Chris Nandor > Mac-Carbon > Memory/Memory.xs

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Handle

Handle provides an object interface to do simple operations on MacOS handles. The interface is simpler than the more general memory management functions.

new
new STRING

Create a new handle and return it. Copy $STRING into the handle if present. Return a 0 value if a handle could not be created.

    $h = new Handle;
    $hs = new Handle("This string will now exist in hyperspace");
size

Return the size of a handle (i.e., its data portion).

    die unless (new Handle)->size == 0;
    die unless $hs->size == 40;
append DATA

Appends the DATA to the end of the handle and returns the success as the result.

    $h->append("This string will now exist in hyperspace");
    die unless $h->size == 40;
set OFFSET, LENGTH, DATA
set OFFSET, LENGTH
set OFFSET
set

Munge the contents of the handle with the $DATA (deleting if not present), for the $LENGTH (through to the end of the handle contents if not present), starting at $OFFSET (the beginning if not present).

    $h->set(5, 6, "datum");

yields

    "This datum will now exist in hyperspace"
get OFFSET, LENGTH
get OFFSET
get

Return a datum which is the contents of the memory referenced by $HANDLE, starting at $OFFSET (default zero), of length $LENGTH (default the rest of the handle).

    die unless $hs->get(5, 6) eq "string";
address

Return the address of the memory block.

state
state NEWSTATE

Return the (locked) state of the handle, or return TRUE if the $NEWSTATE of the handle is installed.

    my $state = $h->state;
    HLock($h);
    # bunch of operations requiring $h to be locked
    $h->state($state);  # so nested locks exit properly

More than the lock state is stored here, so restoring the actual state on leaving a scope is required.

open MODE

Open a stream to a handle and return it.

NOT DEFINED AT THE MOMENT

SysRet _open(hand, mode) Handle hand int mode CODE: RETVAL = OpenHandle(hand, mode); OUTPUT: RETVAL

dispose

Disposes of the handle. Return zero if no error was detected.

Almost all of the memory management needs in MacPerl can be handled by the above interface

Ptr

Ptr provides an object interface to do simple operations on MacOS pointers (nonrelocatable heap blocks). There are very few good reasons to create pointers like this.

size

Return the size of a pointer (i.e., its data portion).

    die unless $ptr->size == 40;
set OFFSET, DATA
get OFFSET, LENGTH
get OFFSET
get

Return a datum which is the contents of the memory referenced by PTR, starting at $OFFSET (default zero), of length $LENGTH (default the rest of the block).

    die unless $ps->get(5, 6) eq "string";
address

Return the address of the memory block.

dispose

Disposes of the block. Return zero if no error was detected.

Functions

GetApplLimit

Mac OS only.

The GetApplLimit function returns the current application heap limit.

TopMem

Return a pointer to the top of memory for the application.

NewHandle BYTECOUNT
NewHandleSys BYTECOUNT
NewHandleClear BYTECOUNT
NewHandleSysClear BYTECOUNT

Mac OS only. (NewHandleSys, NewHandleSysClear)

Return a handle of $BYTECOUNT size.

NewHandleSys returns a handle in the system heap.

The NewHandleClear and NewHandleSysClear functions work much as the NewHandle and NewHandleSys functions do but set all bytes in the new block to 0 instead of leaving the contents of the block undefined. Currently, this is quite inefficient.

NewPtr BYTECOUNT
NewPtrSys BYTECOUNT

Mac OS only.

NewPtrClear BYTECOUNT
NewPtrSysClear BYTECOUNT

Mac OS only. (NewPtrSys, NewPtrSysClear)

Allocate a nonrelocatable block of memory of a specified size.

NewPtrSys and NewPtrSysClear allocate blocks in the system heap.

NewPtrClear and NewPtrSysClear allocate and zero the blocks (inefficiently).

MaxBlock
MaxBlockSys

Mac OS only. (MaxBlockSys)

The MaxBlock function returns the maximum contiguous space, in bytes, that you could obtain after compacting the current heap zone. MaxBlock does not actually do the compaction.

MaxBlockSys does the same for the system heap.

StackSpace

The StackSpace function returns the current amount of stack space (in bytes) between the current stack pointer and the application heap at the instant of return from the trap.

NewEmptyHandle
NewEmptyHandleSys

Mac OS only. (NewEmptyHandleSys)

The NewEmptyHandle function initializes a new handle by allocating a master pointer for it, but it does not allocate any memory for the handle to control. NewEmptyHandle sets the handle's master pointer to NIL.

NewEmptyHandleSys does the same for the system heap.

HLock HANDLE

Lock a relocatable block so that it does not move in the heap. If you plan to dereference a handle and then allocate, move, or purge memory (or call a routine that does so), then you should lock the handle before using the dereferenced handle.

HUnlock HANDLE

Unlock a relocatable block so that it is free to move in its heap zone.

HPurge HANDLE

Mark a relocatable block so that it can be purged if a memory request cannot be fulfilled after compaction.

HNoPurge HANDLE

Mark a relocatable block so that it cannot be purged.

HLockHi HANDLE

The HLockHi procedure attempts to move the relocatable block referenced by the handle $HANDLE upward until it reaches a nonrelocatable block, a locked relocatable block, or the top of the heap. Then HLockHi locks the block.

TempNewHandle BYTECOUNT

The TempNewHandle function returns a handle to a block of size $BYTECOUNT from temporary memory. If it cannot allocate a block of that size, the function returns NIL.

TempMaxMem

The TempMaxMem function compacts the current heap zone and returns the size of the largest contiguous block available for temporary allocation.

    $SIZE = &TempMaxMem;
TempFreeMem

The TempFreeMem function returns the total amount of free temporary memory that you could allocate by calling TempNewHandle. The returned value is the total number of free bytes. Because these bytes might be dispersed throughout memory, it is ordinarily not possible to allocate a single relocatable block of that size.

    $SIZE = &TempFreeMem;
CompactMem BYTECOUNT
CompactMemSys BYTECOUNT

Mac OS only. (CompactMemSys)

The CompactMem function compacts the current heap zone by moving unlocked, relocatable blocks down until they encounter nonrelocatable blocks or locked, relocatable blocks, but not by purging blocks. It continues compacting until it either finds a contiguous block of at least $BYTECOUNT free bytes or has compacted the entire zone.

The CompactMem function returns the size, in bytes, of the largest contiguous free block for which it could make room, but it does not actually allocate that block.

CompactMemSys does the same for the system heap.

PurgeMem BYTECOUNT
PurgeMemSys BYTECOUNT

Mac OS only. (PurgeMemSys)

The PurgeMem procedure sequentially purges blocks from the current heap zone until it either allocates a contiguous block of at least $BYTECOUNT free bytes or has purged the entire zone. If it purges the entire zone without creating a contiguous block of at least $BYTECOUNT free bytes, PurgeMem generates a memFullErr.

The PurgeMem procedure purges only relocatable, unlocked, purgeable blocks.

The PurgeMem procedure does not actually attempt to allocate a block of $BYTECOUNT bytes.

PurgeMemSys does the same for the system heap.

FreeMem
FreeMemSys

Mac OS only. (FreeMemSys)

The FreeMem function returns the total amount of free space (in bytes) in the current heap zone. Note that it usually isn't possible to allocate a block of that size, because of heap fragmentation due to nonrelocatable or locked blocks.

FreeMemSys does the same for the system heap.

ReserveMem BYTECOUNT
ReserveMemSys BYTECOUNT

Mac OS only. (ReserveMemSys)

The ReserveMem procedure attempts to create free space for a block of $BYTECOUNT contiguous logical bytes at the lowest possible position in the current heap zone. It pursues every available means of placing the block as close as possible to the bottom of the zone, including moving other relocatable blocks upward, expanding the zone (if possible), and purging blocks from it.

ReserveMemSys does the same for the system heap.

