Mario Roy > MCE > MCE::Map

Download:
MCE-1.522.tar.gz

Dependencies

Annotate this POD

Website

CPAN RT

Open  0
View/Report Bugs
Module Version: 1.522   Source  

NAME ^

MCE::Map - Parallel map model similar to the native map function

VERSION ^

This document describes MCE::Map version 1.522

SYNOPSIS ^

   ## Exports mce_map, mce_map_f, and mce_map_s
   use MCE::Map;

   ## Array or array_ref
   my @a = mce_map { $_ * $_ } 1..10000;
   my @b = mce_map { $_ * $_ } [ 1..10000 ];

   ## File_path, glob_ref, or scalar_ref
   my @c = mce_map_f { chomp; $_ } "/path/to/file";
   my @d = mce_map_f { chomp; $_ } $file_handle;
   my @e = mce_map_f { chomp; $_ } \$scalar;

   ## Sequence of numbers (begin, end [, step, format])
   my @f = mce_map_s { $_ * $_ } 1, 10000, 5;
   my @g = mce_map_s { $_ * $_ } [ 1, 10000, 5 ];

   my @h = mce_map_s { $_ * $_ } {
      begin => 1, end => 10000, step => 5, format => undef
   };

DESCRIPTION ^

This module provides a parallel map implementation via Many-Core Engine. MCE incurs a small overhead due to passing of data. A fast code block will run faster natively. However, the overhead will likely diminish as the complexity increases for the code.

   my @m1 =     map { $_ * $_ } 1..1000000;               ## 0.127 secs
   my @m2 = mce_map { $_ * $_ } 1..1000000;               ## 0.304 secs

Chunking, enabled by default, greatly reduces the overhead behind the scene. The time for mce_map below also includes the time for data exchanges between the manager and worker processes. More parallelization will be seen when the code incurs additional CPU time.

   sub calc {
      sqrt $_ * sqrt $_ / 1.3 * 1.5 / 3.2 * 1.07
   }

   my @m1 =     map { calc } 1..1000000;                  ## 0.367 secs
   my @m2 = mce_map { calc } 1..1000000;                  ## 0.365 secs

Even faster is mce_map_s; useful when input data is a range of numbers. Workers generate sequences mathematically among themselves without any interaction from the manager process. Two arguments are required for mce_map_s (begin, end). Step defaults to 1 if begin is smaller than end, otherwise -1.

   my @m3 = mce_map_s { calc } 1, 1000000;                ## 0.270 secs

Although this document is about MCE::Map, the MCE::Stream module can write results immediately without waiting for all chunks to complete. This is made possible by passing the reference to an array (in this case @m4 and @m5).

   use MCE::Stream;

   sub calc {
      sqrt $_ * sqrt $_ / 1.3 * 1.5 / 3.2 * 1.07
   }

   my @m4; mce_stream \@m4, sub { calc }, 1..1000000;

      ## Completes in 0.272 secs. This is amazing considering the
      ## overhead for passing data between the manager and workers.

   my @m5; mce_stream_s \@m5, sub { calc }, 1, 1000000;

      ## Completed in 0.176 secs. Like with mce_map_s, specifying a
      ## sequence specification turns out to be faster due to lesser
      ## overhead for the manager process.

OVERRIDING DEFAULTS ^

The following list 5 options which may be overridden when loading the module.

   use Sereal qw( encode_sereal decode_sereal );
   use CBOR::XS qw( encode_cbor decode_cbor );
   use JSON::XS qw( encode_json decode_json );

   use MCE::Map
         max_workers => 4,               ## Default 'auto'
         chunk_size => 100,              ## Default 'auto'
         tmp_dir => "/path/to/app/tmp",  ## $MCE::Signal::tmp_dir
         freeze => \&encode_sereal,      ## \&Storable::freeze
         thaw => \&decode_sereal         ## \&Storable::thaw
   ;

There is a simpler way to enable Sereal with MCE 1.5. The following will attempt to use Sereal if available, otherwise defaults to Storable for serialization.

   use MCE::Map Sereal => 1;

   ## Serialization is by the Sereal module if available.
   my @m2 = mce_map { $_ * $_ } 1..10000;

CUSTOMIZING MCE ^

init

The init function accepts a hash of MCE options. The gather option, if specified, is ignored due to being used internally by the module.

   use MCE::Map;

   MCE::Map::init {
      chunk_size => 1, max_workers => 4,

      user_begin => sub {
         print "## ", MCE->wid, " started\n";
      },

      user_end => sub {
         print "## ", MCE->wid, " completed\n";
      }
   };

   my @a = mce_map { $_ * $_ } 1..100;

   print "\n", "@a", "\n";

   -- Output

   ## 2 started
   ## 1 started
   ## 3 started
   ## 4 started
   ## 1 completed
   ## 4 completed
   ## 2 completed
   ## 3 completed

   1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361
   400 441 484 529 576 625 676 729 784 841 900 961 1024 1089 1156
   1225 1296 1369 1444 1521 1600 1681 1764 1849 1936 2025 2116 2209
   2304 2401 2500 2601 2704 2809 2916 3025 3136 3249 3364 3481 3600
   3721 3844 3969 4096 4225 4356 4489 4624 4761 4900 5041 5184 5329
   5476 5625 5776 5929 6084 6241 6400 6561 6724 6889 7056 7225 7396
   7569 7744 7921 8100 8281 8464 8649 8836 9025 9216 9409 9604 9801
   10000

API DOCUMENTATION ^

mce_map { code } iterator

An iterator reference can by specified for input_data. Iterators are described under "SYNTAX for INPUT_DATA" at MCE::Core.

   my @a = mce_map { $_ * 2 } make_iterator(10, 30, 2);
mce_map { code } list

Input data can be defined using a list.

   my @a = mce_map { $_ * 2 } 1..1000;
   my @b = mce_map { $_ * 2 } [ 1..1000 ];
mce_map_f { code } file

The fastest of these is the /path/to/file. Workers communicate the next offset position among themselves without any interaction from the manager process.

   my @c = mce_map_f { chomp; $_ . "\r\n" } "/path/to/file";
   my @d = mce_map_f { chomp; $_ . "\r\n" } $file_handle;
   my @e = mce_map_f { chomp; $_ . "\r\n" } \$scalar;
mce_map_s { code } sequence

Sequence can be defined as a list, an array reference, or a hash reference. The functions require both begin and end values to run. Step and format are optional. The format is passed to sprintf (% may be omitted below).

   my ($beg, $end, $step, $fmt) = (10, 20, 0.1, "%4.1f");

   my @f = mce_map_s { $_ } $beg, $end, $step, $fmt;
   my @g = mce_map_s { $_ } [ $beg, $end, $step, $fmt ];

   my @h = mce_map_s { $_ } {
      begin => $beg, end => $end, step => $step, format => $fmt
   };

MANUAL SHUTDOWN ^

finish

Workers remain persistent as much as possible after running. Shutdown occurs automatically when the script terminates. Call finish when workers are no longer needed.

   use MCE::Map;

   MCE::Map::init {
      chunk_size => 20, max_workers => 'auto'
   };

   my @a = mce_map { ... } 1..100;

   MCE::Map::finish;

INDEX ^

MCE

AUTHOR ^

Mario E. Roy, <marioeroy AT gmail DOT com>

LICENSE ^

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.

See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.

syntax highlighting: