Eric Strom > List-Gen > List::Gen

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Module Version: 0.974   Source  

NAME ^

List::Gen - provides functions for generating lists

VERSION ^

version 0.974

SYNOPSIS ^

this module provides higher order functions, list comprehensions, generators, iterators, and other utility functions for working with lists. walk lists with any step size you want, create lazy ranges and arrays with a map like syntax that generate values on demand. there are several other hopefully useful functions, and all functions from List::Util are available.

    use List::Gen;

    print "@$_\n" for every 5 => 1 .. 15;
    # 1 2 3 4 5
    # 6 7 8 9 10
    # 11 12 13 14 15

    print mapn {"$_[0]: $_[1]\n"} 2 => %myhash;

    my $ints    = <0..>;
    my $squares = gen {$_**2} $ints;

    say "@$squares[2 .. 6]"; # 4 9 16 25 36

    $ints->zip('.', -$squares)->say(6); # 0-0 1-1 2-4 3-9 4-16 5-25

    list(1, 2, 3)->gen('**2')->say; # 1 4 9

    my $fib = ([0, 1] + iterate {fib($_, $_ + 1)->sum})->rec('fib');
    my $fac = iterate {$_ < 2 or $_ * self($_ - 1)}->rec;

    say "@$fib[0 .. 15]";  #  0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610
    say "@$fac[0 .. 10]";  #  1 1 2 6 24 120 720 5040 40320 362880 3628800

    say <0, 1, * + * ...>->take(10)->str;   # 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34
    say <[..*] 1, 1..>->str(8);             # 1 1 2 6 24 120 720 5040

    <**2 for 1..10 if even>->say;           # 4 16 36 64 100

    <1..>->map('**2')->grep(qr/1/)->say(5); # 1 16 81 100 121

EXPORT ^

    use List::Gen; # is the same as
    use List::Gen qw/mapn by every range gen cap \ filter cache apply zip
                     min max reduce glob iterate list/;

    the following export tags are available:

        :utility    mapn by every apply min max reduce mapab
                    mapkey d deref slide curse remove

        :source     range glob makegen list array vecgen repeat file

        :modify     gen cache expand contract collect slice flip overlay
                    test recursive sequence scan scan_stream == scanS
                    cartesian transpose stream strict

        :zip        zip zipgen tuples zipwith zipwithab unzip unzipn
                    zipmax zipgenmax zipwithmax

        :iterate    iterate
                    iterate_multi        == iterateM
                    iterate_stream       == iterateS
                    iterate_multi_stream == iterateMS

        :gather     gather
                    gather_stream        == gatherS
                    gather_multi         == gatherM
                    gather_multi_stream  == gatherMS

        :mutable    mutable done done_if done_unless

        :filter     filter
                    filter_stream == filterS
                    filter_ # non-lookahead version

        :while      take_while == While
                    take_until == Until
                    while_ until_ # non-lookahead versions
                    drop_while drop_until

        :numeric    primes

        :deprecated genzip

        :List::Util first max maxstr min minstr reduce shuffle sum

    use List::Gen '*';     # everything
    use List::Gen 0;       # everything
    use List::Gen ':all';  # everything
    use List::Gen ':base'; # same as 'use List::Gen;'
    use List::Gen ();      # no exports

FUNCTIONS ^

mapn {CODE} NUM LIST

this function works like the builtin map but takes NUM sized steps over the list, rather than one element at a time. inside the CODE block, the current slice is in @_ and $_ is set to $_[0] . slice elements are aliases to the original list. if mapn is called in void context, the CODE block will be executed in void context for efficiency.

    print mapn {$_ % 2 ? "@_" : " [@_] "} 3 => 1..20;
    #  1 2 3 [4 5 6] 7 8 9 [10 11 12] 13 14 15 [16 17 18] 19 20

    print "student grades: \n";
    mapn {
        print shift, ": ", &sum / @_, "\n";
    } 5 => qw {
        bob   90 80 65 85
        alice 75 95 70 100
        eve   80 90 80 75
    };
by NUM LIST
every NUM LIST

by and every are exactly the same, and allow you to add variable step size to any other list control structure with whichever reads better to you.

    for (every 2 => @_) {do something with pairs in @$_}

    grep {do something with triples in @$_} by 3 => @list;

the functions generate an array of array references to NUM sized slices of LIST . the elements in each slice are aliases to the original list.

in list context, returns a real array. in scalar context, returns a generator.

    my @slices = every 2 => 1 .. 10;     # real array
    my $slices = every 2 => 1 .. 10;     # generator
    for (every 2 => 1 .. 10) { ... }     # real array
    for (@{every 2 => 1 .. 10}) { ... }  # generator

if you plan to use all the slices, the real array is probably better. if you only need a few, the generator won't need to compute all of the other slices.

    print "@$_\n" for every 3 => 1..9;
    # 1 2 3
    # 4 5 6
    # 7 8 9

    my @a = 1 .. 10;
    for (every 2 => @a) {
        @$_[0, 1] = @$_[1, 0]  # flip each pair
    }
    print "@a";
    # 2 1 4 3 6 5 8 7 10 9

    print "@$_\n" for grep {$$_[0] % 2} by 3 => 1 .. 9;
    # 1 2 3
    # 7 8 9
apply {CODE} LIST

apply a function that modifies $_ to a shallow copy of LIST and returns the copy

    print join ", " => apply {s/$/ one/} "this", "and that";
    > this one, and that one
zip LIST

zip takes a list of array references and generators. it interleaves the elements of the passed in sequences to create a new list. zip continues until the end of the shortest sequence. LIST can be any combination of array references and generators.

    %hash = zip [qw/a b c/], [1..3]; # same as
    %hash = (a => 1, b => 2, c => 3);

in scalar context, zip returns a generator, produced by zipgen

if the first argument to zip is not an array or generator, it is assumed to be code or a code like string. that code will be used to join the elements from the remaining arguments.

    my $gen = zip sub {$_[0] . $_[1]}, [1..5], <a..>;
    # or    = zip '.' => [1..5], <a..>;
    # or    = zipwith {$_[0] . $_[1]} [1..5], <a..>;

    $gen->str;  # '1a 2b 3c 4d 5e'
zipmax LIST

interleaves the passed in lists to create a new list. zipmax continues until the end of the longest list, undef is returned for missing elements of shorter lists. LIST can be any combination of array references and generators.

    %hash = zipmax [qw/a b c d/], [1..3]; # same as
    %hash = (a => 1, b => 2, c => 3, d => undef);

in scalar context, zipmax returns a generator, produced by zipgenmax

zipmax provides the same functionality as zip did in versions before 0.90

tuples LIST

interleaves the passed in lists to create a new list of arrays. tuples continues until the end of the shortest list. LIST can be any combination of array references and generators.

