Paul Evans > IO-Async > IO::Async::Notifier

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NAME ^

IO::Async::Notifier - base class for IO::Async event objects

SYNOPSIS ^

Usually not directly used by a program, but one valid use case may be:

 use IO::Async::Notifier;

 use IO::Async::Stream;
 use IO::Async::Signal;

 use IO::Async::Loop;
 my $loop = IO::Async::Loop->new;

 my $notifier = IO::Async::Notifier->new;

 $notifier->add_child(
    IO::Async::Stream->new_for_stdin(
       on_read => sub {
          my $self = shift;
          my ( $buffref, $eof ) = @_;

          while( $$buffref =~ s/^(.*)\n// ) {
             print "You said $1\n";
          }

          return 0;
       },
    )
 );

 $notifier->add_child(
    IO::Async::Signal->new(
       name => 'INT',
       on_receipt => sub {
          print "Goodbye!\n";
          $loop->stop;
       },
    )
 );

 $loop->add( $notifier );

 $loop->run;

DESCRIPTION ^

This object class forms the basis for all the other event objects that an IO::Async program uses. It provides the lowest level of integration with a IO::Async::Loop container, and a facility to collect Notifiers together, in a tree structure, where any Notifier can contain a collection of children.

Normally, objects in this class would not be directly used by an end program, as it performs no actual IO work, and generates no actual events. These are all left to the various subclasses, such as:

For more detail, see the SYNOPSIS section in one of the above.

One case where this object class would be used, is when a library wishes to provide a sub-component which consists of multiple other Notifier subclasses, such as Handles and Timers, but no particular object is suitable to be the root of a tree. In this case, a plain Notifier object can be used as the tree root, and all the other notifiers added as children of it.

AS A MIXIN ^

Rather than being used as a subclass this package also supports being used as a non-principle superclass for an object, as a mix-in. It still provides methods and satisfies an isa test, even though the constructor is not directly called. This simply requires that the object be based on a normal blessed hash reference and include IO::Async::Notifier somewhere in its @ISA list.

The methods in this class all use only keys in the hash prefixed by "IO_Async_Notifier__" for namespace purposes.

This is intended mainly for defining a subclass of some other object that is also an IO::Async::Notifier, suitable to be added to an IO::Async::Loop.

 package SomeEventSource::Async;
 use base qw( SomeEventSource IO::Async::Notifier );

 sub _add_to_loop
 {
    my $self = shift;
    my ( $loop ) = @_;

    # Code here to set up event handling on $loop that may be required
 }

 sub _remove_from_loop
 {
    my $self = shift;
    my ( $loop ) = @_;

    # Code here to undo the event handling set up above
 }

Since all the methods documented here will be available, the implementation may wish to use the configure and make_event_cb or invoke_event methods to implement its own event callbacks.

EVENTS ^

The following events are invoked, either using subclass methods or CODE references in parameters:

on_error $message, $name, @details

Invoked by invoke_error.

PARAMETERS ^

A specific subclass of IO::Async::Notifier defines named parameters that control its behaviour. These may be passed to the new constructor, or to the configure method. The documentation on each specific subclass will give details on the parameters that exist, and their uses. Some parameters may only support being set once at construction time, or only support being changed if the object is in a particular state.

The following parameters are supported by all Notifiers:

on_error => CODE

CODE reference for event handler.

notifier_name => STRING

Optional string used to identify this particular Notifier. This value will be returned by the notifier_name method.

CONSTRUCTOR ^

$notifier = IO::Async::Notifier->new( %params )

This function returns a new instance of a IO::Async::Notifier object with the given initial values of the named parameters.

Up until IO::Async version 0.19, this module used to implement the IO handle features now found in the IO::Async::Handle subclass. Code that needs to use any of handle, read_handle, write_handle, on_read_ready or on_write_ready should use IO::Async::Handle instead.

METHODS ^

$notifier->configure( %params )

Adjust the named parameters of the Notifier as given by the %params hash.

$loop = $notifier->loop

Returns the IO::Async::Loop that this Notifier is a member of.

$name = $notifier->notifier_name

Returns the name to identify this Notifier. If a has not been set, it will return the empty string. Subclasses may wish to override this behaviour to return some more useful information, perhaps from configured parameters.

$f = $notifier->adopt_future( $f )

Stores a reference to the Future instance within the notifier itself, so the reference doesn't get lost. This reference will be dropped when the future becomes ready (either by success or failure). Additionally, if the future failed the notifier's invoke_error method will be informed.

This means that if the notifier does not provide an on_error handler, nor is there one anywhere in the parent chain, this will be fatal to the caller of $f->fail. To avoid this being fatal if the failure is handled elsewhere, use the else_done method on the future to obtain a sequence one that never fails.

