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NAME ^

Regexp::Common::comment -- provide regexes for comments.

SYNOPSIS ^

    use Regexp::Common qw /comment/;

    while (<>) {
        /$RE{comment}{C}/       and  print "Contains a C comment\n";
        /$RE{comment}{C++}/     and  print "Contains a C++ comment\n";
        /$RE{comment}{PHP}/     and  print "Contains a PHP comment\n";
        /$RE{comment}{Java}/    and  print "Contains a Java comment\n";
        /$RE{comment}{Perl}/    and  print "Contains a Perl comment\n";
        /$RE{comment}{awk}/     and  print "Contains an awk comment\n";
        /$RE{comment}{HTML}/    and  print "Contains an HTML comment\n";
    }

    use Regexp::Common qw /comment RE_comment_HTML/;

    while (<>) {
        $_ =~ RE_comment_HTML() and  print "Contains an HTML comment\n";
    }

DESCRIPTION ^

Please consult the manual of Regexp::Common for a general description of the works of this interface.

Do not use this module directly, but load it via Regexp::Common.

This modules gives you regular expressions for comments in various languages.

THE LANGUAGES

Below, the comments of each of the languages are described. The patterns are available as $RE{comment}{LANG}, foreach language LANG. Some languages have variants; it's described at the individual languages how to get the patterns for the variants. Unless mentioned otherwise, {-keep} sets $1, $2, $3 and $4 to the entire comment, the opening marker, the content of the comment, and the closing marker (for many languages, the latter is a newline) respectively.

ABC

Comments in ABC start with a backslash (\), and last till the end of the line. See http://homepages.cwi.nl/%7Esteven/abc/.

Ada

Comments in Ada start with --, and last till the end of the line.

Advisor

Advisor is a language used by the HP product glance. Comments for this language start with either # or //, and last till the end of the line.

Advsys

Comments for the Advsys language start with ; and last till the end of the line. See also http://www.wurb.com/if/devsys/12.

Alan

Alan comments start with --, and last till the end of the line. See also http://w1.132.telia.com/~u13207378/alan/manual/alanTOC.html.

Algol 60

Comments in the Algol 60 language start with the keyword comment, and end with a ;. See http://www.masswerk.at/algol60/report.htm.

Algol 68

In Algol 68, comments are either delimited by #, or by one of the keywords co or comment. The keywords should not be part of another word. See http://westein.arb-phys.uni-dortmund.de/~wb/a68s.txt. With {-keep}, only $1 will be set, returning the entire comment.

ALPACA

The ALPACA language has comments starting with /* and ending with */.

awk

The awk programming language uses comments that start with # and end at the end of the line.

B

The B language has comments starting with /* and ending with */.

BASIC

There are various forms of BASIC around. Currently, we only support the variant supported by mvEnterprise, whose pattern is available as $RE{comment}{BASIC}{mvEnterprise}. Comments in this language start with a !, a * or the keyword REM, and end till the end of the line. See http://www.rainingdata.com/products/beta/docs/mve/50/ReferenceManual/Basic.pdf.

Beatnik

The esotoric language Beatnik only uses words consisting of letters. Words are scored according to the rules of Scrabble. Words scoring less than 5 points, or 18 points or more are considered comments (although the compiler might mock at you if you score less than 5 points). Regardless whether {-keep}, $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment. This pattern requires perl 5.8.0 or newer.

beta-Juliet

The beta-Juliet programming language has comments that start with // and that continue till the end of the line. See also http://www.catseye.mb.ca/esoteric/b-juliet/index.html.

Befunge-98

The esotoric language Befunge-98 uses comments that start and end with a ;. See http://www.catseye.mb.ca/esoteric/befunge/98/spec98.html.

BML

BML, or Better Markup Language is an HTML templating language that uses comments starting with <?c_, and ending with c_?>. See http://www.livejournal.com/doc/server/bml.index.html.

Brainfuck

The minimal language Brainfuck uses only eight characters, <, >, [, ], +, -, . and ,. Any other characters are considered comments. With {-keep}, $1 is set to the entire comment.

C

The C language has comments starting with /* and ending with */.

C--

The C-- language has comments starting with /* and ending with */. See http://cs.uas.arizona.edu/classes/453/programs/C--Spec.html.

C++

The C++ language has two forms of comments. Comments that start with // and last till the end of the line, and comments that start with /*, and end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment.

