Matthew Simon Cavalletto > DBIx-SQLEngine > DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver

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NAME ^

DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver - DBI Wrapper with Driver Subclasses

SYNOPSIS ^

DBI Wrapper: Adds methods to a DBI database handle.

  $sqldb = DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $dbi_dsn, $dbi_user, $dbi_passwd );
  $sqldb = DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $dbh ); # or use your existing handle

  $dbh = $sqldb->get_dbh();              # get the wraped DBI dbh
  $sth = $sqldb->prepare($statement);    # or just call any dbh method

High-Level Interface: Prepare and fetch in one call.

  $row_count = $sqldb->try_query($sql, \@params, 'get_execute_rowcount');
  $array_ary = $sqldb->try_query($sql, \@params, 'fetchall_arrayref');
  $hash_ary  = $sqldb->try_query($sql, \@params, 'fetchall_hashref');

Data-Driven SQL: SQL generation with flexible arguments.

  $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
    table => 'students', where => { 'status'=>'minor' },
  );
  
  $sqldb->do_insert(
    table => 'students', 
    values => { 'name'=>'Dave', 'age'=>'19', 'status'=>'minor' },
  );
  
  $sqldb->do_update( 
    table => 'students', where => 'age > 20',
    values => { 'status'=>'adult' },
  );
  
  $sqldb->do_delete(
    table => 'students', where => { 'name'=>'Dave' },
  );

Named Definitions: Pre-define connections and queries.

  DBIx::SQLEngine->define_named_connections(
    'test'       => 'dbi:AnyData:test',
    'production' => [ 'dbi:Mysql:our_data:dbhost', 'user', 'passwd' ],
  );

  DBIx::SQLEngine->define_named_queries(
    'all_students'  => 'select * from students',
    'delete_student' => [ 'delete * from students where id = ?', \$1 ],
  );

  $sqldb = DBIx::SQLEngine->new( 'test' );

  $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_named_query( 'all_students' );

  $rowcount = $sqldb->do_named_query( 'delete_student', $my_id );

Portability Subclasses: Uses driver's idioms or emulation.

  $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_select( # uses database's limit syntax 
    table => 'students', order => 'last_name, first_name',
    limit => 20, offset => 100,    
  );
  
  $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_select( # use "join on" or merge with "where"
    table => ['students'=>{'students.id'=>\'grades.student'}=>'grades'],
    where => { 'academic_year'=>'2004' },
  );
  
  $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_select( # combines multiple query results
    union => [ { table=>'students', columns=>'first_name, last_name' },
               { table=>'staff',    columns=>'name_f, name_l' }        ],
  );

  $sqldb->do_insert(                # use auto_increment/sequence column
    table => 'students', sequence => 'id',        
    values => { 'name'=>'Dave', 'age'=>'19', 'status'=>'minor' },
  );

DESCRIPTION ^

DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver objects are wrappers around DBI database handles which add methods that support ad-hoc SQL generation and query execution in a single call. Dynamic subclassing based on database server type enables cross-platform portability.

For more information about this framework, see "DESCRIPTION" in DBIx::SQLEngine.

Driver Subclasses

The only methods that are actually provided by the DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver package itself are the constructors like new(). All of the other methods described here are defined in DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver::Default, or in one of its automatically-loaded subclasses.

After setting up the DBI handle that it will use, the SQLEngine is reblessed into a matching subclass, if one is available. Thus, if you connect a DBIx::SQLEngine through DBD::mysql, by passing a DSN such as "dbi:mysql:test", your object will automatically shift to being an instance of the DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver::Mysql class. This allows the driver-specific subclasses to compensate for differences in the SQL dialect or execution ideosyncracies of that platform.

This release includes the following driver subclasses, which support the listed database platforms:

Mysql

MySQL via DBD::mysql or DBD::ODBC (Free RDBMS)

Pg

PostgreSQL via DBD::Pg or DBD::ODBC (Free RDBMS)

Oracle

Oracle via DBD::Oracle or DBD::ODBC (Commercial RDBMS)

Sybase

Sybase via DBD::Sybase or DBD::ODBC (Commercial RDBMS)

Informix

Informix via DBD::Informix or DBD::ODBC (Commercial RDBMS)

MSSQL

Microsoft SQL Server via DBD::ODBC (Commercial RDBMS)

Sybase::MSSQL

Microsoft SQL Server via DBD::Sybase and FreeTDS libraries

SQLite

SQLite via DBD::SQLite (Free Package)

AnyData

AnyData via DBD::AnyData (Free Package)

CSV

CSV files via DBD::CSV (Free Package)

To understand which SQLEngine driver class will be used for a given database connection, see the discussion of driver and class names in DBIx::AnyDBD.

The public interface of described below is shared by all of the driver subclasses. The superclass methods aim to produce and perform generic queries in an database-independent fashion, using standard SQL syntax. Subclasses may override these methods to compensate for idiosyncrasies of their database server or mechanism. To facilitate cross-platform subclassing, many of these methods are implemented by calling combinations of other methods, which may individually be overridden by subclasses.

DRIVER INSTANTIATION ^

These methods allow the creation of SQLEngine Driver objects connected to your databases.

Driver Object Creation

Create one SQLEngine Driver for each DBI datasource you will use.

Public Methods: Call the new() method to create a Driver object with associated DBI database handle.

new()
  DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $dsn ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $dsn, $user, $pass ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $dsn, $user, $pass, $args ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $dbh ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $cnxn_name ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine->new( $cnxn_name, @params ) : $sqldb

Based on the arguments supplied, invokes one of the below new_with_* methods and returns the resulting new object.

Internal Methods: These methods are called internally by new().

new_with_connect()
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->new_with_connect( $dsn ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->new_with_connect( $dsn, $user, $pass ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->new_with_connect( $dsn, $user, $pass, $args ) : $sqldb

Accepts the same arguments as the standard DBI connect method.

new_with_dbh()
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->new_with_dbh( $dbh ) : $sqldb

Accepts an existing DBI database handle and creates a new Driver object around it.

new_with_name()
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->new_with_name( $cnxn_name ) : $sqldb
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->new_with_name( $cnxn_name, @params ) : $sqldb

Passes the provided arguments to interpret_named_connection, defined below, and uses its results to make a new connection.

Named Connections

The following methods maanage a collection of named connection parameters.

Public Methods: Call these methods to define connections.

define_named_connections()
  DBIx::SQLEngine->define_named_connections( $name, $cnxn_info )
  DBIx::SQLEngine->define_named_connections( %names_and_info )

Defines one or more named connections using the names and definitions provided.

