Kieren Diment > Catalyst-Manual-Monthly > Catalyst::Manual::Monthly::2012::February::TestDBICWithBellsOn

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Catalyst::Manual::Monthly::2012::February::TestDBICWithBellsOn

Testing difficult-to-test database models

In this article we're going to describe a technique for testing database-heavy web applications using either a temporary testing database, or using the DSN defined in your Catalyst application depending on the presence of an environment variable. If the latter, we will not delete the contents of the database afterwards, because this workflow suggests that we will want to poke around our application manually with the application in a known state.

Basically, providing automated testing of complex databases is a pain. For generic type functions (e.g. the development of libraries rather than applications), mock objects (objects that mimic the interface of a real object) are useful for unit testing. But in the running on the seat-of-your-pants development style that commercial web applications often require, small changes to functionality can wreak havoc with your mock objects, and they rapidly become more trouble than they're worth.

Which is where Test::DBIx::Class comes in. The rest of this article will explain how to achieve three different use-cases for Test::DBIx::Class and Catalyst.

The easy use case - Inferring the Database from the DBIC result classes.

For a straightforward database schema where the DBIx::Class (DBIC) result classes can be used out of the box, one can simply use Test::DBIx::Class to infer the database schema into a temporary database, using a temporary Postgresql instance via Test::DBIx::Class::SchemaManager::Trait::Testpostgresql:

 use Test::More;

 use strict;
 use warnings;
 use Test::WWW::Mechanize::Catalyst 'MyApp';

 use Test::DBIx::Class {
  schema_class => MyApp->model('DB')->schema_class,
  traits       => ['Testpostgresql']
  },
 'User', 'Adverts'; # only create the tables for the User and Advert Result
                    # classes

As an alternative to naming specific tables in the last part of the use Test::DBIx::Class declaration, you can use ":resultsets/" in qw instead of 'User', 'Adverts' in the example avove, to import all Result classes defined in the schema_class.

The next thing to produce the appropriate Moose meta-object incantation to swap out the configured MyApp->model('DB')->schema with the temporary one we want to use instead (note, this works even when we start doing the clever override things in the next two sections):

  #  make TDBIC schema and app schema the same
  my $db_meta = MyApp::Model::DB->meta;
  $db_meta->make_mutable;
  $db_meta->add_around_method_modifier( schema => sub { Schema() } );
  $db_meta->make_immutable;

Now that we've done this we can start making requests:

  my $mech = Test::WWW::Mechanize::Catalyst->new;
  $mech->get('whatever');
  ### etc.

And the database operations should all really happen, but to a temporary database that gets deleted at the end of the run. This is especially useful if you have lots of tests that all need a pristine copy of the database with their own fixtures, as it means you can speed things up by running in parallel (e.g. to run 3 tests in parallel run prove -l -j 3 t ).

OK Good. This time let's optionally override the temporary database with the developer's DSN

One development style which works fairly well is to write tests to run on the development database, and then have a play around at the end of the test run either with the Perl debugger or using the built in development server. However this means that one can't always rely on having a temporary testing database for running tests.

So in this case we use the application's configured database instead. Note this requires a bit more trickery than when we're just using a temporary TDBIC database:

 use Test::More;

 use FindBin qw/$Bin/;
 use lib "$Bin/lib";
 use Test::WWW::Mechanize::Catalyst qw/MyApp/;

 BEGIN {
     use MyApp;
     my %tdbic_args = ( schema_class => MyApp->model('DB')->schema_class,
                        traits       => [qw/Testpostgresql/],
                    );
     if ($ENV{DEV_DB}) {
         %tdbic_args = (
             connect_info     =>
                MyApp->model('DB')->schema_class->storage->connect_info,
             force_drop_table => 1,
             keep_db => 1,          # assume we want to keep the test db at
                                    # the end of the test run
             %tdbic_args
         )
     };

 # this pattern because we're messing with instantiation in BEGIN
 require Test::DBIx::Class;
 Test::DBIx::Class->import(\%tdbic_args, qw/:resultsets/);

Fine, that's the simple cases, what about the harder cases?

In many situations it's not desirable to infer the database directly from the DBIC schema classes. While it is possible to put all the metadata (for example including stuff that requires custom database engine extensions) into the DBIC schema, this is not necessarily desirable. For example if you have a process whereby your database schemas are signed off (and likely modified) by a DBA you're likely going to want the master copy of your database in SQL rather than DBIC files. Likewise if you have evil business logic that's best encapsulated in a database trigger, you'll likely hit the same type of problems.

Given we're using a Postgres database in this instance, we need some Pg-specific code to spin up either a temporary database or to repopulate the development database. So to complement Test::DBIx::Class::SchemaManager::Trait::Testpostgresql, we've written our own internal Test::DBIx::Class::SchemaManager::Trait::DeploySQL class that should be kept in t/lib/Test/DBIx/Class/SchemaManager/Trait/DeploySQL.pm in your app's directory tree. It's possible this could be released as a CPAN module one day, but at this stage we suspect that every development situation is sufficiently different that it's probably better just to leave these particular bits of wheel lying around for other people to adapt, rather than offering an explicit canned solution that's supposed to work for everybody.

Meanwhile here's what we have for our Postgres database populated by SQL statements:

 use Moose::Role;
 use MyApp;

 before prepare_schema_class => sub {
   my ($self, $schema_class) = @_;
   { no warnings 'redefine';
     no strict 'refs';
     *{$schema_class.'::deploy'} = sub { $self->_deploy_sql(@_) };
   }
 };

 sub _deploy_sql {
   my($self, $schema) = @_;
   my $port = $self->postgresqlobj->port;
   my $args = $self->postgresqlobj->postmaster_args;
   my $storage = $schema->storage;
   my $app_root = MyApp->path_to();
   my ($db_name) = $storage->connect_info->[0]->{dsn} =~ /dbname=(.*?)(;|$)/;
   my ($db_user) = $storage->connect_info->[0]->{user};
   my @sql_files = qw/list of sql files here/;
   my $psql_cmd;
   unless ($ENV{DEV_DB}) {
       $psql_cmd = "/usr/bin/psql $args -p $port";
       $storage->dbh_do(sub {
                            system qq{$psql_cmd -U$db_user $db_name -q -c "create language plpgsql"}});
   }
   else {
       $psql_cmd = "/usr/bin/psql";
   }
   $storage->dbh_do(sub {
                      system "$psql_cmd -U$db_user $db_name  -f $app_root/misc/db/$_"})
       for @sql_files;
 }

 1;

The main thing to note here is that wrapping the system calls in a $storage->dbh_do > call ensures that the database handle from DBI is connected to the database using the failsafe mechanisms in DBIx::Class::Schema::Storage.

So finally, deploying to our temporary database using Test::DBIx::Class and either a temporary or a development database from SQL files is done. Now to start up the test file we change the traits in %tdbic_args to this:

  traits       => [qw/Testpostgresql DeploySQL/],

Somewhat intricate, but for complicated development situations definitely worth it.

TODO

Our development team is still working out the best way to use this system, but so far it's been really very handy indeed. What would be good next is to work out how to modularise a lot of the boilerplate above so it can be used or required as a single line in each test file. We'll get there soon.

AUTHORS AND COPYRIGHT

Words and a little bit of code: Kieren Diment <zarquon@cpan.org>

Most of the code: Eden Cardim <edencardim@gmail.com>

LICENCE

This documentation can be redistributed it and/or modified under the same terms as Perl itself.

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