C#

The C# language has two forms of comments. Comments that start with // and last till the end of the line, and comments that start with /*, and end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment. See http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/csspec/html/vclrfcsharpspec_C.asp.

Caml

Comments in Caml start with (*, end with *), and can be nested. See http://www.cs.caltech.edu/courses/cs134/cs134b/book.pdf and http://pauillac.inria.fr/caml/index-eng.html.

Cg

The Cg language has two forms of comments. Comments that start with // and last till the end of the line, and comments that start with /*, and end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment. See http://developer.nvidia.com/attach/3722.

CLU

In CLU, a comment starts with a procent sign (%), and ends with the next newline. See ftp://ftp.lcs.mit.edu:/pub/pclu/CLU-syntax.ps and http://www.pmg.lcs.mit.edu/CLU.html.

COBOL

Traditionally, comments in COBOL are indicated by an asteriks in the seventh column. This is what the pattern matches. Modern compiler may more lenient though. See http://www.csis.ul.ie/cobol/Course/COBOLIntro.htm, and http://www.csis.ul.ie/cobol/default.htm. Due to a bug in the regexp engine of perl 5.6.x, this regexp is only available in version 5.8.0 and up.

CQL

Comments in the chess query language (CQL) start with a semi colon (;) and last till the end of the line. See http://www.rbnn.com/cql/.

Crystal Report

The formula editor in Crystal Reports uses comments that start with //, and end with the end of the line.

Dylan

There are two types of comments in Dylan. They either start with //, or are nested comments, delimited with /* and */. Under {-keep}, only $1 will be set, returning the entire comment. This pattern requires perl 5.6.0 or newer.

ECMAScript

The ECMAScript language has two forms of comments. Comments that start with // and last till the end of the line, and comments that start with /*, and end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment. JavaScript is Netscapes implementation of ECMAScript. See http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ecma-st/Ecma-262.pdf, and http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm.

Eiffel

Eiffel comments start with --, and last till the end of the line.

False

In False, comments start with { and end with }. See http://wouter.fov120.com/false/false.txt

FPL

The FPL language has two forms of comments. Comments that start with // and last till the end of the line, and comments that start with /*, and end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment.

Forth

Comments in Forth start with \, and end with the end of the line. See also http://docs.sun.com/sb/doc/806-1377-10.

Fortran

There are two forms of Fortran. There's free form Fortran, which has comments that start with !, and end at the end of the line. The pattern for this is given by $RE{Fortran}. Fixed form Fortran, which has been obsoleted, has comments that start with C, c or * in the first column, or with ! anywhere, but the sixth column. The pattern for this are given by $RE{Fortran}{fixed}.

See also http://www.cray.com/craydoc/manuals/007-3692-005/html-007-3692-005/.

Funge-98

The esotoric language Funge-98 uses comments that start and end with a ;.

fvwm2

Configuration files for fvwm2 have comments starting with a # and lasting the rest of the line.

Haifu

Haifu, an esotoric language using haikus, has comments starting and ending with a ,. See http://www.dangermouse.net/esoteric/haifu.html.

Haskell

There are two types of comments in Haskell. They either start with at least two dashes, or are nested comments, delimited with {- and -}. Under {-keep}, only $1 will be set, returning the entire comment. This pattern requires perl 5.6.0 or newer.

HTML

In HTML, comments only appear inside a comment declaration. A comment declaration starts with a <!, and ends with a >. Inside this declaration, we have zero or more comments. Comments starts with -- and end with --, and are optionally followed by whitespace. The pattern $RE{comment}{HTML} recognizes those comment declarations (and hence more than a comment). Note that this is not the same as something that starts with <!-- and ends with -->, because the following will be matched completely:

    <!--  First  Comment   --
      --> Second Comment <!--
      --  Third  Comment   -->

Do not be fooled by what your favourite browser thinks is an HTML comment.

If {-keep} is used, the following are returned:

$1

captures the entire comment declaration.

$2

captures the MDO (markup declaration open), <!.

$3

captures the content between the MDO and the MDC.

$4

captures the (last) comment, without the surrounding dashes.

$5

captures the MDC (markup declaration close), >.

Hugo

There are two types of comments in Hugo. They either start with ! (which cannot be followed by a \), or are nested comments, delimited with !\ and \!. Under {-keep}, only $1 will be set, returning the entire comment. This pattern requires perl 5.6.0 or newer.