The definition for each connection is expected to be in one of the following formats:

  • A DSN string which will be passed to a DBI->connect call.
  • A reference to an array of a DSN string, and optionally, a user name and password. Items which should later be replaced by per-connection parameters can be represented by references to the special Perl variables $1, $2, $3, and so forth, corresponding to the order and number of parameters to be supplied.
  • A reference to a subroutine or code block which will process the user-supplied arguments and return a connected DBI database handle or a list of connection arguments.
define_named_connections_from_text()
  DBIx::SQLEngine->define_named_connections_from_text($name, $cnxn_info_text)
  DBIx::SQLEngine->define_named_connections_from_text(%names_and_info_text)

Defines one or more connections, using some special processing to facilitate storing dynamic connection definitions in an external source such as a text file or database table.

The interpretation of each definition is determined by its first non-whitespace character:

  • Definitions which begin with a [ character are presumed to contain an array definition and are evaluated immediately.
  • Definitions which begin with a " or ; character are presumed to contain a code definition and evaluated as the contents of an anonymous subroutine.
  • Other definitions are assumed to contain a plain string DSN.

All evaluations are done via a Safe compartment, which is required when this function is first used, so the code is fairly limited in terms of what actions it can perform.

Internal Methods: The following methods are called internally by new_with_name().

named_connections()
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->named_connections() : %names_and_info
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->named_connections( $name ) : $cnxn_info
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->named_connections( \@names ) : @cnxn_info
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->named_connections( $name, $cnxn_info, ... )
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->named_connections( \%names_and_info )

Accessor and mutator for a class-wide hash mappping connection names to their definitions. Used internally by the other named_connection methods.

named_connection()
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->named_connection( $name ) : $cnxn_info

Retrieves the connection definition matching the name provided. Croaks if no connection has been defined for that name. Used interally by the interpret_named_connection method.

interpret_named_connection()
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->interpret_named_connection($name, @params) : $dbh
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->interpret_named_connection($name, @params) : $dsn
  DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver->interpret_named_connection($name, @params) : @args

Combines the connection definition matching the name provided with the following arguments and returns the resulting connection arguments. Croaks if no connection has been defined for that name.

Depending on the definition associated with the name, it is combined with the provided parameters in one the following ways:

  • A string. Any connection parameters are assumed to be the user name and password, and are simply appended and returned.
  • A reference to an array, possibly with embedded placeholders in the \$1 style described above. Uses clone_with_parameters() to make and return a copy of the array, substituting the connection parameters in place of the placeholder references. An exception is thrown if the number of parameters provided does not match the number of special variables referred to.
  • A reference to a subroutine. The connection parameters are passed along to the subroutine and its results returned for execution.

For more information about the parameter replacement and argument count checking, see the clone_with_parameters() function from DBIx::SQLEngine::Utility::CloneWithParams.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the named_connections feature.

FETCHING DATA (SQL DQL) ^

Information is obtained from a DBI database through the Data Query Language features of SQL.

Select to Retrieve Data

The following methods may be used to retrieve data using SQL select statements. They all accept a flexible set of key-value arguments describing the query to be run, as described in the "SQL Select Clauses" section below.

Public Methods: There are several ways to retrieve information from a SELECT query.

The fetch_* methods select and return matching rows.

fetch_select()
  $sqldb->fetch_select( %sql_clauses ) : $row_hashes
  $sqldb->fetch_select( %sql_clauses ) : ($row_hashes, $column_hashes)

Retrieve rows from the datasource as an array of hashrefs. If called in a list context, also returns an array of hashrefs containing information about the columns included in the result set.

fetch_select_rows()
  $sqldb->fetch_select_rows( %sql_clauses ) : $row_arrays
  $sqldb->fetch_select_rows( %sql_clauses ) : ($row_arrays, $column_hashes)

Like fetch_select, but returns an array of arrayrefs, rather than hashrefs.

fetch_one_row()
  $sqldb->fetch_one_row( %sql_clauses ) : $row_hash

Calls fetch_select, then returns only the first row of results.

fetch_one_value()
  $sqldb->fetch_one_value( %sql_clauses ) : $scalar

Calls fetch_select, then returns the first value from the first row of results.

The visit_* and fetchsub_* methods allow you to loop through the returned records without necessarily loading them all into memory at once.

visit_select()
  $sqldb->visit_select( $code_ref, %sql_clauses ) : @results
  $sqldb->visit_select( %sql_clauses, $code_ref ) : @results

Retrieve rows from the datasource as a series of hashrefs, and call the user provided function for each one. For your convenience, will accept a coderef as either the first or the last argument. Returns the results returned by each of those function calls. Processing with visit_select rather than fetch_select can be more efficient if you are looping over a large number of rows and do not need to keep them all in memory.

Note that some DBI drivers do not support simultaneous use of more than one statement handle; if you are using such a driver, you will receive an error if you run another query from within your code reference.

visit_select_rows()
  $sqldb->visit_select_rows( $code_ref, %sql_clauses ) : @results
  $sqldb->visit_select_rows( %sql_clauses, $code_ref ) : @results

Like visit_select, but for each row the code ref is called with the current row retrieved as a list of values, rather than a hash ref.

fetchsub_select()
  $self->fetchsub_select( %clauses ) : $coderef

Execute a query and returns a code reference that can be called repeatedly to retrieve a row as a hashref. When all of the rows have been fetched it will return undef.

The code reference is blessed so that when it goes out of scope and is destroyed it can call the statement handle's finish() method.

Note that some DBI drivers do not support simultaneous use of more than one statement handle; if you are using such a driver, you will receive an error if you run another query while this code reference is still in scope.

fetchsub_select_rows()
  $self->fetchsub_select_rows( %clauses ) : $coderef

Like fetchsub_select, but for each row returns a list of values, rather than a hash ref. When all of the rows have been fetched it will return an empty list.

SQL Select Clauses: The above select methods accept a hash describing the clauses of the SQL statement they are to generate, using the values provided for the keys defined below.

'sql'

May contain a plain SQL statement to be executed, or a reference to an array of a SQL statement followed by parameters for embedded placeholders. Can not be used in combination with the table and columns arguments.

'named_query'

Uses the named_query catalog to build the query. May contain a defined query name, or a reference to an array of a query name followed by parameters to be handled by interpret_named_query. See "NAMED QUERY CATALOG" for details.

'union'

Calls sql_union() to produce a query that combines the results of multiple calls to sql_select(). Should contain a reference to an array of hash-refs, each of which contains key-value pairs to be used in one of the unified selects. Can not be used in combination with the table and columns arguments.

'table' or 'tables'

The name of the tables to select from. Required unless one of the above parameters is provided. May contain a string with one or more table names, or a reference to an array or hash of table names and join criteria. See the sql_join() method for details.

'columns'

Optional; defaults to '*'. May contain a comma-separated string of column names, or an reference to an array of column names, or a reference to a hash mapping column names to "as" aliases, or a reference to an object with a "column_names" method.

'distinct'

Optional. Boolean. Adds the "distinct" keyword to the query if value is true.

'where' or 'criteria'

Optional. May contain a literal SQL where clause, an array ref with a SQL clause and parameter list, a hash of field => value pairs, or an object that supports a sql_where() method. See the sql_where() method for details.

'group'

Optional. May contain a comma-separated string of column names or experessions, or an reference to an array of the same.

'order'

Optional. May contain a comma-separated string of column names or experessions, optionally followed by "DESC", or an reference to an array of the same.

'limit'

Optional. Maximum number of rows to be retrieved from the server. Relies on DBMS-specific behavior provided by sql_limit().

'offset'

Optional. Number of rows at the start of the result which should be skipped over. Relies on DBMS-specific behavior provided by sql_limit().

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the select features.

Internal Methods: The following methods are used to construct select queries. They are called automatically by the public select methods, and do not need to be invoked directly.

sql_select()
  $sqldb->sql_select ( %sql_clauses ) : $sql_stmt, @params

Generate a SQL select statement and returns it as a query string and a list of values to be bound as parameters. Internally, this sql_ method is used by the fetch_ and visit_ methods above, and calls any of the other sql_ methods necessary.

sql_where()
  $sqldb->sql_where( $criteria, $sql, @params ) : $sql, @params

Modifies the SQL statement and parameters list provided to append the specified criteria as a where clause. Triggered by use of a where or criteria clause in a call to sql_select(), sql_update(), or sql_delete().

The criteria may be a literal SQL where clause (everything after the word "where"), or a reference to an array of a SQL string with embedded placeholders followed by the values that should be bound to those placeholders.

If the criteria argument is a reference to hash, it is treated as a set of field-name => value pairs, and a SQL expression is created that requires each one of the named fields to exactly match the value provided for it, or if the value is an array reference to match any one of the array's contents; see DBIx::SQLEngine::Criteria::HashGroup for details.

Alternately, if the criteria argument is a reference to an object which supports a sql_where() method, the results of that method will be used; see DBIx::SQLEngine::Criteria for classes with this behavior.

If no SQL statement or parameters are provided, this just returns the where clause and associated parameters. If a SQL statement is provided, the where clauses is appended to it; if the SQL statement already includes a where clause, the additional criteria are inserted into the existing statement and AND'ed together with the existing criteria.

sql_escape_text_for_like()
  $sqldb->sql_escape_text_for_like ( $text ) : $escaped_expr

Fails with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

Subclasses should, based on the datasource's server_type, protect a literal value for use in a like expression.

sql_join()
  $sqldb->sql_join( $table1, $table2, ... ) : $sql, @params
  $sqldb->sql_join( \%table_names_and_criteria ) : $sql, @params
  $sqldb->sql_join( $table1, \%criteria, $table2 ) : $sql, @params
  $sqldb->sql_join( $table1, $join_type=>\%criteria, $table2 ) : $sql, @params

Processes one or more table names to create the "from" clause of a select statement. Table names may appear in succession for normal "cross joins", or you may specify a "complex join" by placing an inner or outer joining operation between them.

A joining operation consists of a string containing the word join, followed by an array reference or hash reference that specifies the criteria. The string should be one of the types of joins supported by your database, typically the following: "cross join", "inner join", "outer join", "left outer join", "right outer join". Any underscores in the string are converted to spaces, making it easier to use as an unquoted string.

The joining criteria can be an array reference of a string containing a bit SQL followed by any necessary placeholder parameters, or a hash reference which will be converted to SQL with the DBIx::SQLEngine::Criteria package.

If an array reference is used as a table name, its contents are evaluated by being passed to another call to sql_join, and then the results are treated as a parenthesized expression.

If a hash reference is used as a table name, its contents are evaluated as criteria in "table1.column1" => "table2.column2" format. The table names and criteria are passed to another call to sql_join, and then the results are treated as a parenthesized expression.

Portability: While the cross and inner joins are widely supported, the various outer join capabilities are only present in some databases. Subclasses may provide a degree of emulation; for one implementation of this, see DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver::Trait::NoComplexJoins.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the join feature.

  • Here's a simple inner join of two tables, using a hash ref to express the linkage:
      $hashes = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        tables => { 'students.id' => 'grades.student_id' },
        order => 'students.name'
      );
  • You can also use bits of SQL to express the linkage between two tables:
      $hashes = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        tables => [ 
          'students', 
            INNER_JOIN=>['students.id = grades.student_id'], 
          'grades'
        ],
        order => 'students.name'
      );
  • Any number of tables can be joined in this fashion:
      $hashes = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        tables => [ 
          'students', 
            INNER_JOIN=>['students.id = grades.student_id'], 
          'grades',
            INNER_JOIN=>['classes.id  = grades.class_id'  ], 
          'classes',
        ],
        order => 'students.name'
      );
  • Here's yet another way of expressing a join, using a join type and a hash of criteria:
      $hashes = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        tables => [ 
          'students', INNER_JOIN=>{ 'students.id'=>\'grades.student_id' }, 'grades'
        ],
        order => 'students.name'
      );

    Note that we're using a backslash in our criteria hash again to make it clear that we're looking for tuples where the students.id column matches that the grades.student_id column, rather than trying to match the literal string 'grades.student_id'.

  • The inner join shown above is equivalent to a typical cross join with the same joining criteria:
      $hashes = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        tables => [ 'students', 'grades' ], 
        where => { 'students.id' => \'grades.student_id' },
        order => 'students.name'
      );
  • You can use nested array references to produce grouped join expressions:
      $hashes = $sqldb->fetch_select( table => [
        [ 'table1', INNER_JOIN=>{ 'table1.foo' => \'table2.foo' }, 'table2' ],
          OUTER_JOIN=>{ 'table1.bar' => \'table3.bar' },
        [ 'table3', INNER_JOIN=>{ 'table3.baz' => \'table4.baz' }, 'table4' ],
      ] );
  • You can also simply pass in your own arbitrary join as text:
      $hashes = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        tables => 'students OUTER JOIN grades ON students.id = grades.student_id', 
        order => 'students.name'
      );
sql_limit()
  $sqldb->sql_limit( $limit, $offset, $sql, @params ) : $sql, @params

Modifies the SQL statement and parameters list provided to apply the specified limit and offset requirements. Triggered by use of a limit or offset clause in a call to sql_select().

Portability: Limit and offset clauses are handled differently by various DBMS platforms. For example, MySQL accepts "limit 20,10", Postgres "limit 10 offset 20", and Oracle requires a nested select with rowcount. The sql_limit method can be overridden by subclasses to adjust this behavior.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the limit feature.

  • This query return records 101 through 120 from an alphabetical list:
      $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        table => 'students', order => 'last_name, first_name',
        limit => 20, offset => 100,    
      );
sql_union()
  $sqldb->sql_union( \%clauses_1, \%clauses_2, ... ) : $sql, @params

Returns a combined select query using the union operator between the SQL statements produced by calling sql_select() with each of the provided arrays of arguments. Triggered by use of a union clause in a call to sql_select().

Portability: Union queries are only supported by some databases. Croaks if the dbms_union_unsupported() capability method is set. Subclasses may provide a degree of emulation; for one implementation of this, see DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver::Trait::NoUnions.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the union feature.

  • A union can combine any mixture of queries with generated clauses:
      $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        union=>[ { table=>'students', columns=>'first_name, last_name' },
                 { table=>'staff',    columns=>'name_f, name_l' }, ],
      );
  • Unions can also combine plain SQL strings:
      $hash_ary = $sqldb->fetch_select( 
        union=>[ { sql=>'select first_name, last_name from students' },
                 { sql=>'select name_f, name_l from staff' },  ],
      );

EDITING DATA (SQL DML) ^

Information in a DBI database is entered and modified through the Data Manipulation Language features of SQL.

Insert to Add Data

Public Methods: You can perform database INSERTs with these methods.

do_insert()
  $sqldb->do_insert( %sql_clauses ) : $row_count

Insert a single row into a table in the datasource. Should return 1, unless there's an exception.

do_bulk_insert()
  $sqldb->do_bulk_insert( %sql_clauses, values => [ @array_or_hash_refs ] ) : $row_count

Inserts several rows into a table. Returns the number of rows inserted.

This is provided so that drivers which have alternate bulk-loader interfaces can hook into that support here, and to allow specialty options like statements_per_transaction = 100> in order to optimize performance on servers such as Oracle, where auto-committing one statement at a time is slow.

Internal Methods: The following method is called by do_insert() and does not need to be called directly.

sql_insert()
  $sqldb->sql_insert ( %sql_clauses ) : $sql_stmt, @params

Generate a SQL insert statement and returns it as a query string and a list of values to be bound as parameters. Internally, this sql_ method is used by the do_ method above.

SQL Insert Clauses: The above insert methods accept a hash describing the clauses of the SQL statement they are to generate, and require a value for one or more of the following keys:

'sql'

Optional; overrides all other arguments. May contain a plain SQL statement to be executed, or a reference to an array of a SQL statement followed by parameters for embedded placeholders.

'named_query'

Uses the named_query catalog to build the query. May contain a defined query name, or a reference to an array of a query name followed by parameters to be handled by interpret_named_query. See "NAMED QUERY CATALOG" for details.

'table'

Required. The name of the table to insert into.

'columns'

Optional; defaults to '*'. May contain a comma-separated string of column names, or an reference to an array of column names, or a reference to a hash whose keys contain the column names, or a reference to an object with a "column_names" method.

'values'

Required. May contain a string with one or more comma-separated quoted values or expressions in SQL format, or a reference to an array of values to insert in order, or a reference to a hash whose values are to be inserted. If an array or hash reference is used, each value may either be a scalar to be used as a literal value (passed via placeholder), or a reference to a scalar to be used directly (such as a sql function or other non-literal expression).

'sequence'

Optional. May contain a string with the name of a column in the target table which should receive an automatically incremented value. If present, triggers use of the DMBS-specific do_insert_with_sequence() method, described below.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the insert feature.

Internal Methods: The following methods are called by do_insert() and do not need to be called directly.

do_insert_with_sequence()
  $sqldb->do_insert_with_sequence( $seq_name, %sql_clauses ) : $row_count

Insert a single row into a table in the datasource, using a sequence to fill in the values of the column named in the first argument. Should return 1, unless there's an exception.

Fails with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

Portability: Auto-incrementing sequences are handled differently by various DBMS platforms. For example, the MySQL and MSSQL subclasses use auto-incrementing fields, Oracle and Pg use server-specific sequence objects, and AnyData and CSV lack this capability, which can be emulated with an ad-hoc table of incrementing values.

To standardize their use, this package defines an interface with several typical methods which may or may not be supported by individual subclasses. You may need to consult the documentation for the SQLEngine Driver subclass and DBMS platform you're using to confirm that the sequence functionality you need is available.

Drivers which don't support native sequences may provide a degree of emulation; for one implementation of this, see DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver::Trait::NoSequences.

Subclasses will probably want to call either the _seq_do_insert_preinc() method or the _seq_do_insert_postfetch() method, and define the appropriate other seq_* methods to support them. These two methods are not part of the public interface but instead provide a template for the two most common types of insert-with-sequence behavior. The _seq_do_insert_preinc() method first obtaines a new number from the sequence using seq_increment(), and then performs a normal do_insert(). The _seq_do_insert_postfetch() method performs a normal do_insert() and then fetches the resulting value that was automatically incremented using seq_fetch_current().

seq_fetch_current()
  $sqldb->seq_fetch_current( $table, $field ) : $current_value

Fetches the current sequence value.

Fails with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

seq_increment()
  $sqldb->seq_increment( $table, $field ) : $new_value

Increments the sequence, and returns the newly allocated value.

Fails with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

Update to Change Data

Public Methods: You can perform database UPDATEs with these methods.

do_update()
  $sqldb->do_update( %sql_clauses ) : $row_count

Modify one or more rows in a table in the datasource.

Internal Methods: These methods are called by the public update method.

sql_update()
  $sqldb->sql_update ( %sql_clauses ) : $sql_stmt, @params

Generate a SQL update statement and returns it as a query string and a list of values to be bound as parameters. Internally, this sql_ method is used by the do_ method above.

SQL Update Clauses: The above update methods accept a hash describing the clauses of the SQL statement they are to generate, and require a value for one or more of the following keys:

'sql'

Optional; conflicts with table, columns and values arguments. May contain a plain SQL statement to be executed, or a reference to an array of a SQL statement followed by parameters for embedded placeholders.

'named_query'

Uses the named_query catalog to build the query. May contain a defined query name, or a reference to an array of a query name followed by parameters to be handled by interpret_named_query. See "NAMED QUERY CATALOG" for details.

'table'

Required unless sql argument is used. The name of the table to update.

'columns'

Optional unless sql argument is used. Defaults to '*'. May contain a comma-separated string of column names, or an reference to an array of column names, or a reference to a hash whose keys contain the column names, or a reference to an object with a "column_names" method.

'values'

Required unless sql argument is used. May contain a string with one or more comma-separated quoted values or expressions in SQL format, or a reference to an array of values to insert in order, or a reference to a hash whose values are to be inserted. If an array or hash reference is used, each value may either be a scalar to be used as a literal value (passed via placeholder), or a reference to a scalar to be used directly (such as a sql function or other non-literal expression).

'where' or 'criteria'

Optional, but remember that ommitting this will cause all of your rows to be updated! May contain a literal SQL where clause, an array ref with a SQL clause and parameter list, a hash of field => value pairs, or an object that supports a sql_where() method. See the sql_where() method for details.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the update feature.