 $notifier->adopt_future( $f->else_done() )

The future itself is returned.

CHILD NOTIFIERS ^

During the execution of a program, it may be the case that certain IO handles cause other handles to be created; for example, new sockets that have been accept()ed from a listening socket. To facilitate these, a notifier may contain child notifier objects, that are automatically added to or removed from the IO::Async::Loop that manages their parent.

$parent = $notifier->parent

Returns the parent of the notifier, or undef if does not have one.

@children = $notifier->children

Returns a list of the child notifiers contained within this one.

$notifier->add_child( $child )

Adds a child notifier. This notifier will be added to the containing loop, if the parent has one. Only a notifier that does not currently have a parent and is not currently a member of any loop may be added as a child. If the child itself has grandchildren, these will be recursively added to the containing loop.

$notifier->remove_child( $child )

Removes a child notifier. The child will be removed from the containing loop, if the parent has one. If the child itself has grandchildren, these will be recurively removed from the loop.

$notifier->remove_from_parent

Removes this notifier object from its parent (either another notifier object or the containing loop) if it has one. If the notifier is not a child of another notifier nor a member of a loop, this method does nothing.

SUBCLASS METHODS ^

IO::Async::Notifier is a base class provided so that specific subclasses of it provide more specific behaviour. The base class provides a number of methods that subclasses may wish to override.

If a subclass implements any of these, be sure to invoke the superclass method at some point within the code.

$notifier->_init( $paramsref )

This method is called by the constructor just before calling configure. It is passed a reference to the HASH storing the constructor arguments.

This method may initialise internal details of the Notifier as required, possibly by using parameters from the HASH. If any parameters are construction-only they should be deleted from the hash.

$notifier->configure( %params )

This method is called by the constructor to set the initial values of named parameters, and by users of the object to adjust the values once constructed.

This method should delete from the %params hash any keys it has dealt with, then pass the remaining ones to the SUPER::configure. The base class implementation will throw an exception if there are any unrecognised keys remaining.

$notifier->configure_unknown( %params )

This method is called by the base class configure method, for any remaining parameters that are not recognised. The default implementation throws an exception using Carp that lists the unrecognised keys. This method is provided to allow subclasses to override the behaviour, perhaps to store unrecognised keys, or to otherwise inspect the left-over arguments for some other purpose.

$notifier->_add_to_loop( $loop )

This method is called when the Notifier has been added to a Loop; either directly, or indirectly through being a child of a Notifer already in a loop.

This method may be used to perform any initial startup activity required for the Notifier to be fully functional but which requires a Loop to do so.

$notifier->_remove_from_loop( $loop )

This method is called when the Notifier has been removed from a Loop; either directly, or indirectly through being a child of a Notifier removed from the loop.

This method may be used to undo the effects of any setup that the _add_to_loop method had originally done.

UTILITY METHODS ^

$mref = $notifier->_capture_weakself( $code )

Returns a new CODE ref which, when invoked, will invoke the originally-passed ref, with additionally a reference to the Notifier as its first argument. The Notifier reference is stored weakly in $mref, so this CODE ref may be stored in the Notifier itself without creating a cycle.

For example,

 my $mref = $notifier->_capture_weakself( sub {
    my ( $notifier, $arg ) = @_;
    print "Notifier $notifier got argument $arg\n";
 } );

 $mref->( 123 );

This is provided as a utility for Notifier subclasses to use to build a callback CODEref to pass to a Loop method, but which may also want to store the CODE ref internally for efficiency.

The $code argument may also be a plain string, which will be used as a method name; the returned CODE ref will then invoke that method on the object. In this case the method name is stored symbolically in the returned CODE reference, and dynamically dispatched each time the reference is invoked. This allows it to follow code reloading, dynamic replacement of class methods, or other similar techniques.

If the $mref CODE reference is being stored in some object other than the one it refers to, remember that since the Notifier is only weakly captured, it is possible that it has been destroyed by the time the code runs, and so the reference will be passed as undef. This should be protected against by the code body.

 $other_object->{on_event} = $notifier->_capture_weakself( sub {
    my $notifier = shift or return;
    my ( @event_args ) = @_;
    ...
 } );

For stand-alone generic implementation of this behaviour, see also curry and curry::weak.

$mref = $notifier->_replace_weakself( $code )

Returns a new CODE ref which, when invoked, will invoke the originally-passed ref, with a reference to the Notifier replacing its first argument. The Notifier reference is stored weakly in $mref, so this CODE ref may be stored in the Notifier itself without creating a cycle.

