Beau E. Cox > Env-Bash > lib/Env/README-sorcerer.pod

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USING PERL TO ADMINISTER LINUX SORCERER ^

I am a confirmed Sorcerer Linux SA ( see http://sorcerer.wox.org ). For several years now I have been steadily building up my base of Sorcerer installations ( eat your heart out Billy G. ), and have found it to be fast, lean, reliable, and down right fun to maintain. My users are happy, so I am happy.

I have been seriously using Linux for about four years now, having come from the Microsoft world. Before I started using and administrating Linux I was one of Microsoft's minions and thought if the software didn't cost a lot of money and have the funny 'window' picture on the box, it was really just for amateurs and geeks. Not so, as I and many of you have discovered.

Perl, for me, is a different story. I have been a 'serious' perl monger for almost ten years, reaching back to my Windows days. I am still more productive in perl than bash. When I started writing perl scripts to help me administer Sorcerer, I ran into the problem that the environment variables on which Sorcerer so heavily depends, are 'sourced' into the bash environment from /etc/sorcery/config. It is very hard to access them from perl. And variables that are bash arrays, good luck! Try this:

  # . /etc/sorcery/config && \
        perl -e 'print "$_ => $ENV{$_}\n" for sort keys %ENV'

Look at the result. Yep, nary a Sorcerer variable appears. Now try:

  # . /etc/sorcery/config
  # export GRIMOIRE
  # perl -e 'print "$_ => $ENV{$_}\n" for sort keys %ENV'

Yep, GRIMORE appears in the output. So I had to write bash scripts to source /etc/sorcery/config, export the variables I wanted to use, and run my perl script. That got old quickly. And I still didn't have a good way to get to bash arrays.

I have developed a solution, based on the CPAN module Env::Bash. Please take a moment to glance at the documentation before continuing.

A SIMPLE EXAMPLE ^

I have written a small, more or less useless, perl script using Env::Bash with Sorcerer. The source is scripts/show-spell.pl in the module's distribution. The script can list the spells in the grimoire and/or display spell details:

  perl scripts/show-spell [-d] [-l] [<spell> ...]

where:

  -d      shows internal debugging information
  -l      lists spells in the grimoire
  <spell> display details of one or more spells.

If the script is started without any arguments, spell linux is displayed.

Here is a blow-by-blow description of show-spell.pl

Starting

  #!/usr/bin/perl
  
  use warnings;
  use strict;
  use Env::Bash;
  use Data::Dumper;
  use Getopt::Std;
  
  my %opt;
  unless (getopts('dl', \%opt)) {
      usage();
  }

Pretty standard; options are handled too.

tie a HASH to the Environment

  # tie a hash to /etc/sorcery/config, no ForceArray
  my %env = ();
  tie %env, "Env::Bash", Source => "/etc/sorcery/config",
      Debug => $opt{d};

This is the easiest way to interface to Env::Bash ( there is a simple, standard interface and an oo interface which are fully discussed in the module's documentation ). The tie statement says to interface to the environment through hash %env, with the option Source ( the script or list of scripts to source ), and conditionally set internal debugging. More on ForceArray below.

Find the GRIMOIRE directory

  # find the GRIMOIRE directory
  my $grimoire = $env{GRIMOIRE} || die "cannot find GRIMOIRE\n";

This is the first real use of the module; the grimoire directory ( defined in /etc/sorcery/config ), is returned.

Perl code to list the GRIMOIRE and display spells

  # display spells in the grimoire if option -l
  if( $opt{l} ) {
      print "---spells in grimoire-------------------------\n";
      my @spells = ();
      for my $spell( <$grimoire/*> ) {
          $spell =~ s,.*/,,;
          push @spells, $spell;
      }
      print "$_\n" for sort @spells;
  }
  
  # show spells on command line, or linux if none given
  show_spell( $_ ) for @ARGV;
  show_spell( 'linux' ) unless @ARGV || $opt{l};

Just perl code.

show-spell subroutine

  sub show_spell
  {
      my $spell = shift;
    
      # find the spell and DETAILS
      unless( -e "$grimoire/$spell" ) {
          warn "Spell '$spell' not found.\n";
          return;
      }
      my $details = -d _ ? "$grimoire/$spell/DETAILS" : "$grimoire/$spell";
      unless( -e "$details" ) {
          warn "Spell '$spell' DETAILS not found.\n";
          return;
      }
  
      # tie a hash to /etc/sorcery/config and DETAILS w/ForceArray
      my %env = ();
      tie %env, "Env::Bash",
      [],
      Source => [ "/etc/sorcery/config", $details ],
      Debug => $opt{d};
  
      print "---$spell-------------------------------------\n";
      show_detail( VERSION   => \%env );
      show_detail( CATEGORY  => \%env );
      show_detail( ATTRIBUTE => \%env );
      show_detail( SOURCE    => \%env );
      show_detail( URL       => \%env );
      show_detail( HOMEPAGE  => \%env );
      show_detail( REQ       => \%env );
      show_detail( PROTECT   => \%env );
      show_detail( ESTIMATE  => \%env );
      show_detail( DESC      => \%env );
  }

Here we do another tie for two reasons: 1) we want to source the spell's DETAILS script as well as /etc/sorcery/config, and 2) we want to be able to access any variables that are bash arrays - like VERSION. The Source option to the tie is a list reference - that's how Env::Bash knows how to use more than one source script. To access the environment, the module constructs a mini bash script, which in this case would be something like:

  #!/bin/sh
  . /etc/sorcery/config;. /var/state/sorcery/grimoire/<spell>/DETAILS;set

The script is run by forking via backtics and the set output is parsed to get a list of environment names. Turn on debugging ( -d ) if you really want to see the the script.

To access bash arrays, the ForceArray option ( shortcut: [] ) is specified. The module again creates and runs a bash script that returns all elements of any bash arrays; the results are stored in the tied hash as an array reference, whether or not the variable is a bash array. Again, for the more curious, look at what's happening by turning on debugging.

Show spell details

  sub show_detail
  {
      my( $name, $env ) = @_;
  
      # get the requested detail ( return is an array because the
      # the $env hash was tied with ForceArray ( [] ).
      my $values = $env->{$name};
  
      # print each detail
      my $eq = '=';
      for my $value( @$values ) {
          $value = join( "\n".' ' x 14, split /\n/, $value )
              if $value =~ /\n/s;
          printf "%12s%1s\"%s\"\n", $name, $eq, $value;
          $name = $eq = '';
      }
  }

Now we get the variable from the tied hash. As mentioned above, each hash element is an array reference ( because ForceArray was specified ). The resulting values are manipulated and printed.

usage subroutine

  sub usage
  {
      my $progname = $0;
      $progname =~ s,.*/,,;    # only basename left in progname
      die "Usage: $progname [-d] [-l] <spell> [<spell> ...]\n";
  }

Summary

OK, so you now have a script the demonstrates the use of Env::Bash. I admit it's slower and much harder than a few bash ls and cat commands, but that's not the point. Env::Bash has proved to open up Sorcerer to perl; I have written some perl scripts that are, in fact, useful; I will try to get them posted my my home page ( currently not available as I write this - December 2004 ) and let you know on the Sorcerer list. I hope you can find some use for Env::Bash.

AUTHOR ^

Beau E. Cox, <beaucox@hawaii.rr.com>.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE ^

Copyright (C) 2004 by Beau E. Cox.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.8.6 or, at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.

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