Delete to Remove Data

Public Methods: You can perform database DELETEs with these methods.

do_delete()
  $sqldb->do_delete( %sql_clauses ) : $row_count

Delete one or more rows in a table in the datasource.

Internal Methods: These methods are called by the public delete methods.

sql_delete()
  $sqldb->sql_delete ( %sql_clauses ) : $sql_stmt, @params

Generate a SQL delete statement and returns it as a query string and a list of values to be bound as parameters. Internally, this sql_ method is used by the do_ method above.

SQL Delete Clauses: The above delete methods accept a hash describing the clauses of the SQL statement they are to generate, and require a value for one or more of the following keys:

'sql'

Optional; conflicts with 'table' argument. May contain a plain SQL statement to be executed, or a reference to an array of a SQL statement followed by parameters for embedded placeholders.

'named_query'

Uses the named_query catalog to build the query. May contain a defined query name, or a reference to an array of a query name followed by parameters to be handled by interpret_named_query. See "NAMED QUERY CATALOG" for details.

'table'

Required unless explicit "sql => ..." is used. The name of the table to delete from.

'where' or 'criteria'

Optional, but remember that ommitting this will cause all of your rows to be deleted! May contain a literal SQL where clause, an array ref with a SQL clause and parameter list, a hash of field => value pairs, or an object that supports a sql_where() method. See the sql_where() method for details.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the delete feature.

NAMED QUERY CATALOG ^

The following methods manage a collection of named query definitions.

Defining Named Queries

Public Methods: Call these methods to load your query definitions.

define_named_queries()
  $sqldb->define_named_query( $query_name, $query_info )
  $sqldb->define_named_queries( $query_name, $query_info, ... )
  $sqldb->define_named_queries( %query_names_and_info )

Defines one or more named queries using the names and definitions provided.

The definition for each query is expected to be in one of the following formats:

  • A literal SQL string. May contain "?" placeholders whose values will be passed as arguments when the query is run.
  • A reference to an array of a SQL string and placeholder parameters. Parameters which should later be replaced by per-query arguments can be represented by references to the special Perl variables $1, $2, $3, and so forth, corresponding to the order and number of parameters to be supplied.
  • A reference to a hash of clauses supported by one of the SQL generation methods. Items which should later be replaced by per-query arguments can be represented by references to the special Perl variables $1, $2, $3, and so forth.
  • A reference to a subroutine or code block which will process the user-supplied arguments and return either a SQL statement, a reference to an array of a SQL statement and associated parameters, or a list of key-value pairs to be used as clauses by the SQL generation methods.
define_named_queries_from_text()
  $sqldb->define_named_queries_from_text($query_name, $query_info_text)
  $sqldb->define_named_queries_from_text(%query_names_and_info_text)

Defines one or more queries, using some special processing to facilitate storing dynamic query definitions in an external source such as a text file or database table.

The interpretation of each definition is determined by its first non-whitespace character:

  • Definitions which begin with a [ or { character are presumed to contain an array or hash definition and are evaluated immediately.
  • Definitions which begin with a " or ; character are presumed to contain a code definition and evaluated as the contents of an anonymous subroutine.
  • Other definitions are assumed to contain a plain SQL statement.

All evaluations are done via a Safe compartment, which is required when this function is first used, so the code is extremely limited and can not call most other functions.

Interpreting Named Queries

Internal Methods: These methods are called internally when named queries are used.

named_queries()
  $sqldb->named_queries() : %query_names_and_info
  $sqldb->named_queries( $query_name ) : $query_info
  $sqldb->named_queries( \@query_names ) : @query_info
  $sqldb->named_queries( $query_name, $query_info, ... )
  $sqldb->named_queries( \%query_names_and_info )

Accessor and mutator for a hash mappping query names to their definitions. Used internally by the other named_query methods. Created with Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Inheritable, so if called as a class method, uses class-wide values, and if called on an instance defaults to its class' value but may be overridden.

named_query()
  $sqldb->named_query( $query_name ) : $query_info

Retrieves the query definition matching the name provided. Croaks if no query has been defined for that name.

interpret_named_query()
  $sqldb->interpret_named_query( $query_name, @params ) : %clauses

Combines the query definition matching the name provided with the following arguments and returns the resulting hash of query clauses. Croaks if no query has been defined for that name.

Depending on the definition associated with the name, it is combined with the provided parameters in one the following ways:

  • A string. Any user-supplied parameters are assumed to be values for embedded "?"-style placeholders. Any parameters passed to interpret_named_query() are collected with the SQL statement in an array reference and returned as the value of a sql key pair for execution. There is no check that the number of parameters match the number of placeholders.
  • A reference to an array, possibly with embedded placeholders in the \$1 style described above. Uses clone_with_parameters() to make and return a copy of the array, substituting the connection parameters in place of the placeholder references. The array reference is returned as the value of a sql key pair for execution. An exception is thrown if the number of parameters provided does not match the number of special variables referred to.
  • A reference to an hash, possibly with embedded placeholders in the \$1 style described above. Uses clone_with_parameters() to make and return a copy of the hash, substituting the connection parameters in place of the placeholder references. An exception is thrown if the number of parameters provided does not match the number of special variables referred to.
  • A reference to a subroutine. The parameters are passed along to the subroutine and its results returned for execution. The subroutine may return a SQL statement, a reference to an array of a SQL statement and associated parameters, or a list of key-value pairs to be used as clauses by the SQL generation methods.

For more information about the parameter replacement and argument count checking, see the clone_with_parameters() function from DBIx::SQLEngine::Utility::CloneWithParams.

See the Examples section below for illustrations of these various options.

Executing Named Queries

Typically, named queries are executed by passing a named_query argument to one of the primary interface methods such as fetch_select or do_insert, but there are also several convenience methods for use when you know you will only be using named queries.

Public Methods: These methods provide a simple way to use named queries.

fetch_named_query()
  $sqldb->fetch_named_query( $query_name, @params ) : $rows
  $sqldb->fetch_named_query( $query_name, @params ) : ( $rows, $columns )

Calls fetch_select using the named query and arguments provided.

visit_named_query()
  $sqldb->visit_named_query($query_name, @params, $code) : @results
  $sqldb->visit_named_query($code, $query_name, @params) : @results

Calls visit_select using the named query and arguments provided.

do_named_query()
  $sqldb->do_named_query( $query_name, @params ) : $row_count

Calls do_query using the named query and arguments provided.

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the named_query feature.

DEFINING STRUCTURES (SQL DDL) ^

The schema of a DBI database is controlled through the Data Definition Language features of SQL.

Detect Tables and Columns

Public Methods: These methods provide information about existing tables.

detect_table_names()
  $sqldb->detect_table_names () : @table_names

Attempts to collect a list of the available tables in the database we have connected to. Uses the DBI tables() method.

detect_table()
  $sqldb->detect_table ( $tablename ) : @columns_or_empty
  $sqldb->detect_table ( $tablename, 1 ) : @columns_or_empty

Attempts to query the given table without retrieving many (or any) rows. Uses a server-specific "trivial" or "guaranteed" query provided by sql_detect_any.

