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NAME ^

IUP::Image - [GUI element] image to be shown on a label, button, toggle, or as a cursor

DESCRIPTION ^

Creates an image to be shown on a label, button, toggle, or as a cursor.

USAGE ^

CREATION - new() method

 #8bit/256colors image + color palette definition + 2-dimensional pixels array
 my $img = IUP::Image->new( 
             BPP=>8, colors=>[ "0 0 0", "255 0 0", "128 0 0" ],
             pixels=>[[ 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,0,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,2,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,2,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,0 ],
                      [ 0,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,0,0,2,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,2,1,1,1,2,0,0,0,0,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,2,2,2,0,0,0,0,0,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 ],
                      [ 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 ]], 
 );
 
 #the same 8bit/256colors image - defined by 1-dimensional pixels array
 my $img = IUP::Image->new(
             HEIGHT=>12, WIDTH=>12, BPP=>8, # HEIGHT*WIDTH*BPP/8 should match the size of pixels
             colors=>[ "0 0 0", "255 0 0", "128 0 0" ],
             pixels=>[0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,2,2,2,2,2,0,
                      0,0,0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,2,0,
                      0,0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,0,0,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,0,
                      0,0,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,2,0,0,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,0,0,2,0,
                      0,0,2,1,1,1,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,
                      0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
 );
 
 #24bit image - defined by 1-dimensional pixels array
 my $img = IUP::Image->new(
      HEIGHT=>11, WIDTH=>11, BPP=>24, # HEIGHT*WIDTH*BPP/8 should match the size of pixels
      pixels = [
         0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,
       255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,
       255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,
       255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,
       255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,
       255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,
       255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,
       255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,
       255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,
       255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,
         0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0, ]
 );

 #the same 24bit image - defined by 2-dimensional pixels array (no need to declare WIDTH+HEIGHT)
 my $img = IUP::Image->new(
      BPP=>24,
      pixels = [
       [  0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0],
       [255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0],
       [255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0],
       [255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0],
       [255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0],
       [255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0],
       [255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0],
       [255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0],
       [255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0],
       [255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0,  255,  0,0],
       [  0,255,0,  255,  0,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,255,0,  255,  0,0,    0,255,0] ]
 );

 #8bit/256colors image + color palette definition + pixels in a rawbuffer
 my $img = IUP::Image->new(
             HEIGHT=>12, WIDTH=>12, BPP=>8, # HEIGHT*WIDTH*BPP/8 should match the size of pixels
             colors=>[ "0 0 0", "255 0 0", "128 0 0" ],
             pixels=>$rawdata, # e.g. $rawdata buffer got via sysread()
 );

 #8bit/256colors image + pixels in a rawbuffer + setting color palette via attributes "0", "1", "2" ...
 my $img = IUP::Image->new(
             HEIGHT=>12, WIDTH=>12, BPP=>8, # HEIGHT*WIDTH*BPP/8 should match the size of pixels
             0=>"0 0 0", 1=>"255 0 0", 2=>"128 0 0", #alternative color palete definition
             pixels=>$rawdata, # e.g. $rawdata buffer got via sysread()
 );

 #creating image object from file
 my $img = IUP::Image->new( file=>'test.png' );

pixels: (named parameter) Reference to array containing the value of each pixel. When BPP=>8 it uses 1 value per pixel, when BPP=>24 it uses 3 values and when BPP=>4 it uses 4 values per pixel. Each value is always 8 bit (0-255). Origin is at the top-left corner and data is oriented top to bottom, and left to right. The pixels array is duplicated internally so you can discard it after the call.

Pixes should be defined as 2-dimensional array (in this case the array sizes define WIDTH + HEIGHT) or as 1-dimensional arrat (you have to set WIDTH + HEIGHT explicitely) - see examples above.

colors: (named parameter) Reference to array containing the colors indices.

file: (named parameter) Filename to load image from - is mutually exclusive with pixels parameter. Supported image formats (BMP PCX GIF TIFF SGI JPEG TGA ICO PNG PPM PBM PNM PGM LED).

WIDTH, HEIGHT, BPP: Image width, height and color depth in bits-per-pixel - not relevant when using file=>"..."

Returns: the identifier of the created element, or undef if an error occurs.

NOTE: You can pass to new() other ATTRIBUTE=>'value' or CALLBACKNAME=>\&func pairs relevant to this element - see IUP::Manual::02_Elements.

General Usage Notes

Application icons are usually 32x32. Toolbar bitmaps are 24x24 or smaller. Menu bitmaps and small icons are 16x16 or smaller.

Images created with the IUP::Image constructors can be reused in different elements.

The images should be destroyed when they are no longer necessary, by means of the Destroy function. To destroy an image, it cannot be in use, i.e the controls where it is used should be destroyed first.

Please observe the rules for creating cursor images: CURSOR.

