sql_statement
       [ VAR=list_of_variables_for_the_result ]
       [ PARAMS=input_parameter ]
       [ WINSTART=start_row ]
       [ WINSIZE=number_of_rows_to_fetch ]
       [ COND=fetch_condition ]
       [ RESULT=sql_return_code ]
       [ DB=database_name ]
       [ DBH=database_handle ]
       [ THROW=exception ]
       [ MY ]
       [ PROFILE=profile_label ] >
 ...
 <?/SQL>

Description

Use the <?SQL> command to execute arbitrary SQL statements in a specific database. You can fetch results from a SELECT query, or simply execute INSERT, UPDATE or other SQL statements.

When you execute a SELECT query (resp. set the VAR parameter, see below) the code inside the <?SQL> block will be repeated for every row returned from the database.

Parameter

SQL

This takes the SQL statement to be executed. A trailing semicolon will be stripped off.

The statement may contain ? placeholders. They will be replaced by the expressions listed in the PARAMS parameter. See the PARAMS section for details about placeholders.

This is an example of a simple insert without placeholders.

  <?SQL SQL="insert into foo values (42, 'bar')">
  <?/SQL>
VAR

If you set the VAR parameter, CIPP asumes that you execute a SQL statement which returns a result set (normally a SELECT statement).

The VAR parameter takes a list of scalar variables. Each variable corresponds to the according column of the result set, so the position of the variables inside the list is relevant.

You can use this variable inside the <?SQL> block to access the actual processed row of the result set. Below the <?SQL> block the variable contains the values of the last row fetched, even when they are implicitely declared via a MY switch.

This is an example of creating a simple HTML table out of an SQL result set.

  <TABLE>
    <?SQL SQL="select num, str from foo"
          MY VAR="$n, $s">
      <TR>
        <TD>$n</TD>
        <TD>$s</TD>
      </TR>
    <?/SQL>
  </TABLE>
PARAMS

All placeholders inside your SQL statement will be replaced with the values given in PARAMS. It expects a comma separated list (white spaces are ignored) of Perl expressions, normally variables (scalar or array), literals or constants. The Perl value undef will be translated to the SQL value NULL. Also empty strings will be converted to undef resp. NULL. The content of the first expression substitutes the first placeholder in the SQL string, etc.

Values of parameters are quoted implicitly. This is the main advantage of PARAMS in this context. (You could place the perl variables into the SQL statement as such, but you would have to use <?DBQUOTE> on them first. Or else.).

Beware that you cannot use placeholders to contain (parts of) SQL code. The SQL must contain the syntactically complete statement - placeholders can only contain values. (The main reason for this is that the SQL statement is parsed by most databases before the placeholders are substituted. See the DBI manpage for details about placeholders.)

Here are some examples which demonstate the usage of placeholders.

  <?PERL>
    my $n = 42;
    my $s = "Hello 'World'";

    <?SQL SQL="insert into foo (num, str, unix_time)
               values (?, ?, ?)"
          PARAMS="$n, $s, time()">
    <?/SQL>

    my $where_num = 42;

    <?SQL SQL="select num, str
               from   foo
               where  num = ?"
          PARAMS="$where_num">
          MY VAR="$column_n, $column_s">
      <?HTML>
        n=$column_n s='$column_s'<BR>
      <?/HTML>
    <?/SQL>

    <?SQL SQL="update foo
               set    str=?
               where  n=?"
          PARAMS="$s, $where_num">
    <?/SQL>
  <?/PERL>
WINSTART

If you want to process only a part of the result set you can specfiy the first row you want to see with the WINSTART parameter. All rows before the given WINSTART row will be fetched but ignored. Execution of the <?SQL> block begins with the WINSTART row.

The row count begins with 1.

Here is an example. The first 5 rows will be skipped.

  <?SQL SQL="select num, str from foo"
        MY VAR="$n, $s"
        WINSTART=6
    n=$n s='$s'<BR>
  <?/SQL>
WINSIZE

Set this parameter to specify the number of rows you want to process. You can combine this parameter with WINSTART to process a "window" of the result set.

This is an example of doing this (skipping 5 rows, processing 5 rows).

  <?SQL SQL="select num, str from foo"
        MY VAR="$n, $s"
        WINSTART=6 WINSIZE=5
    n=$n s='$s'<BR>
  <?/SQL>
COND

If the COND parameter is given, the given condition is checked before fetching a row from a SELECT statement. This is useful for premature leaving of the <?SQL> loop.