If succssful, the columns contained in this table are returned as an array of hash references, as described in the Column Information section below.

Catches any exceptions; if the query fails for any reason we return an empty list. The reason for the failure is logged via warn() unless an additional argument with a true value is passed to surpress those error messages.

Internal Methods: These methods are called by the public detect methods.

sql_detect_table()
  $sqldb->sql_detect_table ( $tablename )  : %sql_select_clauses

Subclass hook. Retrieve something from the given table that is guaranteed to exist but does not return many rows, without knowning its table structure.

Defaults to "select * from table where 1 = 0", which may not work on all platforms. Your subclass might prefer "select * from table limit 1" or a local equivalent.

Create and Drop Tables

Public Methods: These methods attempt to create and drop tables.

create_table()
  $sqldb->create_table( $tablename, $column_hash_ary ) 

Create a table.

The columns to be created in this table are defined as an array of hash references, as described in the Column Information section below.

drop_table()
  $sqldb->drop_table( $tablename ) 

Delete the named table.

Column Information: The information about columns is presented as an array of hash references, each containing the following keys:

Internal Methods: The above public methods use the following sql_ methods to generate SQL DDL statements.

sql_create_table()
  $sqldb->sql_create_table ($tablename, $columns) : $sql_stmt

Generate a SQL create-table statement based on the column information. Text columns are checked with sql_create_column_text_length() to provide server-appropriate types.

sql_create_columns()
  $sqldb->sql_create_columns( $column, $fragment_array_ref ) : $sql_fragment

Generates the SQL fragment to define a column in a create table statement.

sql_drop_table()
  $sqldb->sql_drop_table ($tablename) : $sql_stmt

Column Type Methods

The following methods are used by sql_create_table to specify column information in a DBMS-specific fashion.

Internal Methods: These methods are used to build create table statements.

sql_create_column_type()
  $sqldb->sql_create_column_type ( $table, $column, $columns ) : $col_type_str

Returns an appropriate

dbms_create_column_types()
  $sqldb->dbms_create_column_types () : %column_type_codes

Subclass hook. Defaults to empty. Should return a hash mapping column type codes to the specific strings used in a SQL create statement for such a column.

Subclasses should provide at least two entries, for the symbolic types referenced elsewhere in this interface, "sequential" and "binary".

sql_create_column_text_length()
  $sqldb->sql_create_column_text_length ( $length ) : $col_type_str

Returns "varchar(length)" for values under 256, otherwise calls dbms_create_column_text_long_type.

dbms_create_column_text_long_type()
  $sqldb->dbms_create_column_text_long_type () : $col_type_str

Fails with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

Subclasses should, based on the datasource's server_type, return the appropriate type of column for long text values, such as "BLOB", "TEXT", "LONGTEXT", or "MEMO".

Generating Schema and Record Objects

The object mapping layer provides classes for Record, Table and Column objects which fetch and store information from a SQLEngine Driver.

Those objects relies on a Driver, typically passed to their constructor or initializer. The following convenience methods let you start this process from your current SQLEngine Driver object.

Public Methods: The following methods provide access to objects which represent tables, columns and records in a given Driver. They each ensure the necessary classes are loaded using require().

tables()
  $sqldb->tables() : $tableset

Returns a new DBIx::SQLEngine::Schema::TableSet object containing table objects with the names discovered by detect_table_names(). See DBIx::SQLEngine::Schema::TableSet for more information on this object's interface.

table()
  $sqldb->table( $tablename ) : $table

Returns a new DBIx::SQLEngine::Schema::Table object with this SQLEngine Driver and the given table name. See DBIx::SQLEngine::Schema::Table for more information on this object's interface.

record_class()
  $sqldb->record_class( $tablename ) : $record_class
  $sqldb->record_class( $tablename, $classname ) : $record_class
  $sqldb->record_class( $tablename, $classname, @traits ) : $record_class

Generates a Record::Class which corresponds to the given table name. Note that the record class is a class name, not an object. If no class name is provided, one is generated based on the table name. See DBIx::SQLEngine::Record::Base for more information on this object's interface.

ADVANCED CAPABILITIES ^

Not all of the below capabilities will be available on all database servers.

For application reliability, call the relevant *_unsupported methods to confirm that the database you've connected to has the capabilities you require, and either exit with a warning or use some type of fallback strategy if they are not.

Database Capability Information

Note: this feature has been added recently, and the interface is subject to change.

The following methods all default to returning undef, but may be overridden by subclasses to return a true or false value, indicating whether their connection has this limitation.

Public Methods: These methods return driver class capability information.

dbms_detect_tables_unsupported()

Can the database driver return a list of tables that currently exist? (True for some simple drivers like CSV.)

dbms_joins_unsupported()

Does the database driver support select statements with joins across multiple tables? (True for some simple drivers like CSV.)

dbms_union_unsupported()

Does the database driver support select queries with unions to join the results of multiple select statements? (True for many simple databases.)

dbms_drop_column_unsupported()

Does the database driver have a problem removing a column from an existing table? (True for Postgres.)

dbms_column_types_unsupported()

Does the database driver store column type information, or are all columns the same type? (True for some simple drivers like CSV.)

dbms_null_becomes_emptystring()

Does the database driver automatically convert null values in insert and update statements to empty strings? (True for some simple drivers like CSV.)

dbms_emptystring_becomes_null()

Does the database driver automatically convert empty strings in insert and update statements to null values? (True for Oracle.)

dbms_placeholders_unsupported()

Does the database driver support having ? placehoders or not? (This is a problem for Linux users of DBD::Sybase connecting to MS SQL Servers on Windows.)

dbms_transactions_unsupported()

Does the database driver support real transactions with rollback and commit or not?

dbms_multi_sth_unsupported()

Does the database driver support having multiple statement handles active at once or not? (This is a problem for several types of drivers.)

dbms_indexes_unsupported()

Does the database driver support server-side indexes or not?

dbms_storedprocs_unsupported()

Does the database driver support server-side stored procedures or not?

Begin, Commit and Rollback Transactions

Note: this feature has been added recently, and the interface is subject to change.

DBIx::SQLEngine assumes auto-commit is on by default, so unless otherwise specified, each query is executed as a separate transaction. To execute multiple queries within a single transaction, use the as_one_transaction method.

Public Methods: These methods invoke transaction functionality.

are_transactions_supported()
  $boolean = $sqldb->are_transactions_supported( );

Checks to see if the database has transaction support.

as_one_transaction()
  @results = $sqldb->as_one_transaction( $sub_ref, @args );

Starts a transaction, calls the given subroutine with any arguments provided, and then commits the transaction; if an exception occurs, the transaction is rolled back instead. Will fail if we don't have transaction support.