MaxMem
MaxMemSys

Mac OS only. (MaxMemSys)

Use the MaxMem function to compact and purge the current heap zone. The values returned are the amount of memory available and the amount by which the zone can grow.

    ($SIZE, $GROW) = &MaxMem;

MaxMemSys does the purge and compact of the system heap zone, and the $GROW value is set to zero.

MoveHHi HANDLE

The MoveHHi procedure attempts to move the relocatable block referenced by the handle $HANDLE upward until it reaches a nonrelocatable block, a locked relocatable block, or the top of the heap.

DisposePtr PTR

Releases the memory occupied by the nonrelocatable block specified by $PTR.

GetPtrSize PTR

The GetPtrSize function returns the logical size, in bytes, of the nonrelocatable block pointed to by $PTR.

SetPtrSize PTR, NEWSIZE

The SetPtrSize procedure attempts to change the logical size of the nonrelocatable block pointed to by $PTR. The new logical size is specified by $NEWSIZE. Return zero if no error was detected.

DisposeHandle HANDLE

The DisposeHandle procedure releases the memory occupied by the relocatable block whose handle is $HANDLE. It also frees the handle's master pointer for other uses.

SetHandleSize HANDLE, BYTECOUNT

The SetHandleSize procedure attempts to change the logical size of the relocatable block whose handle is $HANDLE. The new logical size is specified by $BYTECOUNT. Return zero if no error was detected.

GetHandleSize HANDLE

The GetHandleSize function returns the logical size, in bytes, of the relocatable block whose handle is $HANDLE. In case of an error, GetHandleSize returns 0.

ReallocateHandle HANDLE, BYTECOUNT

Allocates a new relocatable block with a logical size of $BYTECOUNT bytes. It updates the handle $HANDLE by setting its master pointer to point to the new block. The new block is unlocked and unpurgeable. Return zero if no error was detected.

EmptyHandle

Free memory taken by a relocatable block without freeing the relocatable block's master pointer for other uses.

MoreMasters

Call the MoreMasters procedure several times at the beginning of your program to prevent the Memory Manager from running out of master pointers in the middle of application execution. If it does run out, it allocates more, possibly causing heap fragmentation.

BlockMove SOURCEPTR, DESTPTR, BYTECOUNT
BlockMoveData SOURCEPTR, DESTPTR, BYTECOUNT

The BlockMove/BlockMoveData procedure moves a block of $BYTECOUNT consecutive bytes from the address designated by $SOURCEPTR to that designated by $DESTPTR.

PurgeSpace

Determine the total amount of free memory and the size of the largest allocatable block after a purge of the heap.

    ($Total, $Contiguous) = &PurgeSpace;
HGetState HANDLE

Get the current properties of a relocatable block (perhaps so that you can change and then later restore those properties).

HSetState HANDLE, STATE

Restore properties of a block after a call to HGetState.

HandToHand HANDLE

The HandToHand function attempts to copy the information in the relocatable block to which $HANDLE is a handle. Return undef if an error was detected.

PtrToHand PTR, BYTECOUNT

The PtrToHand function returns a newly created handle to a copy of the number of bytes specified by $BYTECOUNT, beginning at the location specified by $PTR. Return undef if an error was detected.

PtrToXHand HANDLE, PTR, BYTECOUNT

The PtrToXHand function makes the existing handle, specified by $HANDLE, a handle to a copy of the number of bytes specified by $BYTECOUNT, beginning at the location specified by $PTR. Return undef if an error was detected.

HandAndHand AHNDLE, BHNDLE

The HandAndHand function concatenates the information from the relocatable block to which $AHNDL is a handle onto the end of the relocatable block to which $BHNDL is a handle. The $AHNDL variable remains unchanged. Return zero if no error was detected.

PtrAndHand PTR, HANDLE, BYTECOUNT

The PtrAndHand function takes the number of bytes specified by $BYTECOUNT, beginning at the location specified by $PTR, and concatenates them onto the end of the relocatable block to which $HANDLE is a handle.

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