Using Images in Other Elements (via IMAGE Attribute)

Images are used in elements such as buttons and labels by attributes that points to a image. For example:

 $label->IUP::Label->new();
 $image = IUP::Image->new( WIDTH=>$width, HEIGHT=>$height, pixels=>$pixels );  
 $label->SetAttribute( IMAGE=>$image );
 
 #or
 
 $label->IUP::Label->new();
 $image = IUP::Image->new( WIDTH=>$width, HEIGHT=>$height, pixels=>$pixels, name=>"IMG_NICKNAME" );  
 $label->SetAttribute( IMAGE=>"IMG_NICKNAME" );

You can use images/icons from the IupImageLib, a library of pre-defined images - see IUP::Manual::07_UsingImageLibrary:

 $label->IUP::Label->new();
 $label->SetAttribute( IMAGE=>"IUP_MessageError" ); #buil-in image name from IupImageLib

In all drivers, a path to a file name can also be used as the attribute value. But the available file formats supported are system dependent. The Windows driver supports BMP, ICO and CUR. The GTK driver supports the formats supported by the GDK-PixBuf library, such as BMP, GIF, JPEG, PCX, PNG, TIFF and many others. The Motif driver supports the X-Windows bitmap. For example:

 $label->IUP::Label->new();
 $label->SetAttribute( IMAGE=>"/path/to/tecgraf.bmp" ); #BEWARE: do not use non ascii chars in filename

The alternative approach to load an image from file is:

 $label->IUP::Label->new();
 $label->SetAttribute( IMAGE=>IUP::Image->new( file=>"/path/to/tecgraf.bmp" ) );

Which internally uses im library to load the image and supports the given set of image formats (BMP PCX GIF TIFF SGI JPEG TGA ICO PNG PPM PBM PNM PGM LED) on all drivers.

In Windows, names of resources in RC files linked with the application are also accepted (not true for perl IUP bindings). In GTK, names of GTK Stock Items are also accepted. In Motif, names of bitmaps installed on the system are also accepted. For example:

 $label->IUP::Label->new();
 $label->SetAttribute( IMAGE=>"gtk-open");  # available in the GTK Stock Items

Using Colors

In Motif, the alpha channel 32bit images is composed with the control BGCOLOR by IUP prior to setting the image at the control. In Windows and in GTK, the alpha channel is composed internally by the system. But in Windows for some controls the alpha must be composed prior also, it includes: IUP::Item and IUP::Submenu always; and IUP::Toggle when NOT using Visual Styles. This implies that if the control background is not uniform then probably there will be a visible difference where it should be transparent.

For IUP::Image, if a color is not set, then it is used a default color for the 16 first colors. The default color table is the same for Windows, GTK and Motif:

  0 =   0,  0,  0 (black)
  1 = 128,  0,  0 (dark red)
  2 =   0,128,  0 (dark green) 
  3 = 128,128,  0 (dark yellow)
  4 =   0,  0,128 (dark blue)
  5 = 128,  0,128 (dark magenta) 
  6 =   0,128,128 (dark cian) 
  7 = 192,192,192 (gray)
  8 = 128,128,128 (dark gray)
  9 = 255,  0,  0 (red)     
 10 =   0,255,  0 (green)
 11 = 255,255,  0 (yellow)
 12 =   0,  0,255 (blue)
 13 = 255,  0,255 (magenta)
 14 =   0,255,255 (cian)  
 15 = 255,255,255 (white)

For images with more than 16 colors, and up to 256 colors, all the color indices must be defined up to the maximum number of colors. For example, if the biggest image index is 100, then all the colors from i=16 up to i=100 must be defined even if some indices are not used.

ATTRIBUTES

For more info about concept of attributes (setting/getting values etc.) see IUP::Manual::03_Attributes. Attributes specific to this element:

0 Color in index 0.
1 Color in index 1.
2 Color in index 2.
(n) Color in index n.

Example $image->SetAttribute( 0=>"0 0 220", 1=>"0 220 0" )

The indices can range from 0 to 255. The total number of colors is limited to 256 colors. Be careful when setting colors, since they are attributes they follow the same storage rules for standard attributes.

The values are integer numbers from 0 to 255, one for each color in the RGB triple (For ex "64 190 255"). If the value of a given index is "BGCOLOR", the color used will be the background color of the element on which the image will be inserted. The "BGCOLOR" value must be defined within an index less than 16.

Used only for images created via IUP::Image->new( pixels=>...) not IUP::Image->new( file=>... ).

BGCOLOR

The color used for transparency. If not defined uses the BGCOLOR of the control that contains the image.

BPP

(read-only) Returns the number of bits per pixel in the image (8 or 24 or 32).

CHANNELS

(read-only) Returns the number of channels in the image. Images created with BPP=>8 returns 1, with BPP=>24 returns 3 and with BPP=>32 returns 4.

HEIGHT

(read-only) Image height in pixels.

HOTSPOT

Hotspot is the position inside a cursor image indicating the mouse-click spot. Its value is given by the x and y coordinates inside a cursor image. Its value has the format "x:y", where x and y are integers defining the coordinates in pixels. Default: "0:0".

RASTERSIZE

(read-only) Returns the image size in pixels. (since iup-3.0)

WID

(read-only) Returns the internal pixels data pointer. (since iup-3.0)

WIDTH

(read-only) Image width in pixels.

EXAMPLES ^

The element IUP::Image is used in the following sample scripts:

SEE ALSO ^

IUP::Label, IUP::Button, IUP::Toggle, Destroy

The original doc: iupimage.html, iupimglib.html

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