    @list = tuples [qw/a b c/], [1..3]; # same as
    @list = ([a => 1], [b => 2], [c => 3]);

in scalar context, tuples returns a generator:

    tuples(...)  ~~  zipwith {\@_} ...
cap LIST

cap captures a list, it is exactly the same as sub{\@_}->(LIST)

note that this method of constructing an array ref from a list is roughly 40% faster than [ LIST ], but with the caveat and feature that elements are aliases to the original list

&\(LIST)

a synonym for cap , the symbols &\(...) will perform the same action. it could be read as taking the subroutine style reference of a list. like all symbol variables, once imported, &\ is global across all packages.

    my $capture = & \(my $x, my $y);  # a space between & and \ is fine
                                      # and it looks a bit more syntactic
    ($x, $y) = (1, 2);
    say "@$capture"; # 1 2

generators

in this document, a generator is an object similar to an array that generates its elements on demand. generators can be used as iterators in perl's list control structures such as for/foreach and while . generators, like programmers, are lazy. unless they have to, they will not calculate or store anything. this laziness allows infinite generators to be created. you can choose to explicitly cache a generator, and several generators have implicit caches for efficiency.

there are source generators, which can be numeric ranges, arrays, or iterative subroutines. these can then be modified by wrapping each element with a subroutine, filtering elements, or combining generators with other generators. all of this behavior is lazy, only resolving generator elements at the latest possible time.

all generator functions return a blessed and overloaded reference to a tied array. this may sound a bit magical, but it just means that you can access the generator in a variety of ways, all which remain lazy.

given the generator:

    my $gen = gen {$_**2} range 0, 100;
          or  gen {$_**2} 0, 100;
          or  range(0, 100)->map(sub {$_**2});
          or  <0..100>->map('**2');
          or  <**2 for 0..100>;

which describes the sequence of n**2 for n from 0 to 100 by 1 :

     0 1 4 9 16 25 ... 9604 9801 10000

the following lines are equivalent (each prints '25'):

    say $gen->get(5);
    say $gen->(5);
    say $gen->[5];
    say $gen->drop(5)->head;
    say $gen->('5..')->head;

as are these (each printing '25 36 49 64 81 100'):

    say "@$gen[5 .. 10]";
    say join ' ' => $gen->slice(5 .. 10);
    say join ' ' => $gen->(5 .. 10);
    say join ' ' => @$gen[5 .. 10];
    say $gen->slice(range 5 => 10)->str;
    say $gen->drop(5)->take(6)->str;
    say $gen->(<5..10>)->str;
    say $gen->('5..10')->str;

generators as arrays

you can access generators as if they were array references. only the requested indicies will be generated.

    my $range = range 0, 1_000_000, 0.2;
              # will produce 0, 0.2, 0.4, ... 1000000

    say "@$range[10 .. 15]";       # calculates 6 values: 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3

    my $gen = gen {$_**2} $range;  # attaches a generator function to a range

    say "@$gen[10 .. 15]";         # '4 4.84 5.76 6.76 7.84 9'

    for (@$gen) {
        last if $_ > some_condition;
            # the iteration of this loop is lazy, so when exited
            # with `last`, no extra values are generated
        ...
    }

generators in loops

evaluation in each of these looping examples remains lazy. using last to escape from the loop early will result in some values never being generated.

    ... for @$gen;
    for my $x (@$gen) {...}
    ... while <$gen>;
    while (my ($next) = $gen->()) {...}

there are also looping methods, which take a subroutine. calling last from the subroutine works the same as in the examples above.

    $gen->do(sub {...}); or ->each

    For {$gen} sub {
        ... # indirect object syntax
    };

there is also a user space subroutine named &last that is installed into the calling namespace during the execution of the loop. calling it without arguments has the same function as the builtin last . calling it with an argument will still end the looping construct, but will also cause the loop to return the argument. the done ... exception also works the same way as &last(...)

    my $first = $gen->do(sub {&last($_) if /something/});
    # same as:  $gen->first(qr/something/);

you can use generators as file handle iterators:

    local $_;
    while (<$gen>) {  # calls $gen->next internally
        # do something with $_
    }

generators as objects

all generators have the following methods by default

predicates

several predicates are available to use with the filtering methods:

    <1..>->grep('even' )->say(5); # 2 4 6 8 10
    <1..>->grep('odd'  )->say(5); # 1 3 5 7 9
    <1..>->grep('prime')->say(5); # 2 3 5 7 11
    <1.. if prime>->say(5);       # 2 3 5 7 11

    others are: defined, true, false

lazy slices

if you call the slice method with a range or other numeric generator as its argument, the method will return a generator that will perform the slice

   my $gen = gen {$_ ** 2};
   my $slice = $gen->slice(range 100 => 1000); # nothing calculated

   say "@$slice[5 .. 10]"; # 6 values calculated

or using the glob syntax:

   my $slice = $gen->slice(<100 .. 1000>);

infinite slices are fine:

   my $tail = $gen->slice(<1..>);

lazy slices also work with the dwim code-deref syntax:

   my $tail = $gen->(<1..>);

stacked continuous lazy slices collapse into a single composite slice for efficiency

    my $slice = $gen->(<1..>)->(<1..>)->(<1..>);

    $slice == $gen->(<3..>);

if you choose not to import the glob function, you can still write ranges succinctly as strings, when used as arguments to slice:

    my $tail = $gen->('1..');
    my $tail = $gen->slice('1..');

dwim code dereference

when dereferenced as code, a generator decides what do do based on the arguments it is passed.

    $gen->()          ~~  $gen->next
    $gen->(1)         ~~  $gen->get(1) or $$gen[1]
    $gen->(1, 2, ...) ~~  $gen->slice(1, 2, ...) or @$gen[1, 2, ...]
    $gen->(<1..>)     ~~  $gen->slice(<1..>) or $gen->tail

if passed a code ref or regex ref, ->map will be called with the argument, if passed a reference to a code ref or regex ref, ->grep will be called.

    my $pow2 = <0..>->(sub {$_**2});  # calls ->map(sub{...})
    my $uc   = $gen->(\qr/[A-Z]/);    # calls ->grep(qr/.../)

you can lexically enable code coercion from strings (experimental):

    local $List::Gen::DWIM_CODE_STRINGS = 1;

    my $gen = <0 .. 1_000_000>->('**2')(\'%2');
                                 ^map   ^grep

due to some scoping issues, if you want to install this dwim coderef into a subroutine, the reliable way is to call the ->code method:

    *fib = <0, 1, *+*...>->code;  # rather than *fib = \&{<0, 1, *+*...>}

overloaded operators

to make the usage of generators a bit more syntactic the following operators are overridden:

    $gen1 x $gen2      ~~  $gen1->cross($gen2)
    $gen1 x'.'x $gen2  ~~  $gen1->cross('.', $gen2)
                       or  $gen1->cross(sub {$_[0].$_[1]}, $gen2)
    $gen1 x sub{$_[0].$_[1]} x $gen2  # same as above

    $gen1 + $gen2      ~~  sequence $gen1, $gen2
    $g1 + $g2 + $g3    ~~  sequence $g1, $g2, $g3 # or more

    $gen1 | $gen2      ~~  $gen1->zip($gen2)
    $gen1 |'+'| $gen2  ~~  $gen1->zip('+', $gen2)
                       or  $gen1->zip(sub {$_[0] + $_[1]}, $gen2)
    $gen1 |sub{$_[0]+$_[1]}| $gen2  # same as above

    $x | $y | $z       ~~  $x->zip($y, $z)
    $w | $x | $y | $z  ~~  $w->zip($x, $y, $z) # or more

if the first argument to a ->zip or ->cross method is not an array or generator, it is assumed to be a subroutine and the corresponding ->(zip|cross)with method is called:

    $gen1->zipwith('+', $gen2)  ~~  $gen1->zip('+', $gen2);

hyper operators:

not quite as elegant as perl6's hyper operators, but the same idea. these are similar to zipwith but with more control over the length of the returned generator. all of perl's non-mutating binary operators are available to use as strings, or you can use a subroutine.

