Math::BaseCnv - basic functions to CoNVert between number Bases
This documentation refers to version 1.12 of Math::BaseCnv, which was released on Sun Jul 24 20:11:12:49 -0500 2016.
#!/usr/bin/perl use strict;use warnings;use utf8;use v5.10;use Math::BaseCnv; # CoNVert 63 from base-10 (decimal) to base- 2 (binary ) my $binary__63 = cnv( 63 , 10, 2 ); # CoNVert 111111 from base- 2 (binary ) to base-16 (HEX ) my $HEX_____63 = cnv( 111111 , 2, 16 ); # CoNVert 3F from base-16 (HEX ) to base-10 (decimal) my $decimal_63 = cnv( '3F', 16, 10 ); say "63 dec->bin $binary__63 bin->HEX $HEX_____63 HEX->dec $decimal_63";
BaseCnv provides a few simple functions for converting between arbitrary number bases. It is as fast as I currently know how to make it (of course relying only on the lovely Perl). If you would rather utilize an object syntax for number-base conversion, please see Ken Williams' <Ken@Forum.Swarthmore.Edu> fine Math::BaseCalc module.
The reason I created BaseCnv was that I needed a simple way to convert quickly between the 3 number bases I use most (10, 16, and 64). It turned out that it was trivial to handle any arbitrary number base that is represented as characters. High-bit ASCII has proven somewhat problemmatic but at least BaseCnv can simply and reliably convert between any possible base between 2 and 64 (or 96). I'm happy with it and employ b64() in places I probably shouldn't now.
CoNVert the number contained in $numb from its current number base ($from) into the result number base ($tobs).
When only $numb is provided as a parameter:
If $numb only contains valid decimal (base 10) digits, it will be converted to HEXADECIMAL (base 16).
If $numb only contains valid hexadecimal (base 16) digits or begins with '0x', it will be it will be converted to decimal (base 10).
When only $numb and $from are provided as parameters:
cnv() assumes that $numb is already in decimal format and uses $from as the $tobs.
When all three parameters are provided:
The normal (and most clear) usage of cnv() is to provide all three parameters where $numb is converted from $from base to $tobs.
cnv() is the only function that is exported from a normal 'use Math::BaseCnv;' command. The other functions below can be imported to local namespaces explicitly or with the following tags:
:all - every function described here :heX - only cnv(), dec(), heX(), and HEX() :b64 - only cnv(), b10(), b64(), and b64sort() :dig - only dig() and diginit() :sfc - only summ(), fact(), and choo()
A shortcut to convert the number given as a parameter ($b64n) from base 64 to decimal (base 10).
A shortcut to convert the number given as a parameter ($b10n) from decimal (base 10) to base 64.
A way to sort b64 strings as though they were decimal numbers.
A shortcut to convert the number given as a parameter ($b16n) from hexadecimal (base 16) to decimal (base 10).
A shortcut to convert the number given as a parameter ($b10n) from decimal (base 10) to HEXADECIMAL (base 16) uppercase.
A shortcut to convert the number given as a parameter ($b10n) from decimal (base 10) to hexadecimal (base 16) lowercase.
Please read the "NOTES" regarding heX().
Assign the new digit character list to be used in place of the default one. dig() can also alternately accept a string name matching one of the following predefined digit sets:
'bin' => ['0', '1'], 'dna' => ['a', 'c', 'g', 't'], 'DNA' => ['A', 'C', 'G', 'T'], 'oct' => ['0'..'7'], 'dec' => ['0'..'9'], 'heX' => ['0'..'9', 'a'..'f'], 'HEX' => ['0'..'9', 'A'..'F'], 'b36' => ['0'..'9', 'a'..'z'], 'B36' => ['0'..'9', 'A'..'Z'], 'b62' => ['0'..'9', 'a'..'z', 'A'..'Z'], 'b64' => ['0'..'9', 'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '.', '_'], # month:C:12 day:V:31 'm64' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '+', '/'], # 0-63 from MIME::Base64 'iru' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '[', ']'], # P10 server-server protocol used by IRCu daemon 'url' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '-', '_'], # MIME::Base64::URLSafe (avoid %2B %2F expansions) 'rgx' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '!', '-'], # ReGular eXpression variant 'id0' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '_', '-'], # IDentifier style 0 'id1' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '.', '_'], # IDentifier style 1 'xnt' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '.', '-'], # XML Name Tokens (Nmtoken) 'xid' => ['A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '0'..'9', '_', ':'], # XML identifiers (Name ) 'sxl' => ['?', '@', 'A'..'Z', '[','\\', ']', '^', # Sixel Base64 from VT100.Net '_', '`', 'a'..'z', '{', '|', '}', '~'], 'b85' => ['0'..'9', 'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '!', '#', # RFC 1924 for IPv6 addresses like in Math::Base85 '$', '%', '&', '(', ')', '*', '+', '-', ';', '<', '=', '>', '?', '@', '^', '_', '`', '{', '|', '}', '~' ], 'asc' => [' ', '!', '"', '#', '$', '%', '&', "'", # Base96 7-bit printable 0x20 (space) - 0x7F '(', ')', '*', '+', ',', '-', '.', '/', # (tilde ~) 'ascii' from Math::Base::Convert '0'..'9', ':', ';', '<', '=', '>', '?', '@', 'A'..'Z', '[','\\', ']', '^', '_', '`', 'a'..'z', '{', '|', '}', '~' ], 'b96' => ['0'..'9', 'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z', '.', '_', # Base96 but starting with b64 characters ' ', '!', '"', '#', '$', '%', '&', "'", '(', ')', '*', '+', ',', '-', '/', ':', ';', '<', '=', '>', '?', '@', '[','\\', ']', '^', '`', '{', '|', '}', '~' ],
If no \@newd list or digit set name is provided as a parameter, dig() returns the current character list. It's fine to have many more characters in your current digit set than will be used with your conversions (e.g., using dig('b64') works fine for any cnv() call with $from and $tobs params less than or equal to 64).