For example:

  my $sqldb = DBIx::SQLEngine->new( ... );
  $sqldb->as_one_transaction( sub { 
    $sqldb->do_insert( ... );
    $sqldb->do_update( ... );
    $sqldb->do_delete( ... );
  } );

Or using a reference to a predefined subroutine:

  sub do_stuff {
    my $sqldb = shift;
    $sqldb->do_insert( ... );
    $sqldb->do_update( ... );
    $sqldb->do_delete( ... );
    1;
  }
  
  my $sqldb = DBIx::SQLEngine->new( ... );
  $sqldb->as_one_transaction( \&do_stuff, $sqldb )
    or warn "Unable to complete transaction";
as_one_transaction_if_supported()
  @results = $sqldb->as_one_transaction_if_supported($sub_ref, @args)

If transaction support is available, this is equivalent to as_one_transaction. If transactions are not supported, simply performs the code in $sub_ref with no transaction protection.

This is obviously not very reliable, but may be of use in some ad-hoc utilities or test scripts.

Create and Drop Indexes

Note: this feature has been added recently, and the interface is subject to change.

Public Methods: These methods create and drop indexes.

create_index()
  $sqldb->create_index( %clauses )
drop_index()
  $sqldb->drop_index( %clauses )

Internal Methods: These methods are called by the public index methods.

sql_create_index()
  $sqldb->sql_create_index( %clauses ) : $sql, @params
sql_drop_index()
  $sqldb->sql_drop_index( %clauses ) : $sql, @params

Examples: These samples demonstrate use of the index feature.

Call, Create and Drop Stored Procedures

Note: this feature has been added recently, and the interface is subject to change.

These methods are all subclass hooks. Fail with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

Public Methods: These methods create, drop, and use stored procedures.

fetch_storedproc()
  $sqldb->fetch_storedproc( $proc_name, @arguments ) : $rows
do_storedproc()
  $sqldb->do_storedproc( $proc_name, @arguments ) : $row_count
create_storedproc()
  $sqldb->create_storedproc( $proc_name, $definition )
drop_storedproc()
  $sqldb->drop_storedproc( $proc_name )

Create and Drop Databases

Note: this feature has been added recently, and the interface is subject to change.

Public Methods: These methods create and drop database partitions.

create_database()
  $sqldb->create_database( $db_name )

Fails with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

drop_database()
  $sqldb->drop_database( $db_name )

Fails with message "DBMS-Specific Function".

CONNECTION METHODS (DBI DBH) ^

The following methods manage the DBI database handle through which we communicate with the datasource.

Accessing the DBH

Public Methods: You may use these methods to perform your own low-level DBI access.

get_dbh()
  $sqldb->get_dbh () : $dbh

Get the current DBH

dbh_func()
  $sqldb->dbh_func ( $func_name, @args ) : @results

Calls the DBI func() method on the database handle returned by get_dbh, passing the provided function name and arguments. See the documentation for your DBD driver to learn which functions it supports.

Initialization and Reconnection

Internal Methods: These methods are invoked automatically.

_init()
  $sqldb->_init () 

Empty subclass hook. Called by DBIx::AnyDBD after connection is made and class hierarchy has been juggled.

reconnect()
  $sqldb->reconnect () 

Attempt to re-establish connection with original parameters

Checking For Connection

To determine if the connection is working.

Internal Methods: These methods are invoked automatically.

detect_any()
  $sqldb->detect_any () : $boolean
  $sqldb->detect_any ( 1 ) : $boolean

Attempts to confirm that values can be retreived from the database, allowing us to determine if the connection is working, using a server-specific "trivial" or "guaranteed" query provided by sql_detect_any.

Catches any exceptions; if the query fails for any reason we return a false value. The reason for the failure is logged via warn() unless an additional argument with a true value is passed to surpress those error messages.

sql_detect_any()
  $sqldb->sql_detect_any : %sql_select_clauses

Subclass hook. Retrieve something from the database that is guaranteed to exist. Defaults to SQL literal "select 1", which may not work on all platforms. Your database driver might prefer something else, like Oracle's "select 1 from dual".

check_or_reconnect()
  $sqldb->check_or_reconnect () : $dbh

Confirms the current DBH is available with detect_any() or calls reconnect().

STATEMENT METHODS (DBI STH) ^

The following methods manipulate DBI statement handles as part of processing queries and their results.

Portability: These methods allow arbitrary SQL statements to be executed. Note that no processing of the SQL query string is performed, so if you call these low-level functions it is up to you to ensure that the query is correct and will function as expected when passed to whichever data source the SQLEngine Driver is using.

Generic Query Execution

  $db->do_sql('insert into table values (?, ?)', 'A', 1);
  my $rows = $db->fetch_sql('select * from table where status = ?', 2);

Execute and fetch some kind of result from a given SQL statement. Internally, these methods are used by the other do_, fetch_ and visit_ methods described above. Each one calls the try_query method with the provided query and parameters, and passes the name of a result method to be used in extracting values from the statement handle.

Public Methods:

do_sql()
  $sqldb->do_sql ($sql, @params) : $rowcount 

Execute a SQL query by sending it to the DBI connection, and returns the number of rows modified, or -1 if unknown.

fetch_sql()
  $sqldb->fetch_sql ($sql, @params) : $row_hash_ary
  $sqldb->fetch_sql ($sql, @params) : ( $row_hash_ary, $columnset )

Execute a SQL query by sending it to the DBI connection, and returns any rows that were produced, as an array of hashrefs, with the values in each entry keyed by column name. If called in a list context, also returns a reference to an array of information about the columns returned by the query.

fetch_sql_rows()
  $sqldb->fetch_sql_rows ($sql, @params) : $row_ary_ary
  $sqldb->fetch_sql_rows ($sql, @params) : ( $row_ary_ary, $columnset )

Execute a SQL query by sending it to the DBI connection, and returns any rows that were produced, as an array of arrayrefs, with the values in each entry keyed by column order. If called in a list context, also returns a reference to an array of information about the columns returned by the query.

visit_sql()
  $sqldb->visit_sql ($coderef, $sql, @params) : @results
  $sqldb->visit_sql ($sql, @params, $coderef) : @results

Similar to fetch_sql, but calls your coderef on each row, passing it as a hashref, and returns the results of each of those calls. For your convenience, will accept a coderef as either the first or the last argument.

visit_sql_rows()
  $sqldb->visit_sql ($coderef, $sql, @params) : @results
  $sqldb->visit_sql ($sql, @params, $coderef) : @results

Similar to fetch_sql, but calls your coderef on each row, passing it as a list of values, and returns the results of each of those calls. For your convenience, will accept a coderef as either the first or the last argument.

fetchsub_sql()
  $sqldb->fetchsub_sql ($sql, @params) : $coderef

Execute a SQL query by sending it to the DBI connection, and returns a code reference that can be called repeatedly to invoke the fetchrow_hashref() method on the statement handle.

fetchsub_sql_rows()
  $sqldb->fetchsub_sql_rows ($sql, @params) : $coderef

Execute a SQL query by sending it to the DBI connection, and returns a code reference that can be called repeatedly to invoke the fetchrow_array() method on the statement handle.