    $gen1 <<'.'>> $gen2  # longest list
    $gen1 >>'+'<< $gen2  # equal length lists or error
    $gen1 >>'-'>> $gen2  # length of $gen2
    $gen1 <<'=='<< $gen2 # length of $gen1

    $gen1 <<sub{...}>> $gen2
    $gen1 <<\&some_sub>> $gen2

    my $x = <1..> <<'.'>> 'x';

    $x->say(5); # '1x 2x 3x 4x 5x'

in the last example, a bare string is the final element, and precedence rules keep everything working. however, if you want to use a non generator as the first element, a few parens are needed to force the evaluation properly:

    my $y = 'y' <<('.'>> <1..>);

    $y->say(5); # 'y1 y2 y3 y4 y5'

otherwise 'y' << '.' will run first without overloading, which will be an error. since that is a bit awkward, where you can specify an operator string, you can prefix R or r to indicate that the arguments to the operator should be reversed.

    my $y = <1..> <<'R.'>> 'y';

    $y->say(5); # 'y1 y2 y3 y4 y5'

just like in perl6, hyper operators are recursively defined for multi dimensional generators.

    say +(list(<1..>, <2..>, <3..>) >>'*'>> -1)->perl(4, '...')

    # [[-1, -2, -3, -4, ...], [-2, -3, -4, -5, ...], [-3, -4, -5, -6, ...]]

hyper operators currently do not work with mutable generators. this will be addressed in a future update.

you can also specify the operator in a hyper-operator as a typeglob:

    my $xs = <1..> >>*.>> 'x';  #  *. is equivalent to '.'

    $xs->say(5); # 1x 2x 3x 4x 5x

    my $negs = <0..> >>*-;  # same as: <0..> >>'-'

    $negs->say(5); # 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

hyper also works as a method:

    <1..>->hyper('<<.>>', 'x')->say(5); # '1x 2x 3x 4x 5x'
    # defaults to '<<...>>'
    <1..>->hyper('.', 'x')->say(5);     # '1x 2x 3x 4x 5x'

hyper negation can be done directly with the prefix minus operator:

    -$gen  ~~  $gen >>'-'  ~~  $gen->hyper('-')

mutable generators

mutable generators (those returned from mutable, filter, While, Until, and iterate_multi) are generators with variable length. in addition to all normal methods, mutable generators have the following methods:

    $gen->when_done(sub {...})  # schedule a method to be called when the
                                # generator is exhausted
                                # when_done can be called multiple times to
                                # schedule multiple end actions

    $gen->apply;  # causes the generator to evaluate all of its elements in
                  # order to find out its true size.  it is a bad idea to call
                  # ->apply on an infinite generator

due to the way perl processes list operations, when perl sees an expression like:

    print "@$gen\n"; # or
    print join ' ' => @$gen;

it calls the internal FETCHSIZE method only once, before it starts getting elements from the array. this is fine for immutable generators. however, since mutable generators do not know their true size, perl will think the array is bigger than it really is, and will most likely run off the end of the list, returning many undefined elements, or throwing an exception.

the solution to this is to call $gen->apply first, or to use the $gen->all method with mutable generators instead of @$gen , since the ->all method understands how to deal with arrays that can change size while being read.

perl's for/foreach loop is a bit smarter, so just like immutable generators, the mutable ones can be dereferenced as the loop argument with no problem:

    ... foreach @$mutable_generator;  # works fine

stream generators

the generators filter, scan, and iterate (all of its flavors) have internal caches that allow random access within the generator. some algorithms only need monotonically increasing access to the generator (all access via repeated calls to $gen->next for example), and the cache could become a performance/memory problem.

the *_stream family of generators do not maintain an internal cache, and are subsequently unable to fulfill requests for indicies lower than or equal to the last accessed index. they will however be faster and use less memory than their non-stream counterparts when monotonically increasing access is all that an algorithm needs.

stream generators can be thought of as traditional subroutine iterators that also have generator methods. it is up to you to ensure that all operations and methods follow the monotonically increasing index rule. you can determine the current position of the stream iterator with the $gen->index method.

    my $nums = iterate_stream{2*$_}->from(1);

    say $nums->();    # 1
    say $nums->();    # 2
    say $nums->();    # 4
    say $nums->index; # 3
    say $nums->drop( $nums->index )->str(5);  # '8 16 32 64 128'
    say $nums->index; # 8

the $gen->drop( $gen->index )->method pattern can be shortened to $gen->idx->method

    say $nums->idx->str(5); # '256 512 1024 2048 4096'

the $gen->index method of stream generators is read only. calling $gen->reset on a stream generator will throw an error.

stream generators are experimental and may change in future versions.

threads

generators have the following multithreaded methods:

    $gen->threads_blocksize(3) # sets size to divide work into
    $gen->threads_cached;      # implements a threads::shared cache
    $gen->threads_cached(10)   # as normal, then calls threads_start with arg

    $gen->threads_start;    # creates 4 worker threads
    $gen->threads_start(2); # or however many you want
                            # if you don't call it, threads_slice will

    my @list = $gen->threads_slice(0 .. 1000);  # sends work to the threads
    my @list = $gen->threads_all;

    $gen->threads_stop;     # or let the generator fall out of scope

all threads are local to a particular generator, they are not shared. if the passed in generator was cached (at the top level) that cache is shared and used automatically. this includes most generators with implicit caches. threads_slice and threads_all can be called without starting the threads explicitly. in that case, they will start with default values.

the threaded methods only work in perl versions 5.10.1 to 5.12.x, patches to support other versions are welcome.

source generators

range SIZE

returns a generator from 0 to SIZE - 1

    my $range = range 10;

    say $range->str;  # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    say $range->size; # 10
range START STOP [STEP]

returns a generator for values from START to STOP by STEP , inclusive.

STEP defaults to 1 but can be fractional and negative. depending on your choice of STEP , the last value returned may not always be STOP .

    range(0, 3, 0.4) will return (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2, 2.4, 2.8)

    print "$_ " for @{range 0, 1, 0.1};
    # 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

    print "$_ " for @{range 5, 0, -1};
    # 5 4 3 2 1 0

    my $nums = range 0, 1_000_000, 2;
    print "@$nums[10, 100, 1000]";
    # gets the tenth, hundredth, and thousandth numbers in the range
    # without calculating any other values

range also accepts character strings instead of numbers. it will behave the same way as perl's internal .. operator, except it will be lazy.

    say range('a', 'z')->str;   # 'a b c d e f g ... x y z'

    range('a', 'zzz', 2)->say;  # 'a c e g i k m ... zzu zzw zzy'

    say <A .. ZZ>->str;         # 'A B C D E ... ZX ZY ZZ'

    <1..>->zip(<a..>)->say(10); # '1 a 2 b 3 c 4 d 5 e'

to specify an infinite range, you can pass range an infinite value ( 9**9**9 works well), or the glob ** , or the string '*'

    range(1, 9**9**9) ~~ range(1, **) ~~ range(1, '*') ~~ <1..*> ~~ <1..>

ranges only store their endpoints, and ranges of all sizes take up the same amount of memory.

gen {CODE} GENERATOR
gen {CODE} ARRAYREF
gen {CODE} SIZE
gen {CODE} [START STOP [STEP]]
gen {CODE} GLOBSTRING

gen is the equivalent of map for generators. it returns a generator that will apply the CODE block to its source when accessed. gen takes a generator, array ref, glob-string, or suitable arguments for range as its source. with no arguments, gen uses the range 0 .. infinity .

    my @result = map {slow($_)} @source;  # slow() called @source times
    my $result = gen {slow($_)} \@source; # slow() not called

    my ($x, $y) = @$result[4, 7]; # slow()  called twice

    my $lazy = gen {slow($_)} range 1, 1_000_000_000;
      same:    gen {slow($_)} 1, 1_000_000_000;

    print $$lazy[1_000_000]; # slow() only called once

gen {...} list LIST is a replacement for [ map {...} LIST ] .