An example of a \@newd parameter for a specified alternate digit set for base 9 conversions is:
dig( [ qw( n a c h o z y u m ) ] );
Resets the used digit list to the initial default order of the predefined digit set: 'b64'. This is simply a shortcut for calling dig('b64') for reinitialization purposes.
A simple function to calculate a memoized BigInt summation of $numb down to 1.
A simple function to calculate a memoized BigInt factorial of $numb.
A simple function to calculate a memoized BigInt function of $ennn choose $emmm.
The Perl built-in hex() function takes a hex string as a parameter and returns the decimal value (FromBase = 16, ToBase = 10). This notation seems counter-intuitive to me since I prefer to read the code as though a hex() function will turn your parameter into hexadecimal (i.e., I think hex() should hexify your parameter but Perl's built-in does not.). I initially decided to invert the notation for my similar functions, but reconsidered the potential harm possible by introducing exported conflicting opposite behavior into other people's maybe crucial code, so I am falling back on unique casing with heX().
My b64() function takes a decimal number as a parameter and returns the base64 equivalent (FromBase = 10, ToBase = 64) and my b10() function takes a base64 number (string) and returns the decimal value (FromBase = 64, ToBase = 10). My heX() function opposes Perl's built-in hex() (which is similar to my dec()).
Please think of my dec() and heX() functions as meaning decify and heXify. Also the pronunciation of dec() is 'dess' (not 'deck').
Error checking is minimal.
This module does not handle fractional number inputs because I like using the dot (.) character as a standard base64 digit since it makes for clean filenames.
summ(), fact(), and choo() are general Math function utilities which are unrelated to number-base conversion but I didn't feel like making another separate module just for them so they snuck in here.
I hope you find Math::BaseCnv useful. TTFN.
Revision history for Perl extension Math::BaseCnv:
* added digit set 'b96' as a reordering of 'asc'
* added new digit sets from Math::Base::Convert
* switched all old hex() to distinct new heX() and updated POD to reflect
* fixed META license to match POD and resolve issue: HTTPS://RT.CPAN.Org/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=60122 (Thanks again xenoterracide.)
* removed PT from VERSION to resolve issue: HTTPS://RT.CPAN.Org/Public/Bug/Display.html?id=60275 (Thanks Alexandr.)
* updated 'url' digit set to URLSafe to resolve HTTPS://RT.CPAN.Org/Ticket/Display.html?id=60125 (Thanks xenoterracide.)
* updated license copyright years (already had GPLv3)
* bumped minor version number so they'll keep ascending (without PT comprehension)
* added Math::BigInt code for >64-bit number-base conversions
* added a bunch more DigitSets: IRCu, URL, RegEx, identifier variants, XML Nmtoken, and XML ID Name
* added Test::Pod(::Coverage)? tests and PREREQ entries
* added b85 for IPv6, generated META.yml (with needed newline before EOF) and updated minor version number
* added b64sort() and put POD at bottom
* testing Make as primary and BuildPL backup (needing rename for dot)
* testing just using Module::Build instead of MakeMaker
* fixed test 12 which was failing on AMD64
* added Build.PL to package
* removed 128 digit-set since some high-bit characters cause problems on Win32
* made bin/cnv only executable to go in EXE_FILES
* made Math::BaseCalc a link in POD and updated License
* tidied POD and increased minor version number since CPAN can't read PT in VERSION
* added test for divide-by-zero error in choo()
* added summ()
* snuck in fact() and choo()
* changed test.pl to hopefully pass MSWin32-x86-multi-thread
* broke apart CHANGES to descend chronologically
* made dec() auto uppercase param since dec(a) was returning 36 instead of 10
* put cnv in bin/ as EXE_FILES
* testing new e auto-generate MANIFEST(.SKIP)?
* updated POD
* normalized base spelling
* added ABSTRACT section to WriteMakeFile()
* changed synopsis example
* updated all POD indenting
* removed indenting from POD NAME field
* updated package to coincide with Time::Fields release
* synchronized POD with README documentation using new e utility
* templatized package compilation
* fixed boundary bugs
* first version (and my first Perl module... yay!) put on CPAN
* reworked interface from shell utility to package
* original version
Please run:
`perl -MCPAN -e "install Math::BaseCnv"`
or uncompress the package and run:
`perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install` or if you don't have `make` but Module::Build is installed, try: `perl Build.PL; perl Build; perl Build test; perl Build install`
Math::BaseCnv requires:
Math::BigInt to allow Big summ(), fact(), and choo() results
Memoize to cache summ(), fact(), and choo() results
Carp to allow errors to croak() from calling sub
Most source code should be Free! Code I have lawful authority over is and shall be! Copyright: (c) 2003-2016, Pip Stuart. Copyleft : This software is licensed under the GNU General Public License (version 3 or later). Please consult HTTP://GNU.Org/licenses/gpl-3.0.txt for important information about your freedom. This is Free Software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law. See HTTP://FSF.Org for further information.
Pip Stuart <Pip@CPAN.Org>