Example:

  my @bus;
  my $bus_is_full = 10;

  <?SQL SQL="select name
             from   person"
        COND="@bus < $bus_is_full">

    push @bus, $person;
    
  <?/SQL>
RESULT

Some SQL statements return a scalar result value, e.g. the number of rows processed (e.b. UPDATE and DELETE). The variable placed here will take the SQL result code, if there is one.

Example:

  <?SQL SQL="delete from foo where num=42"
        MY RESULT=$deleted>
  <?/SQL>

Successfully deleted $deleted rows!

DB

This is the CIPP internal name of the database for this command. In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment this name has to be defined in the appropriate global configuration. In a new.spirit environment this is the name of the database configuration object in dot separated notation.

If DB is ommited the project default database is used.

If DB is a variable name (resp. something containing a $ sigil) the content of this variable will be evaluated to the corresponding database name at runtime.

DBH

Use this option to pass an existing DBI database handle, which should used for this SQL command. You can't use the DBH option in conjunction with DB.

THROW

With this parameter you can provide a user defined exception which should be thrown on failure. The default exception thrown by this statement is sql.

MY

If you set the MY switch all created variables will be declared using 'my'. Their scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?SQL> command.

PROFILE

Here you can define a profile label for this SQL statement. If you use the <?!PROFILE> command this label is printed out instead of the head of the SQL statement. See the chapter of <?!PROFILE> about details.

Leaving the <?SQL> loop prematurely

You can use the COND option for leaving the SQL loop of a select statement prematurely. The CIPP 2.x construct "last SQL" is deprecated and should not be used in newly written code.

Example

Please refer to the examples in the parameter sections above.

COMMAND <?SUB> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?SUB NAME=subroutine_name
     [ IMPORT=list_of_global_variables ] >
 ...
 <?/SUB>

Description

This defines the <?SUB> block as a Perl subroutine. You may use any CIPP commands inside the block.

Generally Includes are the best way to create reusable modules with CIPP. But sometimes you need real Perl subroutines, e.g. if you want to do some OO programming.

Parameter

NAME

This is the name of the subroutine. Please refer to the perlsub manpage for details about Perl subroutines.

It is not possible to declare protoyped subroutines with <?SUB>.

IMPORT

If your subroutine needs acccess to lexical variables declared outside of the subroutine's scope, you must list these variables here. Using such global variables without listing them in the IMPORT option will be reported during CIPP's Perl compiler error checking as a violation of "strict vars". In persistent environments accessing such variables may be evil, when the program itself will be compiled as a subroutine. This way your subroutine is a "inner" subroutine, and the global variables aren't global any more the way you expected. See

  http://perl.apache.org/docs/general/perl_reference/perl_reference.html

for a detailed discussion of this problem (chapter "my() Scoped Variable in Nested Subroutines").

Example

This is a subroutine to create a text input field in a specific layout.

  <?SUB NAME=print_input_field>
    # Catch the input parameters
    <?MY $label $name $value>
    <?PERL>
      ($label, $name, $value) = @_;
    <?/PERL>

    # print the text field
    <P>
    <B>$label:</B><BR>
    <?INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=40 NAME=$name VALUE=$value>
  <?/SUB>

You may call this subroutine from every Perl context this way.

  <?PERL>
    print_input_field ('Firstname', 'firstname', 'Larry');
    print_input_field ('Lastname',  'surname',   'Wall');
  <?/PERL>

This is a proper example of using a global lexical variable. It's a small class which provides an instance counter for its objects.

  <?MODULE NAME="My::ObjectCounter">

  <?VAR NAME="$count">0<?/VAR>

  <?SUB NAME="new" IMPORT="$count">
    <?PERL>
      my $class = shift;
      my $self = {
        nr => ++$count,
      };
      return bless $self, $class;
    <?/PERL>
  <?/SUB>

  <?/MODULE>

COMMAND <?SWITCHDB> ^

Type

Database access

Syntax

 <?SWITCHDB
     { DB=database_name |
       DBH=database_handle } >
 ...
 <?/SWITCHDB>

Description

Inside the block described by <?SWITCHDB> the default database is switched to the given DB name or DBH database handle.

<?SWITCHDB> can be nested. Also it's exception safe. It's guaranteed that the original default database handle is active after the <?SWITCHDB> block.