gen provides the functionality of the identical ->gen(...) and ->map(...) methods.

note that while effort has gone into making generators as fast as possible there is overhead involved with lazy generation. simply replacing all calls to map with gen will almost certainly slow down your code. use these functions in situations where the time / memory required to completely generate the list is unacceptable.

gen and other similarly argumented functions in this package can also accept a string suitable for the <glob> syntax:

    my $square_of_nats = gen {$_**2} '1..';
    my $square_of_fibs = gen {$_**2} '0, 1, *+*'; # no need for '...' with '*'

which is the same as the following if glob is imported:

    my $square_of_nats = gen {$_**2} <1..>;
    my $square_of_fibs = gen {$_**2} <0, 1, *+* ...>; # still need dots here
makegen ARRAY

makegen converts an array to a generator. this is normally not needed as most generator functions will call it automatically if passed an array reference

makegen considers the length of ARRAY to be immutable. changing the length of an array after passing it to makegen (or to gen and like argumented subroutines) will result in undefined behavior. this is done for performance reasons. if you need a length mutable array, use the array function. changing the value of a cell in the array is fine, and will be picked up by a generator (of course if the generator uses a cache, the value won't change after being cached).

you can assign to the generator returned by makegen , provided the assignment does not lengthen the array.

    my $gen = makegen @array;

    $$gen[3] = 'some value';  #  now $array[3] is 'some value'
list LIST

list converts a list to a generator. it is a thin wrapper around makegen that simply passes its @_ to makegen . that means the values in the returned generator are aliases to list's arguments.

    list(2, 5, 8, 11)->map('*2')->say;  #  '4 10 16 22'

is the same as writing:

    (gen {$_*2} cap 2, 5, 8, 11)->say;

in the above example, list can be used in place of cap and has exactly the same functionality:

    (gen {$_*2} list 2, 5, 8, 11)->say;
array [ARRAY]

array is similar to makegen except the array is considered a mutable data source. because of this, certain optimizations are not possible, and the generator returned will be a bit slower than the one created by makegen in most conditions (increasing as generator functions are stacked).

it is ok to modify ARRAY after creating the generator. it is also possible to use normal array modification functions such as push , pop , shift , unshift , and splice on the generator. all changes will translate back to the source array.

you can think of array as converting an array to an array reference that is also a generator.

    my @src = 1..5;
    my $gen = array @src;

    push @$gen, 6;

    $$gen[6] = 7;  # assignment is ok too

    say $gen->size;  # 7
    say shift @$gen; # 1
    say $gen->size;  # 6
    say $gen->str;   # 2 3 4 5 6 7
    say "@src";      # 2 3 4 5 6 7

    my $array = array;  # no args creates an empty array
file FILE [OPTIONS]

file creates an array generator from a file name or file handle using Tie::File . OPTIONS are passed to Tie::File

    my $gen = file 'some_file.txt';

    my $uc_file = $gen->map('uc');

    my $with_line_numbers = <1..>->zip('"$a: $b"', $gen);
repeat SCALAR [SIZE]

an infinite generator that returns SCALAR for every position. it is equivalent to gen {SCALAR} but a little faster.

iterate {CODE} [LIMIT|GENERATOR]

iterate returns a generator that is created iteratively. iterate implicitly caches its values, this allows random access normally not possible with an iterative algorithm. LIMIT is an optional number of times to iterate. normally, inside the CODE block, $_ is set to the current iteration number. if passed a generator instead of a limit, $_ will be set to sequential values from that generator.

    my $fib = do {
        my ($x, $y) = (0, 1);
        iterate {
            my $return = $x;
            ($x, $y) = ($y, $x + $y);
            $return
        }
    };

generators produced by iterate have an extra method, ->from(LIST). the method must be called before values are accessed from the generator. the passed LIST will be the first values returned by the generator. the method also changes the behavior of $_ inside the block. $_ will contain the previous value generated by the iterator. this allows iterate to behave the same way as the like named haskell function.

    haskell: take 10 (iterate (2*) 1)
    perl:    iterate{2*$_}->from(1)->take(10)
             <1, 2 * * ... 10>
             <1,2**...10>

which all return [1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512]

iterate_stream {CODE} [LIMIT]

iterate_stream is a version of iterate that does not cache the generated values. because of this, access to the returned generator must be monotonically increasing (such as repeated calls to $gen->next).

iterate_multi {CODE} [LIMIT]

the same as iterate, except CODE can return a list of any size. inside CODE, $_ is set to the position in the returned generator where the block's returned list will be placed.

the returned generator from iterate_multi can be modified with push, pop, shift, unshift, and splice like a normal array. it is up to you to ensure that the iterative algorithm will still work after modifying the array.

the ->from(...) method can be called on the returned generator. see iterate for the rules and effects of this.

iterate_multi_stream {CODE} [LIMIT]

iterate_multi_stream is a version of iterate_multi that does not cache the generated values. because of this, access to the returned generator must be monotonically increasing (such as repeated calls to $gen->next).

keyword modification of a stream iterator (with push, shift, ...) is not supported.

gather {CODE} [LIMIT]

gather returns a generator that is created iteratively. rather than returning a value, you call take($return_value) within the CODE block. note that since perl5 does not have continuations, take(...) does not pause execution of the block. rather, it stores the return value, the block finishes, and then the generator returns the stored value.

you can not import the take(...) function from this module. take(...) will be installed automatically into your namespace during the execution of the CODE block. because of this, you must always call take(...) with parenthesis. take returns its argument unchanged.

gather implicitly caches its values, this allows random access normally not possible with an iterative algorithm. the algorithm in iterate is a bit cleaner here, but gather is slower than iterate , so benchmark if speed is a concern

    my $fib = do {
        my ($x, $y) = (0, 1);
        gather {
            ($x, $y) = ($y, take($x) + $y)
        }
    };

a non-cached version gather_stream is also available, see iterate_stream

gather_multi {CODE} [LIMIT]

the same as gather except you can take(...) multiple times, and each can take a list. gather_multi_stream is also available.

stream {CODE}

in the CODE block, calls to functions or methods with stream versions will be replaced by those versions. this applies also to functions that are called internally by List::Gen (such as in the glob syntax). stream returns what CODE returns.

    say iterate{}->type;             # List::Gen::Iterate
    say iterate_stream{}->type;      # List::Gen::Iterate_Stream
    stream {
        say iterate{}->type;         # List::Gen::Iterate_Stream
    };
    say stream{iterate{}}->type;     # List::Gen::Iterate_Stream
    say stream{<1.. if even>}->type; # List::Gen::Filter_Stream

placing code inside a stream block is exactly the same as placing local $List::Gen::STREAM = 1; at the top of a block.

glob STRING
<list comprehension>

by default, this module overrides perl's default glob function. this is because the glob function provides the behavior of the angle bracket delimited <*.ext> operator, which is a nice place for inserting list comprehensions into perl's syntax. the override causes glob() and the <*.ext> operator to have a few special cases overridden, but any case that is not overridden will be passed to perl's internal glob function (my @files = <*.txt>; works as normal).

  • there are several types of overridden operations:
        range:              < [prefix,] low .. [high] [by step] >
    
        iterate:            < [prefix,] code ... [size] >
    
        list comprehension: < [code for] (range|iterate) [if code] [while code] >
    
        reduction:          < \[op|name\] (range|iterate|list comprehension) >
  • range strings match the following pattern:
        (prefix,)? number .. number? ((by | += | -= | [-+]) number)?

    here are a few examples of valid ranges:

        <1 .. 10>       ~~  range 1, 10
        <0 .. >         ~~  range 0, 9**9**9
        <0 .. *>        ~~  range 0, 9**9**9
        <1 .. 10 by 2>  ~~  range 1, 10, 2
        <10 .. 1 -= 2>  ~~  range 10, 1, -2
        <a .. z>        ~~  range 'a', 'z'
        <A .. ZZ>       ~~  range 'A', 'ZZ'
        <a..>           ~~  range 'a', 9**9**9
        <a.. += b>      ~~  range 'a', 9**9**9, 2
        <0, 0..>        ~~  [0] + range 0, 9**9**9
        <'a','ab', 0..> ~~  ['a','ab'] + range 0, 9**9**9
        <qw(a ab), 0..> ~~  [qw(a ab)] + range 0, 9**9**9
  • iterate strings match the following pattern:
        (.+? ,)+ (.*[*].* | \{ .+ }) ... number?

    such as:

        my $fib = <0, 1, * + * ... *>;

    which means something like:

        my $fib = do {
            my @pre = (0, 1);
            my $self;
            $self = iterate {
                @pre ? shift @pre : $self->get($_ - 2) + $self->get($_ - 1)
            } 9**9**9
        };

    a few more examples:

        my $fib = <0, 1, {$^a + $^b} ... *>;
    
        my $fac = <1, * * _ ... *>;
    
        my $int = <0, * + 1 ... *>;
    
        my $fib = <0,1,*+*...>; # ending star is optional
  • list comprehension strings match:
        ( .+ (for | [:|]) )? (range | iterate) ( (if | unless | [?,]) .+ )?
                                               ( (while | until ) .+ )?

    examples:

        <**2: 1 .. 10>                 ~~  gen {$_**2} range 1, 10
        <**2: 1 .. 10 ? %2>            ~~  gen {$_**2} filter {$_ % 2} range 1, 10
        <sin: 0 .. 3.14 += 0.01>       ~~  gen {sin} range 0, 3.14, 0.01
        <1 .. 10 if % 2>               ~~  filter {$_ % 2} range 1, 10
        <sin for 0 .. 10 by 3 if /5/>  ~~  gen {sin} filter {/5/} range 0, 10, 3
        <*3 for 0 .. 10 unless %3>     ~~  gen {$_ * 3} filter {not $_ % 3} 0, 10
        <0 .. 100 while \< 10>         ~~  While {$_ < 10} range 0, 100
        <*2 for 0.. if %2 while \<10>  ~~  <0..>->grep('%2')->while('<10')->map('*2')

    there are three delimiter types available for basic list comprehensions:

        terse:   <*2: 1.. ?%3>
        haskell: <*2| 1.., %3>
        verbose: <*2 for 1.. if %3>

    you can mix and match <*2 for 1.., %3>, <*2| 1.. ?%3>

    in the above examples, most of the code areas are using abbreviated syntax. here are a few equivalencies:

        <*2:1..?%3> ~~ <*2 for 1.. if %3> ~~ <\$_ * 2 for 1 .. * if \$_ % 3>
    
        <1.. if even> ~~ <1.. if not %2> ~~ <1..?!%2> ~~ <1.. if not _ % 2>
                      ~~ <1.. unless %2> ~~ <1..* if not \$_ % 2>
    
        <1.. if %2> ~~ <1.. if _%2> ~~ <1..* ?odd> ~~ <1.. ? \$_ % 2>
  • reduction strings match:
        \[operator | function_name\] (range | iterate | list comp)

    examples:

        say <[+] 1..10>; # prints 55

    pre/post fixing the operator with '..' uses the scan function instead of reduce

        my $fac = <[..*] 1..>;  # read as "a running product of one to infinity"
    
        my $sum = <[+]>;        # no argument returns the reduction function
    
        say $sum->(1 .. 10);    # 55
        say $sum->(<1..10>);    # 55
    
        my $rev_cat = <[R.]>;   # prefix the operator with `R` to reverse it
    
        say $rev_cat->(1 .. 9); # 987654321
  • all of these features can be used together:
        <[+..] *2 for 0 .. 100 by 2 unless %3 >

    which is the same as:

        range(0, 100, 2)->grep('not %3')->map('*2')->scan('+')

    when multiple features are used together, the following construction order is used:

        1. prefix
        2. range or iterate
        3. if / unless   (grep)
        4. while / until (while)
        5. for           (map)
        6. reduce / scan
    
        ([prefix] + (range|iterate))->grep(...)->while(...)->map(...)->reduce(...)
  • bignums

    when run in perl 5.9.4+, glob strings will honor the lexical pragmas bignum , bigint , and bigrat .

        *factorial = do {use bigint; <[..*] 1, 1..>->code};
    
        say factorial(25); # 15511210043330985984000000
  • special characters

    since the angle brackets (< and >) are used as delimiters of the glob string, they both must be escaped with \ if used in the <...> construct.

        <1..10 if \< 5>->say; # 1 2 3 4

    due to <...> being a qq{} string, in the code areas if you need to write $_ write it without the sigil as _

        <1 .. 10 if _**2 \> 40>->say; # 7 8 9 10

    it can be escaped \$_ as well.

    neither of these issues apply to calling glob directly with a single quoted string:

        glob('1..10 if $_ < 5')->say; # 1 2 3 4
List::Gen ...

the subroutine Gen in the package List:: is a dwimmy function that produces a generator from a variety of sources. since List::Gen is a fully qualified name, it is available from all packages without the need to import it.

if given only one argument, the following table describes what is done:

    array ref:    List::Gen \@array      ~~  makegen @array
    code ref:     List::Gen sub {$_**2}  ~~  <0..>->map(sub {$_**2})
    scalar ref:   List::Gen \'*2'        ~~  <0..>->map('*2')
    glob string:  List::Gen '1.. by 2'   ~~  <1.. by 2>
    glob string:  List::Gen '0, 1, *+*'  ~~  <0, 1, *+*...>
    file handle:  List::Gen $fh          ~~  file $fh

if the argument does not match the table, or the method is given more than one argument, the list is converted to a generator with list(...)

    List::Gen(1, 2, 3)->map('2**')->say;  # 2 4 8

since it results in longer code than any of the equivalent constructs, it is mostly for if you have not imported anything: use List::Gen ();

vecgen [BITS] [SIZE] [DATA]

vecgen wraps a bit vector in a generator. BITS defaults to 8. SIZE defaults to infinite. DATA defaults to an empty string.

cells of the generator can be assigned to using array dereferencing:

    my $vec = vecgen;
    $$vec[3] = 5;

or with the ->set(...) method:

    $vec->set(3, 5);
primes

utilizing the same mechanism as the <1..>->grep('prime') construct, the primes function returns an equivalent, but more efficiently constructed generator.

prime numbers below 1e7 are tested with a sieve of eratosthenes and should be reasonably efficient. beyond that, simple trial division is used.

primes always returns the same generator.

modifying generators

slice SOURCE_GEN RANGE_GEN

slice uses RANGE_GEN to generate the indices used to take a lazy slice of SOURCE_GEN .

    my $gen = gen {$_ ** 2};

    my $s1 = slice $gen, range 1, 9**9**9;
    my $s2 = slice $gen, <1..>;
    my $s3 = $gen->slice(<1..>);
    my $s4 = $gen->(<1..>);

    $s1 ~~ $s2 ~~ $s3 ~~ $s4 ~~ $gen->tail

slice will perform some optimizations if it detects that RANGE_GEN is sufficiently simple (something like range $x, $y, 1 ). also, stacked simple slices will collapse into a single slice, which turns repeated tailing of a generator into a relatively efficient operation.

   $gen->(<1..>)->(<1..>)->(<1..>) ~~ $gen->(<3..>) ~~ $gen->tail->tail->tail
test {CODE} [ARGS_FOR_GEN]

test attaches a code block to a generator. it takes arguments suitable for the gen function. accessing an element of the returned generator will call the code block first with the element in $_ , and if it returns true, the element is returned, otherwise an empty list (undef in scalar context) is returned.

when accessing a slice of a tested generator, if you use the ->(x .. y) syntax, the the empty lists will collapse and you may receive a shorter slice. an array dereference slice will always be the size you ask for, and will have undef in each failed slot

the $gen->nxt method is a version of $gen->next that continues to call ->next until a call returns a value, or the generator is exhausted. this makes the ->nxt method the easiest way to iterate over only the passing values of a tested generator.

cache {CODE}
cache GENERATOR
cache list => ...

cache will return a cached version of the generators returned by functions in this package. when passed a code reference, cache returns a memoized code ref (arguments joined with $; ). when in 'list' mode, the source is in list context, otherwise scalar context is used.

    my $gen = cache gen {slow($_)} \@source; # calls = 0

    print $gen->[123];    # calls += 1
    ...
    print @$gen[123, 456] # calls += 1
flip GENERATOR

flip is reverse for generators. the ->apply method is called on GENERATOR . $gen->flip and $gen->reverse do the same thing.

    flip gen {$_**2} 0, 10   ~~   gen {$_**2} 10, 0, -1
expand GENERATOR
expand SCALE GENERATOR

expand scales a generator with elements that return equal sized lists. it can be passed a list length, or will automatically determine it from the length of the list returned by the first element of the generator. expand implicitly caches its returned generator.

    my $multigen = gen {$_, $_/2, $_/4} 1, 10;   # each element returns a list

    say join ' '=> $$multigen[0];  # 0.25        # only last element
    say join ' '=> &$multigen(0);  # 1 0.5 0.25  # works
    say scalar @$multigen;         # 10
    say $multigen->size;           # 10

    my $expanded = expand $multigen;

    say join ' '=> @$expanded[0 .. 2];  # 1 0.5 0.25
    say join ' '=> &$expanded(0 .. 2);  # 1 0.5 0.25
    say scalar @$expanded;              # 30
    say $expanded->size;                # 30

    my $expanded = expand gen {$_, $_/2, $_/4} 1, 10; # in one line

expand can also scale a generator that returns array references:

    my $refs = gen {[$_, $_.$_]} 3;

    say $refs->join(', '); # ARRAY(0x272514), ARRAY(0x272524), ARRAY(0x272544)
    say $refs->expand->join(', '); # 0, 00, 1, 11, 2, 22

expand in array ref mode is the same as calling the ->deref method.

contract SCALE GENERATOR

contract is the inverse of expand

also called collect

scan {CODE} GENERATOR
scan {CODE} LIST

scan is a reduce that builds a list of all the intermediate values. scan returns a generator, and is the function behind the <[..+]> globstring reduction operator.

    (scan {$a * $b} <1, 1..>)->say(8); # 1 1 2 6 24 120 720 5040 40320

    say <[..*] 1, 1..>->str(8);        # 1 1 2 6 24 120 720 5040 40320

    say <1, 1..>->scan('*')->str(8);   # 1 1 2 6 24 120 720 5040 40320

    say <[..*]>->(1, 1 .. 7)->str;     # 1 1 2 6 24 120 720 5040 40320

you can even use the ->code method to tersely define a factorial function:

    *factorial = <[..*] 1, 1..>->code;

    say factorial(5);  # 120

a stream version scan_stream is also available.

overlay GENERATOR PAIRS

overlay allows you to replace the values of specific generator cells. to set the values, either pass the overlay constructor a list of pairs in the form index => value, ..., or assign values to the returned generator using normal array ref syntax

    my $fib; $fib = overlay gen {$$fib[$_ - 1] + $$fib[$_ - 2]};
    @$fib[0, 1] = (0, 1);

    # or
    my $fib; $fib = gen {$$fib[$_ - 1] + $$fib[$_ - 2]}
                  ->overlay( 0 => 0, 1 => 1 );

    print "@$fib[0 .. 15]";  # '0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610'
recursive [NAME] GENERATOR

recursive defines a subroutine named self(...) or NAME(...) during generator execution. when called with no arguments it returns the generator. when called with one or more numeric arguments, it fetches those indices from the generator. when called with a generator, it returns a lazy slice from the source generator. since the subroutine created by recursive is installed at runtime, you must call the subroutine with parenthesis.

    my $fib = gen {self($_ - 1) + self($_ - 2)}
            ->overlay( 0 => 0, 1 => 1 )
            ->cache
            ->recursive;

    print "@$fib[0 .. 15]";  # '0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610'

when used as a method, $gen->recursive can be shortened to $gen->rec.

    my $fib = ([0, 1] + iterate {sum fib($_, $_ + 1)})->rec('fib');

    print "@$fib[0 .. 15]";  # '0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610'

of course the fibonacci sequence is better written with the glob syntax as <0, 1, *+*...> which is compiled into something similar to the example with iterate above.

mutable generators

filter {CODE} [ARGS_FOR_GEN]

filter is a lazy version of grep which attaches a code block to a generator. it returns a generator that will test elements with the code block on demand. filter processes its argument list the same way gen does.

filter provides the functionality of the identical ->filter(...) and ->grep(...) methods.

normal generators, such as those produced by range or gen , have a fixed length, and that is used to allow random access within the range. however, there is no way to know how many elements will pass a filter. because of this, random access within the filter is not always O(1) . filter will attempt to be as lazy as possible, but to access the 10th element of a filter, the first 9 passing elements must be found first. depending on the coderef and the source, the filter may need to process significantly more elements from its source than just 10.

in addition, since filters don't know their true size, entire filter arrays do not expand to the correct number of elements in list context. to correct this, call the ->apply method which will test the filter on all of its source elements. after that, the filter will return a properly sized array. calling ->apply on an infinite (or very large) range wouldn't be a good idea. if you are using ->apply frequently, you should probably just be using grep . you can call ->apply on any stack of generator functions, it will start from the deepest filter and move up.

the method ->all will first call ->apply on itself and then return the complete list

filters implicitly cache their values. accessing any element below the highest element already accessed is O(1) .

accessing individual elements or slices works as you would expect.

    my $filter = filter {$_ % 2} 0, 100;

    say $#$filter;   # incorrectly reports 100

    say "@$filter[5 .. 10]"; # reads the source range up to element 23
                             # prints 11 13 15 17 19 21

    say $#$filter;   # reports 88, closer but still wrong

    $filter->apply;  # reads remaining elements from the source

    say $#$filter;   # 49 as it should be

note: filter now reads one element past the last element accessed, this allows filters to behave properly when dereferenced in a foreach loop (without having to call ->apply). if you prefer the old behavior, set $List::Gen::LOOKAHEAD = 0 or use filter_ ...

filter_stream {CODE} ...

as filter runs, it builds up a cache of the elements that pass the filter. this enables efficient random access in the returned generator. sometimes this caching behavior causes certain algorithms to use too much memory. filter_stream is a version of filter that does not maintain a cache.

normally, access to *_stream iterators must be monotonically increasing since their source can only produce values in one direction. filtering is a reversible algorithm, and subsequently filter streams are able to rewind themselves to any previous index. however, unlike filter , the filter_stream generator must test previously tested elements to rewind. things probably wont end well if the test code is non-deterministic or if the source values are changing.

when used as a method, it can be spelled $gen->filter_stream(...) or $gen->grep_stream(...)