For example,

 my $mref = $notifier->_replace_weakself( sub {
    my ( $notifier, $arg ) = @_;
    print "Notifier $notifier got argument $arg\n";
 } );

 $mref->( $object, 123 );

This is provided as a utility for Notifier subclasses to use for event callbacks on other objects, where the delegated object is passed in the function's arguments.

The $code argument may also be a plain string, which will be used as a method name; the returned CODE ref will then invoke that method on the object. As with _capture_weakself this is stored symbolically.

As with _capture_weakself, care should be taken against Notifier destruction if the $mref CODE reference is stored in some other object.

$code = $notifier->can_event( $event_name )

Returns a CODE reference if the object can perform the given event name, either by a configured CODE reference parameter, or by implementing a method. If the object is unable to handle this event, undef is returned.

$callback = $notifier->make_event_cb( $event_name )

Returns a CODE reference which, when invoked, will execute the given event handler. Event handlers may either be subclass methods, or parameters given to the new or configure method.

The event handler can be passed extra arguments by giving them to the CODE reference; the first parameter received will be a reference to the notifier itself. This is stored weakly in the closure, so it is safe to store the resulting CODE reference in the object itself without causing a reference cycle.

$callback = $notifier->maybe_make_event_cb( $event_name )

Similar to make_event_cb but will return undef if the object cannot handle the named event, rather than throwing an exception.

@ret = $notifier->invoke_event( $event_name, @args )

Invokes the given event handler, passing in the given arguments. Event handlers may either be subclass methods, or parameters given to the new or configure method. Returns whatever the underlying method or CODE reference returned.

$retref = $notifier->maybe_invoke_event( $event_name, @args )

Similar to invoke_event but will return undef if the object cannot handle the name event, rather than throwing an exception. In order to distinguish this from an event-handling function that simply returned undef, if the object does handle the event, the list that it returns will be returned in an ARRAY reference.

DEBUGGING SUPPORT ^

The following methods and behaviours are still experimental and may change or even be removed in future.

Debugging support is enabled by an environment variable called IO_ASYNC_DEBUG having a true value.

When debugging is enabled, the make_event_cb and invoke_event methods (and their maybe_ variants) are altered such that when the event is fired, a debugging line is printed, using the debug_printf method. This identifes the name of the event.

By default, the line is only printed if the caller of one of these methods is the same package as the object is blessed into, allowing it to print the events of the most-derived class, without the extra verbosity of the lower-level events of its parent class used to create it. All calls regardless of caller can be printed by setting a number greater than 1 as the value of IO_ASYNC_DEBUG.

By default the debugging log goes to STDERR, but two other environment variables can redirect it. If IO_ASYNC_DEBUG_FILE is set, it names a file which will be opened for writing, and logging written into it. Otherwise, if IO_ASYNC_DEBUG_FD is set, it gives a file descriptor number that logging should be written to. If opening the named file or file descriptor fails then the log will be written to STDERR as normal.

$notifier->debug_printf( $format, @args )

Conditionally print a debugging message to STDERR if debugging is enabled. If such a message is printed, it will be printed using printf using the given format and arguments. The message will be prefixed with an string, in square brackets, to help identify the $notifier instance. This string will be the class name of the notifier, and any parent notifiers it is contained by, joined by an arrow <-. To ensure this string does not grow too long, certain prefixes are abbreviated:

 IO::Async::Protocol::  =>  IaP:
 IO::Async::            =>  Ia:
 Net::Async::           =>  Na:

Finally, each notifier that has a name defined using the notifier_name parameter has that name appended in braces.

For example, invoking

 $stream->debug_printf( "EVENT on_read" )

On an IO::Async::Stream instance reading and writing a file descriptor whose fileno is 4, which is a child of an IO::Async::Protocol::Stream, will produce a line of output:

 [Ia:Stream{rw=4}<-IaP:Stream] EVENT on_read

$notifier->invoke_error( $message, $name, @details )

Invokes the stored on_error event handler, passing in the given arguments. If no handler is defined, it will be passed up to the containing parent notifier, if one exists. If no parent exists, the error message will be thrown as an exception by using die() and this method will not return.

If a handler is found to handle this error, the method will return as normal. However, as the expected use-case is to handle "fatal" errors that now render the notifier unsuitable to continue, code should be careful not to perform any further work after invoking it. Specifically, sockets may become disconnected, or the entire notifier may now be removed from its containing loop.

The $name and @details list should follow similar semantics to Future failures. That is, the $name should be a string giving a category of failure, and the @details list should contain additional arguments that relate to that kind of failure.

AUTHOR ^

Paul Evans <leonerd@leonerd.org.uk>

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