Parameter

DB

This is the CIPP internal name of the database, which should be the new default inside the <?SWITCHDB> block. In CGI::CIPP or Apache::CIPP environment this name has to be defined in the appropriate global configuration. In a new.spirit environment this is the name of the database configuration object in dot separated notation.

DBH

Use this option to pass an existing DBI database handle, which should be the new default database. You can't use the DBH option in conjunction with DB.

Example

An Include is called twice, once with the project's default database, a second time with another specific database:

  # print statistics using the default database
  <?INCLUDE NAME="x.statistic.print">

  <?SWITCHDB DB="x.special.db">

    # print statistics from this specific database
    <?INCLUDE NAME="x.statistic.print">

  <?/SWITCHDB>

  # here we have the standard default database again

COMMAND <?TEXTAREA> ^

Type

HTML Tag Replacement

Syntax

 <?TEXTAREA [ additional_<TEXTAREA>_parameters ... ]>
 ...
 <?/TEXTAREA>

Description

This generates a HTML <TEXTAREA> tag, with a HTML quoted content to prevent from HTML syntax clashes.

Parameter

additional_TEXTAREA_parameters

There are no special parameters. All parameters you pass to <?TEXTAREA> are taken in without changes.

Example

This creates a <TEXTAREA> initialized with the content of the variable $fulltext.

  <?VAR MY NAME=$fulltext><B>HTML Text</B><?/VAR>
  <?TEXTAREA NAME=fulltext ROWS=10
             COLS=80>$fulltext<?/TEXTAREA>

This leads to the following HTML code.

  <TEXTAREA NAME=fulltext ROWS=10
            COLS=80>&lt;B>HTML Text&lt;B></TEXTAREA>

COMMAND <?THROW> ^

Type

Exception Handling

Syntax

 <?THROW THROW=exception [ MSG=message ] >

Description

This command throws an user specified exception.

Parameter

THROW

This is the exception identifier, a simple string. It is the criteria for the <?CATCH> command.

MSG

Optionally, you can pass a additional message for your exception, e.g. a error message you have got from a system call.

Example

We try to open a file and throw a exception if this fails.

  <?MY $error>
  <?PERL>
    open (INPUT, '/bar/foo') or $error=$!;
  <?/PERL>

  <?IF COND="$error">
    <?THROW THROW="open_file"
            MSG="file /bar/foo, $error">
  <?/IF>

Note

If you want to throw a exception inside a Perl block you can do this with the Perl die function. The die argument must follow this convention:

  identifier TAB message

This is the above example using this technique.

<?PERL>

  open (INPUT, '/bar/foo')

    or die "open_file\tfile /bar/foo, $!";

<?/PERL>

COMMAND <?TRY> ^

Type

Exception Handling

Syntax

 <?TRY >
 ...
 <?/TRY >

Description

Normally your program exits with a general exception message if an error/exception occurs or is thrown explicitely. The general exception handler which is responsible for this behaviour is part of any program code which CIPP generates.

You can provide your own exception handling using the <?TRY> and <?CATCH> commands.

All exceptions thrown inside a <?TRY> block are caught. You can use a subsequent <?CATCH> block to process the exceptions to set up your own exception handling.

If you ommit the <?CATCH> block, nothing will happen. You never see something of the exception, it will be fully ignored and the program works on.

Example

We try to insert a row into a database table and write a log file entry with the error message, if the INSERT fails.

  <?TRY>
    <?SQL SQL="insert into foo values (42, 'bar')">
    <?/SQL>
  <?/TRY>

  <?CATCH THROW="insert" MY MSGVAR="$msg">
    <?LOG MSG="unable to insert row, $msg"
          TYPE="database">
  <?/CATCH>

COMMAND <?URLENCODE> ^

Type

URL and Form Handling

Syntax

 <?URLENCODE VAR=unencoded_variable
             [ MY ] ENCVAR=encoded_variable >

Description

Use this command to URL encode the content of a scalar variable. Parameters passed via URL always have to be encoded this way, otherwise you risk syntax clashes.

Parameter

VAR

This is the variable you want to be encoded.

ENCVAR

The encoded result will be stored in this variable.

MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?URLENCODE> command.

Example

In this example we link an external CGI script and pass the content of the variable $query after using <?URLENCODE> on it.