While {CODE} GENERATOR
Until {CODE} GENERATOR

While / ->while(...) returns a new generator that will end when its passed in subroutine returns false. the until pair ends when the subroutine returns true.

if $List::Gen::LOOKAHEAD is true (the default), each reads one element past its requested element, and saves this value only until the next call for efficiency, no other values are saved. each supports random access, but is optimized for sequential access.

these functions have all of the caveats of filter , should be considered experimental, and may change in future versions. the generator returned should only be dereferenced in a foreach loop, otherwise, just like a filter perl will expand it to the wrong size.

the generator will return undef the first time an access is made and the check code indicates it is past the end.

the generator will throw an error if accessed beyond its dynamically found limit subsequent times.

    my $pow = While {$_ < 20} gen {$_**2};
              <0..>->map('**2')->while('< 20')

    say for @$pow;

prints:

    0
    1
    4
    9
    16

in general, it is faster to write it this way:

    my $pow = gen {$_**2};
    $gen->do(sub {
        last if $_ > 20;
        say;
    });
mutable GENERATOR
$gen->mutable

mutable takes a single fixed size (immutable) generator, such as those produced by gen and converts it into a variable size (mutable) generator, such as those returned by filter .

as with filter, it is important to not use full array dereferencing ( @$gen ) with mutable generators, since perl will expand the generator to the wrong size. to access all of the elements, use the $gen->all method, or call $gen->apply before @$gen . using a slice @$gen[5 .. 10] is always ok, and does not require calling ->apply.

mutable generators respond to the List::Gen::Done exception, which can be produced with either done , done_if , or done_unless . when the exception is caught, it causes the generator to set its size, and it also triggers any ->when_done actions.

    my $gen = mutable gen {done if $_ > 5; $_**2};

    say $gen->size; # inf
    say $gen->str;  # 0 1 4 9 16 25
    say $gen->size; # 6

generators returned from mutable have a ->set_size(int) method that will set the generator's size and then trigger any ->when_done(sub{...}) methods.

done [LAST_RETURN_VALUE]

throws an exception that will be caught by a mutable generator indicating that the generator should set its size. if a value is passed to done, that will be the final value returned by the generator, otherwise, the final value will be the value returned on the previous call.

done_if COND VALUE
done_unless COND VALUE

these are convenience functions for throwing done exceptions. if the condition does not indicate done then the function returns VALUE

strict {CODE}

in the CODE block, calls to functions or methods are subject to the following localizations:

  • local $List::Gen::LOOKAHEAD = 0;

    the functions filter , While and their various forms normally stay an element ahead of the last requested element so that an array dereference in a foreach loop ends properly. this localization disables this behavior, which might be needed for certain algorithms. it is therefore important to never write code like: for(@$strict_filtered){...} , instead write $strict_filtered->do(sub{...}) which is faster as well. the following code illustrates the difference in behavior:

        my $test = sub {
            my $loud = filter {print "$_, "; $_ % 2};
            print "($_:", $loud->next, '), ' for 0 .. 2;
            print $/;
        };
        print 'normal: '; $test->();
        print 'strict: '; strict {$test->()};
    
        normal: 0, 1, 2, 3, (0:1), 4, 5, (1:3), 6, 7, (2:5),
        strict: 0, 1, (0:1), 2, 3, (1:3), 4, 5, (2:5),
  • local $List::Gen::DWIM_CODE_STRINGS = 0;

    in the dwim $gen->(...) code deref syntax, if $DWIM_CODE_STRINGS has been set to a true value, bare strings that look like code will be interpreted as code and passed to gen (string refs to filter ). since this behavior is fun for golf, but potentially error prone, it is off by default. strict turns it back off if it had been turned on.

strict returns what CODE returns. strict may have additional restrictions added to it in the future.

combining generators

sequence LIST

string generators, arrays, and scalars together.

sequence provides the functionality of the overloaded + operator on generators:

    my $seq = <1 .. 10> + <20 .. 30> + <40 .. 50>;

is exactly the same as:

    my $seq = sequence <1 .. 10>, <20 .. 30>, <40 .. 50>;

you can even write things like:

    my $fib; $fib = [0, 1] + iterate {sum $fib->($_, $_ + 1)};

    say "@$fib[0 .. 10]"; # 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55
zipgen LIST

zipgen is a lazy version of zip . it takes any combination of generators and array refs and returns a generator. it is called automatically when zip is used in scalar context.

zipgen can be spelled genzip

unzip LIST

unzip is the opposite of zip src1, src2 . unzip returns 2 generators, the first returning src1, the second, src2. if LIST is a single element, and is a generator, that generator will be unzipped.

unzipn NUMBER LIST

unzipn is the n-dimentional precursor of unzip . assuming a zipped list produced by zip with n elements, unzip n list returns n lists corresponding to the lists originally passed to zip . if LIST is a single element, and is a generator, that generator will be unzipped. if only passed 1 argument, unzipn will return a curried version of itself:

   *unzip3 = unzipn 3;

   my $zip3 = zip <1..>, <2..>, <3..>;

   my ($x, $y, $z) = unzip3($zip3);

   # $x == <1..>, $y == <2..>, $z == <3..>;
zipgenmax LIST

zipgenmax is a lazy version of zipmax . it takes any combination of generators and array refs and returns a generator.

zipwith {CODE} LIST

zipwith takes a code block and a list. the LIST is zipped together and each sub-list is passed to CODE when requested. zipwith produces a generator with the same length as its shortest source list.

    my $triples = zipwith {\@_} <1..>, <20..>, <300..>;

    say "@$_" for @$triples[0 .. 3];

    1 20 300   # the first element of each list
    2 21 301   # the second
    3 22 302   # the third
    4 23 303   # the fourth
zipwithab {AB_CODE} $gen1, $gen2

The zipwithab function takes a function which uses $a and $b , as well as two lists and returns a list analogous to zipwith.

zipwithmax {CODE} LIST

zipwithmax is a version of zipwith that has the ending conditions of zipgenmax .

transpose MULTI_DIMENSIONAL_ARRAY
transpose LIST

transpose computes the 90 degree rotation of its arguments, which must be a single multidimensional array or generator, or a list of 1+ dimensional structures.

    say transpose([[1, 2, 3]])->perl; # [[1], [2], [3]]

    say transpose([[1, 1], [2, 2], [3, 3]])->perl; # [[1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3]]

    say transpose(<1..>, <2..>, <3..>)->take(5)->perl;
    # [[1, 2, 3], [2, 3, 4], [3, 4, 5], [4, 5, 6], [5, 6, 7]]
cartesian {CODE} LIST

cartesian computes the cartesian product of any number of array refs or generators, each which can be any size. returns a generator

    my $product = cartesian {$_[0] . $_[1]} [qw/a b/], [1, 2];

