Sisyphus > Math-Decimal64 > Math::Decimal64

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Module Version: 0.14   Source  

NAME ^

Math::Decimal64 - perl interface to C's _Decimal64 operations.

DEPENDENCIES ^

   In order to compile this module, a C compiler that provides
   the _Decimal64 type is needed.

DESCRIPTION ^

   Math::Decimal64 supports up to 16 decimal digits of significand
   (mantissa) and an exponent range of -383 to +384.
   The smallest expressable value is -9.999999999999999e384 (which
   is also equivalent to -9999999999999999e369).
   The largest expressable value is 9.999999999999999e384 (which
   also equivalent to 9999999999999999e369).
   The closest we can get to zero is (plus or minus) 1e-384
   (which is also equivalent to 1000000000000000e-399).

   This module allows decimal floating point arithmetic via
   operator overloading - see "OVERLOADING".

   In the documentation that follows, "$mantissa" is a perl scalar
   holding a string of up to 16 decimal digits, optionally prefixed
   with a '+' or '-' sign:
    $mantissa = '1234';
    $mantissa = '1234567890123456';

SYNOPSIS ^

   use Math::Decimal64 qw(:all);

   my $d64_1 = MEtoD64('9927', -2); # the decimal 99.27
   my $d64_2 = MEtoD64('3', 0);     # the decimal 3.0
   $d64_1 /= $d64_2;
   print $d64_1; # prints 3309e-2 (33.09)

OVERLOADING ^

   The following operations are overloaded:
    + - * /
    += -= *= /=
    != == <= >= <=> < >
    ++ --
    =
    abs bool int print neg

    Arguments to the overloaded operations must be Math::Decimal64
    objects, integer (IV/UV) values or string (PV) values.
    Strings can match /^(\-|\+)?(nan|inf)/i or be in floating point,
    scientific notation or integer formats. Eg '113', '12.34', '12e-9',
    '-12.34e+106', '-9E8', '-NaN', 'inf' are all valid strings.

     $d64_2 = $d64_1 + $d128_0; #ok
     $d64_2 = $d64_1 + 15;      #ok

     $d64_2 = $d64_1 + 3.1;     # Error
     If you really want to add the NV 3.1 you need to:
     $d64_2 = $d64_1 + NVtoD64(3.1);

     If you instead wish to add the decimal value 3.1:
     $d64_2 = $d64_1 + '3.1';

    Overloading of floats (NV values) will probably never be enabled
    as that would make it very easy to inadvertently introduce a value
    that was not intended.

CREATION & ASSIGNMENT FUNCTIONS ^

    The following create and assign a new Math::Decimal64 object.

     ##################################
     # Create, and assign from a string
     $d64 = PVtoD64($string);

      eg: $d64 = PVtoD64('-9427199254740993');
          $d64 = PVtoD64('-9307199254740993e-15');
          $d64 = Math::Decimal64->new('-9787199254740.993e-20');
          $d64 = Math::Decimal64->new('-9307199254740993e-23');
          $d64 = Math::Decimal64->new('-inf');
          $d64 = Math::Decimal64->new('nan');
      If the string arg contains characters that (according to perl's
      looks_like_number API function) don't make sense in numeric
      context, then a global non-numeric flag which was initialised to
      0 is incremented - and the value assigned is in accordance with
      perl's usual rules. If $Math::Decimal64::NNW (set to 0 by default)
      is set to 1, then a non-numeric warning is also issued whenever
      the non-numeric flag is incremented. The arg can be in either
      integer format, scientific notation, float format or (+-)inf/nan.
      Doing Math::Decimal64->new($string) will also create and assign
      using PVtoD64().
      The nnumflag function returns the current value of the global.
      It can be cleared to 0 by running clear_nnum() and set to x with
      set_nnum(x).
      PVtoD64 is now a much improved way of creating and assigning - so
      much so that I'm now recommending it as the preferred way of
      creating a Math::Decimal64 object.
      If you have a ($mantissa, $exponent) pair as your value and you
      wish to create a Math::Decimal64 object using PVtoD64 you can do:
       $d64 = PVtoD64(MEtoPV($mantissa, $exponent));
       or simply:
       $d64 = PVtoD64($mantissa . 'e' . $exponent);

     ###############################################
     # Create, and assign from mantissa and exponent
     $d64 = MEtoD64($mantissa, $exponent);

      eg: $d64 = MEtoD64('12345', -3); # 12.345

      It's a little kludgy, but this is a safe and sure way
      of creating the Math::Decimal64 object with the intended
      value.
      Checks are conducted to ensure that the arguments are suitable.
      The mantissa string must represent an integer. (There's an
      implicit '.0' at the end of the string.)
      Doing Math::Decimal64->new($mantissa, $exponent) will also
      create and assign using MEtoD64(), and is equally acceptable.

     ###############################################
     # Create, and assign from mantissa and exponent
     $d64 = DPDtoD64($mantissa, $exponent);

      eg: $d64 = DPDtoD64('12345', -3); # 12.345

      This is perhaps a quicker way of creating the Math::Decimal64
      object with the intended value - but works only for DPD format
      - ie only if d64_fmt() returns 'DPD'.
      The mantissa string can be 'inf' or 'nan', optionally prefixed
      with '-' or '+'. Otherwise, the mantissa string must
      represent an integer value (with implied '.0' at the end) - ie
      cannot contain a decimal point.

     #################################################
     # Create, and assign from a UV (unsigned integer)
     $d64 = UVtoD64($uv);

      eg: $d64 = UVtoD64(~0);

      Doing Math::Decimal64->new($uv) will also create and assign
      using UVtoD64().
      Assigns the designated UV value to the Math::Decimal64 object
      (but loses precision if the _Decimal64 type has insufficient
      precision to accommodate the precision of the IV).

     ################################################
     # Create, and assign from an IV (signed integer)
     $d64 = IVtoD64($iv);

      eg: $d64 = IVtoD64(-15); # -15.0

      Doing Math::Decimal64->new($iv) will also create and assign
      using IVtoD64().
      Assigns the designated IV value to the Math::Decimal64 object
      (but loses precision if the _Decimal64 type has insufficient
      precision to accommodate the precision of the IV).

     ############################################################
     # Create, and assign from an existing Math::Decimal64 object
     $d64 = D64toD64($d64_0);
     Also:
      $d64 = Math::Decimal64->new($d64_0);
      $d64 = $d64_0; # uses overloaded '='

     #######################################
     # Create, and assign from an NV (real))
     $d64 = NVtoD64($nv);

      eg: $d64 = NVtoD64(-3.25);

      Doing Math::Decimal64->new($nv) is now a fatal error. NV's can
      now be assigned using only either NVtoD64() or assignNV().
      Might not always assign the value you think it does, but should
      be fine for assigning decimal values that have en exact base 2
      representation. (Eg, see test 5 in t/overload_cmp.t.)

     ################################
     # Create, and assign using new()
     $d64 = Math::Decimal64->new([$arg1, [$arg2]]);
      This function calls one of the above functions. It
      determines the appropriate function to call by examining
      the argument(s) provided.
      If no argument is provided, a Math::Decimal64 object
      with a value of NaN is returned.
      If 2 arguments are supplied it uses MEtoD64().
      If one argument is provided, that arg's internal flags are
      used to determine the appropriate function to call.
      Dies if that argument is an NV - allowing an NV argument makes
      it very easy to inadvertently assign an unintended value, and
      is therefore now disallowed.

     ###################################
     # Create, and assign using STRtoD64
     $d64 = STRtoD64($string);
      If your C compiler provides the strtod64 function, and
      you configured the Makefile.PL to enable access to that
      function then you can use this function.
      Usage is is as for PVtoD64().

     ##############################

ASSIGN A NEW VALUE TO AN EXISTING OBJECT ^

     #####################################
     assignME($d64, $mantissa, $exponent);
      Assigns the value represented by ($mantissa, $exponent)
      to the Math::Decimal64 object, $d64.
      Performs same argument checking as MEtoD64.

      eg: assignME($d64, '123459', -6); # 0.123459

     ######################################
     assignDPD($d64, $mantissa, $exponent);
      Assigns the value represented by ($mantissa, $exponent)
      to the Math::Decimal64 object, $d64. This might work
      more efficiently than assignME(), but works only when the
      _Decimal64type is DPD-formatted. (The d64_fmt function
      will tell you whether the _Decimal64 is DPD-formatted or
      BID-formatted.)

      eg: assignDPD($d64, '123459', -6); # 0.123459

     ########################
     assignIV ($d64, $iv);
     assignUV ($d64, $uv);
     assignNV ($d64, $nv);
     assignPV ($d64, $string); # See PVtoD64 doc (above)
     assignD64($d64, $d64_0);
      Assigns the value represented by the second arg (resp. the
      IV,UV,NV,PV, Math::Decimal64 object) to the
       Math::Decimal64 object, $d64.

      eg: assignPV($d64, '12.3459e-6'); # 0.0000123459

     ################
     assignNaN($d64);
      Assigns a NaN to the Math::Decimal64 object, $d64.