  <?URLENCODE VAR=$query MY ENCVAR=$enc_query>
  <A HREF="www.search.org?query=$enc_query">
find something

  </A>

Hint: in CGI::CIPP and Apache::CIPP environments you also can use the <?A> command for doing this.

COMMAND <?USE> ^

Type

Import

Syntax

 <?USE NAME=perl_module >

Description

With this command you can access the extensive Perl module library. You can access any Perl module which is installed on your system.

In a new.spirit environment you can place user defined modules in the prod/lib directory of your project, which is included in the library search path by default.

If you want to use a CIPP Module (generated with new.spirit and the <?MODULE> command), use <?REQUIRE> instead.

Parameter

NAME

This is the name of the module you want to use. Nested module names are delimited by ::. This is exactly what the Perl use pragma expects (you guessed right, CIPP simply translates <?USE> to use :-).

It is not possible to use a variable or expression for NAME, you must always use a literal string here.

Example

The standard modules File::Path and Text::Wrap are imported to your program.

  <?USE NAME="File::Path">
  <?USE NAME="Text::Wrap">

COMMAND <?VAR> ^

Type

Variables and Scoping

Syntax

 <?VAR NAME=variable
       [ MY ]
       [ DEFAULT=value ]
       [ NOQUOTE ]>
 ...
 <?/VAR>

Description

This command defines and optionally declares a Perl variable of any type (scalar, array and hash). The value of the variable is derived from the content of the <?VAR> block. You can assign constants, string expressions and any Perl expressions this way.

It is not possible to nest the <?VAR> command or to use any CIPP command inside the <?VAR> block. The content of the <?VAR> block will be evaluated and assigned to the variable.

Parameter

NAME

This is the name of the variable. You must specify the full Perl variable here, including the $, @ or % sign to indicate the type of the variable.

These are some examples for creating variables using <?VAR>.

  <?VAR NAME=$skalar>a string<?/VAR>
  <?VAR NAME=@liste>(1,2,3,4)<?/VAR>
  <?VAR NAME=%hash>( 1 => 'a', 2 => 'b' )<?/VAR>
DEFAULT

If you set the DEFAULT parameter, this value will be assigned to the variable, if the variable is actually undef. In this case the content of the <?VAR> block will be ignored.

Setting the DEFAULT parameter is only supported for scalar variables.

You can use this feature to provide default values for input parameters this way.

  <?VAR NAME=$event DEFAULT="show">$event<?/VAR>

Hint: you may think there must be a easier way of doing this. You are right. :-) We recommend you using this alternative code, the usage of DEFAULT is deprecated.

  <?PERL>
    $event ||= 'show';
  <?/PERL>
NOQUOTE

By default the variable is defined by assigning the given value using double quotes. This means it is possible to assign either string constants or string expressions to the variable without using extra quotes.

If you do not want the content of <?VAR> block to be evaluated in string context set the NOQUOTE switch. E.g., so it is possible to assign an integer expression to the variable.

This is an example of using NOQUOTE for an non string expression.

  <?VAR MY NAME=$element_cnt NOQUOTE>
    scalar(@liste)
  <?/VAR>
MY

If you set the MY switch the created variable will be declared using 'my'. Its scope reaches to the end of the block which surrounds the <?VAR> command.

Example

Please refer to the examples in the parameter sections above.

COMMAND <?WHILE> ^

Type

Control Structure

Syntax

 <?WHILE COND=condition >
 ...
 <?/WHILE>

Description

This realizes a loop, where the condition is checked first before entering the loop block.

Parameter

COND

As long as this Perl condition is true, the <?WHILE> block will be repeated.

Example

This creates a HTML table out of an array using <?WHILE> to iterate over the two arrays @firstname and @lastname, assuming that they are of identical size.

  <TABLE>
  <?VAR MY NAME=$i>0<?/VAR>
  <?WHILE COND="$i++ < scalar(@lastname)">
    <TR>
      <TD>$lastname[$i]</TD>
      <TD>$firstname[$i]</TD>
    </TR>
  <?/WHILE>
  </TABLE>

SEE ALSO ^

CGI::CIPP (3pm), Apache::CIPP (3pm), new.spirit

AUTHOR ^

Jörn Reder <joern@dimedis.de>

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (C) 1997-2002 Jörn Reder, All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) 1997-2002 dimedis GmbH, All Rights Reserved.

This documentation is free; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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