    @$product == qw( a1 a2 b1 b2 );

misc functions

mapkey {CODE} KEY LIST

this function is syntactic sugar for the following idiom

    my @cartesian_product =
        map {
            my $first = $_;
            map {
                my $second = $_;
                map {
                    $first . $second . $_
                } 1 .. 3
            } qw/x y z/
        } qw/a b c/;

    my @cartesian_product =
        mapkey {
            mapkey {
                mapkey {
                    $_{first} . $_{second} . $_{third}
                } third => 1 .. 3
            } second => qw/x y z/
        } first => qw/a b c/;
mapab {CODE} PAIRS

this function works like the builtin map but consumes a list in pairs, rather than one element at a time. inside the CODE block, the variables $a and $b are aliased to the elements of the list. if mapab is called in void context, the CODE block will be executed in void context for efficiency. if mapab is passed an uneven length list, in the final iteration, $b will be undef

    my %hash = (a => 1, b => 2, c => 3);

    my %reverse = mapab {$b, $a} %hash;
slide {CODE} WINDOW LIST

slides a WINDOW sized slice over LIST , calling CODE for each slice and collecting the result

as the window reaches the end, the passed in slice will shrink

    print slide {"@_\n"} 2 => 1 .. 4
    # 1 2
    # 2 3
    # 3 4
    # 4         # only one element here
remove {CODE} ARRAY|HASH

remove removes and returns elements from its source when CODE returns true. in the code block, if the source is an array, $_ is aliased to its elements. if the source is a hash, $_ is aliased to its keys (and a list of the removed key => value pairs are returned).

    my @array   = (1, 7, 6, 3, 8, 4);
    my @removed = remove {$_ > 5} @array;

    say "@array";   # 1 3 4
    say "@removed"; # 7 6 8

in list context, remove returns the list of removed elements/pairs. in scalar context, it returns the number of removals. remove will not build a return list in void context for efficiency.

d [SCALAR]
deref [SCALAR]

dereference a SCALAR , ARRAY , or HASH reference. any other value is returned unchanged

    print join " " => map deref, 1, [2, 3, 4], \5, {6 => 7}, 8, 9, 10;
    # prints 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
curse HASHREF PACKAGE

many of the functions in this package utilize closure objects to avoid the speed penalty of dereferencing fields in their object during each access. curse is similar to bless for these objects and while a blessing makes a reference into a member of an existing package, a curse conjures a new package to do the reference's bidding

    package Closure::Object;
        sub new {
            my ($class, $name, $value) = @_;
            curse {
                get  => sub {$value},
                set  => sub {$value = $_[1]},
                name => sub {$name},
            } => $class
        }

Closure::Object is functionally equivalent to the following normal perl object, but with faster method calls since there are no hash lookups or other dereferences (around 40-50% faster for short getter/setter type methods)

    package Normal::Object;
        sub new {
            my ($class, $name, $value) = @_;
            bless {
                name  => $name,
                value => $value,
            } => $class
        }
        sub get  {$_[0]{value}}
        sub set  {$_[0]{value} = $_[1]}
        sub name {$_[0]{name}}

the trade off is in creation time / memory, since any good curse requires drawing at least a few pentagrams in the blood of an innocent package.

the returned object is blessed into the conjured package, which inherits from the provided PACKAGE . always use $obj->isa(...) rather than ref $obj eq ... due to this. the conjured package name matches /${PACKAGE}::_\d+/

special keys:

    -bless    => $reference  # returned instead of HASHREF
    -overload => [fallback => 1, '""' => sub {...}]

when fast just isn't fast enough, since most cursed methods don't need to be passed their object, the fastest way to call the method is:

    my $obj = Closure::Object->new('tim', 3);
    my $set = $obj->{set};                  # fetch the closure
         # or $obj->can('set')

    $set->(undef, $_) for 1 .. 1_000_000;   # call without first arg

which is around 70% faster than pre-caching a method from a normal object for short getter/setter methods, and is the method used internally in this module.

SEE ALSO ^

CAVEATS ^

version 0.90 added glob to the default export list (which gives you syntactic ranges <1 .. 10> and list comprehensions.). version 0.90 also adds many new features and bug-fixes, as usual, if anything is broken, please send in a bug report. the ending conditions of zip and zipgen have changed, see the documentation above. test has been removed from the default export list. setting $List::Gen::LIST true to enable list context generators is no longer supported and will now throw an error. list has been added to the default export list. genzip has been renamed zipgen

version 0.70 comes with a bunch of new features, if anything is broken, please let me know. see filter for a minor behavior change

versions 0.50 and 0.60 break some of the syntax from previous versions, for the better.

code generation

a number of the syntactic shortcuts that List::Gen provides will construct and then evaluate code behind the scenes. Normally this is transparent, but if you are trying to debug a problem, hidden code is never a good thing. You can lexically enable the printing of evaled code with:

    local $List::Gen::SAY_EVAL = 1;

    my $fib = <0, 1, *+*...>;

    #   eval: ' @pre = (0, 1)' at (file.pl) line ##
    #   eval: 'List::Gen::iterate { if (@pre) {shift @pre}
    #            else { $fetch->(undef, $_ - 2) + $fetch->(undef, $_ - 1) }
    #        } 9**9**9' at (file.pl) line ##

    my $gen = <1..10>->map('$_*2 + 1')->grep('some_predicate');

    #   eval: 'sub ($) {$_*2 + 1}' at (file.pl) line ##
    #   eval: 'sub ($) {some_predicate($_)}' at (file.pl) line ##

a given code string is only evaluated once and is then cached, so you will not see any additional output when using the same code strings in multiple places. in some cases (like the iterate example above) the code is closing over external variables ( @pre and $fetch ) so you will not be able to see everything, but $SAY_EVAL should be a helpful debugging aid.

any time that code evaluation fails, an immediate fatal error is thrown. the value of $SAY_EVAL does not matter in that case.

captures of compile time constructed lists

the cap function and its twin operator &\ are faster than the [...] construct because they do not copy their arguments. this is why the elements of the captures remain aliased to their arguments. this is normally fine, but it has an interesting effect with compile time constructed constant lists:

    my $max = 1000;
    my $range = & \(1 .. $max); #  57% faster than [1 .. $max]
    my $nums  = & \(1 .. 1000); # 366% faster than [1 .. 1000], but cheating

the first example shows the expected speed increase due to not copying the values into a new empty array reference. the second example is much faster at runtime than the [...] syntax, but this speed is deceptive. the reason is that the list being passed in as an argument is generated by the compiler before runtime begins. so all perl has to do is place the values on the stack, and call the function.

normally this is fine, but there is one catch to be aware of, and that is that a capture of a compile time constant list in a loop or subroutine (or any structure that can execute the same segment of code repeatedly) will always return a reference to an array of the same elements.

    # two instances give two separate arrays
    my ($a, $b) = (&\(1 .. 3), &\(1 .. 3));
    $_ += 10 for @$a;
    say "@$a : @$b"; # 11 12 13 : 1 2 3

    # here the one instance returns the same elements twice
    my ($x, $y) = map &\(1 .. 3), 1 .. 2;
    $_ += 10 for @$x;
    say "@$x : @$y"; # 11 12 13 : 11 12 13

this only applies to compile time constructed constant lists, anything containing a variable or non constant function call will give you separate array elements, as shown below:

    my ($low, $high) = (1, 3);
    my ($x, $y) = map &\($low .. $high), 1 .. 2;  # non constant list
    $_ += 10 for @$x;
    say "@$x : @$y"; # 11 12 13 : 1 2 3

AUTHOR ^

Eric Strom, <asg at cpan.org>

BUGS ^

overloading has gotten fairly complicated and is probably in need of a rewrite. if any edge cases do not work, please send in a bug report.

both threaded methods ($gen->threads_slice(...)) and function composition with overloaded operators (made with List::Gen::Lazy::fn {...}) do not work properly in versions of perl before 5.10. patches welcome

report any bugs / feature requests to bug-list-gen at rt.cpan.org, or through the web interface at http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=List-Gen.

comments / feedback / patches are also welcome.

COPYRIGHT & LICENSE ^

copyright 2009-2011 Eric Strom.

this program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.

see http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.

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