     #######################
     assignInf($d64, $sign);
      Assigns an Inf to the Math::Decimal64 object, $d64.
      If $sign is negative, assigns -Inf; otherwise +Inf.

     #######################

INF, NAN and ZERO OBJECTS ^

     #####################
     $d64 = InfD64($sign);
      If $sign < 0, creates a new Math::Decimal64 object set to
      negative infinity; else creates a Math::Decimal64 object set
      to positive infinity.

     ################
     $d64 = NaND64();
      Creates a new Math::Decimal64 object set to NaN.
      Same as "$d64 = Math::Decimal64->new();"

     ######################
     $d64 = ZeroD64($sign);
      If $sign < 0, creates a new Math::Decimal64 object set to
      negative zero; else creates a Math::Decimal64 object set to
      zero.

    #######################

RETRIEVAL FUNCTIONS ^

    The following functions provide ways of seeing the value of
    Math::Decimal64 objects.

     ###########################
     $string = decode_d64($d64);
      This function calls either decode_dpd() or decode_bid(),
      depending upon the formatting used to encode the
      _Decimal64 value (as determined by the d64_fmt() sub).
      It returns the value as a string of the form (-)ME, where:
        "M" is the mantissa, containing up to 16 base 10 digits;
        "E" is the letter "e" followed by the exponent;
      A minus sign is prefixed to any -ve number (incl -0), but no
      sign at all is prefixed for +ve numbers (incl +0).
      Returns the strings '+inf', '-inf', 'nan' for (respectively)
      +infinity, -infinity, NaN.
      The value will be decoded correctly.

     ##################################
     $string = decode_dpd($d64_binary);
     $string = decode_bid($d64_binary);

      As for decode_d64(), except it takes the 64-bit binary
      representation of the _Decimal64 value as its argument. This
      argument is derived from the Math::Decimal64 object ($d64)
      by doing:
        $binary = hex2bin(d64_bytes($d64));
      DPD and BID formats will return different strings - so you
      need to know which encoding (DPD or BID) was used, and then
      call the appropriate decode_*() function for that encoding.
      $Math::Decimal64::fmt will tell you which encoding is in use,
      as also will the d64_fmt() subroutine.

     ###########################
     $fstring = D64toFSTR($d64);

      Returns a string in floating point format (as distinct from
      scientific notation) - ie as 0.123 instead of 123e-3.
      And, yes, (eg) the _Decimal64 value 123e201 will be returned
      as a string consisting of '123' followed by 201 zeroes.

     ####################################
     $rstring = D64toRSTR($d64, $places);
      Same as D64toFSTR() but the returned string has been rounded
      (to nearest, ties to even) to the number of decimal places
      specified by $places.
      Croaks with appropriate error message if $places < 0.

     #######################################
     ($mantissa, $exponent) = D64toME($d64);
      Returns the value of the Math::Decimal64 object as a
      mantissa (string of up to 16 decimal digits) and exponent.
      You can then manipulate those values to output the
      value in your preferred format. Afaik, the value will be
      decoded accurately.

     ########################################
     ($mantissa, $exponent) = FR64toME($d64);
      Requires that Math::MPFR version 3.18 or later has been
      loaded. It also requires that Math:MPFR has been built with
      support for the mpfr library's Decimal64 conversion
      functions - in which case Math::MPFR::_WANT_DECIMAL_FLOATS()
      will return true. (Otherwise it returns false.)
      Afaik, the value will be decoded accurately.

     ####################
     $nv = D64toNV($d64);
      This function returns the value of the Math::Decimal64
      object to a perl scalar (NV). Under certain conditions
      it may not translate the value accurately.

     ###########
     print $d64;
      Will print the value in the format (eg) -12345e-2, which
      equates to the decimal -123.45. Uses D64toME().

     #########
     pFR $d64;
      Will print the value in the format (eg) -12345e-2, which
      equates to the decimal -123.45. Uses FR64toME() - which
      should always print the value accurately, but requires
      that Math::MPFR:
       1) has been loaded;
       2) supports the Decimal64 mpfr conversion functions.

     #########

OTHER FUNCTIONS ^

     ##################################
     $iv = Math::Decimal64::nnumflag(); # not exported
      Returns the value of the non-numeric flag. This flag is
      initialized to zero, but incemented by 1 whenever the
      _atodecimal function (used internally by assignPV and
      PVtoD64) is handed a string containing non-numeric
      characters. The value of the flag therefore tells us how
      many times _atodecimal() was handed such a string. The flag
      can be reset to 0 by running clear_nnum().

     ###############################
     Math::Decimal64::set_nnum($iv); # not exported
      Resets the global non-numeric flag to the value specified by
      $iv.

     ##############################
     Math::Decimal64::clear_nnum(); # not exported
      Resets the global non-numeric flag to 0.(Essentially the same
      as running set_nnum(0).)

     ################################
     ($man, $exp) = PVtoME($string);
      $string is a string representing a floating-point value - eg
      'inf', '+nan', '123.456', '-1234.56e-1', or '12345.6E-2'.
      The function returns an array of (mantissa, exponent), where
      the mantissa is a string of base 10 digits (prefixed with a
      '-' for -ve values) with an implied decimal point at the
      end of the string. For strings such as 'inf' and 'nan', the
      mantissa will be set to $string, and the exponent to 0.
      For the example strings given above, the returned arrays
      would be ('inf', 0), ('+nan', 0), ('123456', -3), ('-123456',
      -3) and ('123456', -3) respectively.

     #######################################
     $string = MEtoPV($mantissa, $exponent);
      If $mantissa =~ /inf|nan/i returns $mantissa.
      Else returns $mantissa . 'e' . $exponent.

     #################
     $fmt = d64_fmt();
      Returns either 'DPD' or 'BID', depending upon whether the
      (internal) _Decimal64 values are encoded using the 'Densely
      Packed Decimal' format or the 'Binary Integer Decimal'
      format.

     #######################
     $hex = d64_bytes($d64);
      Returns the hex representation of the _Decimal64 value
      as a string of 16 hex characters.

     ############################
     $binary = hex2bin($d64_hex);
      Takes the string returned by d64_bytes (above) and
      rewrites it in binary form - ie as a string of 64 base 2
      digits.

     #################
     $d64 = DEC64_MAX; # 9999999999999999e369
     $d64 = DEC64_MIN; # 1e-398
      DEC64_MAX is the largest positive finite representable
      _Decimal64 value.
      DEC64_MIN is the smallest positive non-zero representable
      _Decimal64 value.
      Multiply these by -1 to get their negative counterparts.

     ###################
     $d64 = Exp10($pow);
      Returns a Math::Decimal64 object with a value of
      10 ** $pow, for $pow in the range (-398 .. 384). Croaks
      with appropriate message if $pow is not within that range.

     ########################
     $bool = have_strtod64();
      Returns true if, when building Math::Decimal64,
      the Makefile.PL was configured to make the STRtoD64()
      function available for your build of Math::Decimal64. Else
      returns false.
      (No use making this function available if your compiler's
      C library doesn't provide the strtod64 function.)


     #########################
     $test = is_ZeroD64($d64);
      Returns:
       -1 if $d64 is negative zero;
        1 if $d64 is zero, but not negative zero;
        0 if $d64 is not zero.

     ########################
     $test = is_InfD64($d64);
      Returns:
       -1 if $d64 is negative infinity;
        1 if $d64 is positive infinity;
        0 if $d64 is not infinity.

     ########################
     $bool = is_NaND64($d64);
      Returns:
        1 if $d64 is a NaN;
        0 if $d64 is not a NaN.

     ###################
     LDtoD64($d64, $ld); # $ld is a Math::LongDouble object
     D64toLD($ld, $d64); # $ld is a Math::LongDouble object

     Conversions between Math::LongDouble and Math::Decimal64
     objects - done by simply casting the long double value to a
     _Decimal64 value, or (resp.) vice-versa.
     Requires that Math::LongDouble has been loaded.

     #######################
     $sign = get_sign($d64);
      Returns the sign ('+' or '-') of $d64.

     #####################
     $exp = get_exp($d64);
      Returns the exponent of $d64. This is the exponent value
      that's stored internally within the encapsulated _Decimal64
      value; it may differ from the value that you assigned.
      For example, if you've assigned the value MEtoD64('100', 0)
      it will probably be held internally as '1e2', not '100e0',
      in which case get_exp() would return 2, not 0.

     ####################

LICENSE ^

    This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or
    modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
    Copyright 2012-15 Sisyphus

AUTHOR ^

    Sisyphus <sisyphus at(@) cpan dot (.) org>
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