Statement Error Handling

Internal Methods:

try_query()
  $sqldb->try_query ( $sql, \@params, $result_method, @result_args ) : @results

Error handling wrapper around the internal execute_query method.

The $result_method should be the name of a method supported by that Driver instance, typically one of those shown in the "Retrieving Rows from an Executed Statement" section below. The @result_args, if any, are passed to the named method along with the active statement handle.

catch_query_exception()
  $sqldb->catch_query_exception ( $exception, $sql, \@params, 
                        $result_method, @result_args ) : $resolution

Exceptions are passed to catch_query_exception; if it returns "REDO" the query will be retried up to five times. The superclass checks the error message against the recoverable_query_exceptions; subclasses may wish to override this to provide specialized handling.

recoverable_query_exceptions()
  $sqldb->recoverable_query_exceptions() : @common_error_messages

Subclass hook. Defaults to empty. Subclasses may provide a list of error messages which represent common communication failures or other incidental errors.

Statement Handle Lifecycle

These are internal methods for query operations

Internal Methods:

execute_query()
  $sqldb->execute_query($sql, \@params, $result_method, @result_args) : @results

This overall lifecycle method calls prepare_execute(), runs the $result_method, and then calls done_with_query().

The $result_method should be the name of a method supported by that Driver instance, typically one of those shown in the "Retrieving Rows from an Executed Statement" section below. The @result_args, if any, are passed to the named method along with the active statement handle.

prepare_execute()
  $sqldb->prepare_execute ($sql, @params) : $sth

Prepare, bind, and execute a SQL statement to create a DBI statement handle.

Uses the DBI prepare_cached(), bind_param(), and execute() methods.

If you need to pass type information with your parameters, pass a reference to an array of the parameter and the type information.

done_with_query()
  $sqldb->done_with_query ($sth) : ()

Called when we're done with the $sth.

Retrieving Rows from a Statement

Internal Methods:

do_nothing()
  $sqldb->do_nothing ($sth) : ()

Does nothing.

get_execute_rowcount()
  $sqldb->get_execute_rowcount ($sth) : $row_count

Returns the row count reported by the last statement executed.

fetchall_hashref()
  $sqldb->fetchall_hashref ($sth) : $array_of_hashes

Calls the STH's fetchall_arrayref method with an empty hashref to retrieve all of the result rows into an array of hashrefs.

fetchall_hashref_columns()
  $sqldb->fetchall_hashref ($sth) : $array_of_hashes
  $sqldb->fetchall_hashref ($sth) : ( $array_of_hashes, $column_info )

Calls the STH's fetchall_arrayref method with an empty hashref, and if called in a list context, also retrieves information about the columns used in the query result set.

fetchall_arrayref()
  $sqldb->fetchall_arrayref ($sth) : $array_of_arrays

Calls the STH's fetchall_arrayref method to retrieve all of the result rows into an array of arrayrefs.

fetchall_arrayref_columns()
  $sqldb->fetchall_hashref ($sth) : $array_of_arrays
  $sqldb->fetchall_hashref ($sth) : ( $array_of_arrays, $column_info )

Calls the STH's fetchall_arrayref method, and if called in a list context, also retrieves information about the columns used in the query result set.

visitall_hashref()
  $sqldb->visitall_hashref ($sth, $coderef) : ()

Calls coderef on each row with values as hashref, and returns a list of results.

visitall_array()
  $sqldb->visitall_array ($sth, $coderef) : ()

Calls coderef on each row with values as list, and returns a list of results.

fetchsub_hashref()
  $sqldb->fetchsub_hashref ($sth, $name_uc_or_lc) : $coderef

Returns a code reference that can be called repeatedly to invoke the fetchrow_hashref() method on the statement handle.

The code reference is blessed so that when it goes out of scope and is destroyed it can call the statement handle's finish() method.

fetchsub_array()
  $sqldb->fetchsub_hashref ($sth) : $coderef

Returns a code reference that can be called repeatedly to invoke the fetchrow_array() method on the statement handle.

The code reference is blessed so that when it goes out of scope and is destroyed it can call the statement handle's finish() method.

Retrieving Columns from a Statement

Internal Methods:

retrieve_columns()
  $sqldb->retrieve_columns ($sth) : $columnset

Obtains information about the columns used in the result set.

column_type_codes()
  $sqldb->column_type_codes - Standard::Global:hash

Maps the ODBC numeric constants used by DBI to the names we want to use for simplified internal representation.

To Do: this should probably be using DBI's type_info methods.

LOGGING ^

DBI Logging

Public Methods:

DBILogging()
  $sqldb->DBILogging : $value
  $sqldb->DBILogging( $value )

Set this to a true value to turn on logging of DBI interactions. Can be called on the class to set a shared default for all instances, or on any instance to set the value for it alone.

Internal Methods:

log_connect()
  $sqldb->log_connect ( $dsn )

Writes out connection logging message.

log_start()
  $sqldb->log_start( $sql ) : $timer

Called at start of query execution.

log_stop()
  $sqldb->log_stop( $timer ) : ()

Called at end of query execution.

SQL Logging

Public Methods:

SQLLogging()
  $sqldb->SQLLogging () : $value 
  $sqldb->SQLLogging( $value )

Set this to a true value to turn on logging of internally-generated SQL statements (all queries except for those with complete SQL statements explicitly passed in by the caller). Can be called on the class to set a shared default for all instances, or on any instance to set the value for it alone.

Internal Methods:

log_sql()
  $sqldb->log_sql( $sql ) : ()

Called when SQL is generated.

About Driver Traits

Some features that are shared by several Driver subclasses are implemented as a package in the Driver::Trait::* namespace.

Because of the way DBIx::AnyDBD munges the inheritance tree, DBIx::SQLEngine::Driver subclasses can not reliably inherit from mixins. To work around this, we export all of the methods into their namespace using Exporter and @EXPORT.

In addition we go through some effort to re-dispatch methods because we can't rely on SUPER and we don't want to require NEXT. This isn't too complicated, as we know the munged inheritance tree only uses single inheritance.

Note: this mechanism has been added recently, and the implementation is subject to change.

Internal Methods:

NEXT()
  $sqldb->NEXT( $method, @args ) : @results

Used by driver traits to redispatch to base-class implementations.

SEE ALSO ^

See DBIx::SQLEngine for the overall interface and developer documentation.

For distribution, installation, support, copyright and license information, see DBIx::SQLEngine::Docs::ReadMe.

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