Icon

Icon has comments that start with # and end at the next new line. See http://www.toolsofcomputing.com/IconHandbook/IconHandbook.pdf, http://www.cs.arizona.edu/icon/index.htm, and http://burks.bton.ac.uk/burks/language/icon/index.htm.

ILLGOL

The esotoric language ILLGOL uses comments starting with NB and lasting till the end of the line. See http://www.catseye.mb.ca/esoteric/illgol/index.html.

INTERCAL

Comments in INTERCAL are single line comments. They start with one of the keywords NOT or N'T, and can optionally be preceded by the keywords DO and PLEASE. If both keywords are used, PLEASE precedes DO. Keywords are separated by whitespace.

J

The language J uses comments that start with NB., and that last till the end of the line. See http://www.jsoftware.com/books/help/primer/contents.htm, and http://www.jsoftware.com/.

Java

The Java language has two forms of comments. Comments that start with // and last till the end of the line, and comments that start with /*, and end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment.

JavaDoc

The Javadoc documentation syntax is demarked with a subset of ordinary Java comments to separate it from code. Comments start with /** end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment. See http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index-137868.html#format.

JavaScript

The JavaScript language has two forms of comments. Comments that start with // and last till the end of the line, and comments that start with /*, and end with */. If {-keep} is used, only $1 will be set, and set to the entire comment. JavaScript is Netscapes implementation of ECMAScript. See http://www.mozilla.org/js/language/E262-3.pdf, and http://www.mozilla.org/js/language/.

LaTeX

The documentation language LaTeX uses comments starting with % and ending at the end of the line.

Lisp

Comments in Lisp start with a semi-colon (;) and last till the end of the line.

LPC

The LPC language has comments starting with /* and ending with */.

LOGO

Comments for the language LOGO start with ;, and last till the end of the line.

lua

Comments for the lua language start with --, and last till the end of the line. See also http://www.lua.org/manual/manual.html.

M, MUMPS

In M (aka MUMPS), comments start with a semi-colon, and last till the end of a line. The language specification requires the semi-colon to be preceded by one or more linestart characters. Those characters default to a space, but that's configurable. This requirement, of preceding the comment with linestart characters is not tested for. See ftp://ftp.intersys.com/pub/openm/ism/ism64docs.zip, http://mtechnology.intersys.com/mproducts/openm/index.html, and http://mcenter.com/mtrc/index.html.

m4

By default, the preprocessor language m4 uses single line comments, that start with a # and continue to the end of the line, including the newline. The pattern $RE {comment} {m4} matches such comments. In m4, it is possible to change the starting token though. See http://wolfram.schneider.org/bsd/7thEdManVol2/m4/m4.pdf, http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~kjt/research/pdf/expl-m4.pdf, and http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/manual/.

Modula-2

In Modula-2, comments start with (*, and end with *). Comments may be nested. See http://www.modula2.org/.

Modula-3

In Modula-3, comments start with (*, and end with *). Comments may be nested. See http://www.m3.org/.

mutt

Configuration files for mutt have comments starting with a # and lasting the rest of the line.

Nickle

The Nickle language has one line comments starting with # (like Perl), or multiline comments delimited by /* and */ (like C). Under -keep, only $1 will be set. See also http://www.nickle.org.

Oberon

Comments in Oberon start with (* and end with *). See http://www.oberon.ethz.ch/oreport.html.

Pascal

There are many implementations of Pascal. This modules provides pattern for comments of several implementations.

$RE{comment}{Pascal}

This is the pattern that recognizes comments according to the Pascal ISO standard. This standard says that comments start with either {, or (*, and end with } or *). This means that {*) and (*} are considered to be comments. Many Pascal applications don't allow this. See http://www.pascal-central.com/docs/iso10206.txt

$RE{comment}{Pascal}{Alice}

The Alice Pascal compiler accepts comments that start with { and end with }. Comments are not allowed to contain newlines. See http://www.templetons.com/brad/alice/language/.

$RE{comment}{Pascal}{Delphi}, $RE{comment}{Pascal}{Free} and $RE{comment}{Pascal}{GPC}

The Delphi Pascal, Free Pascal and the Gnu Pascal Compiler implementations of Pascal all have comments that either start with // and last till the end of the line, are delimited with { and } or are delimited with (* and *). Patterns for those comments are given by $RE{comment}{Pascal}{Delphi}, $RE{comment}{Pascal}{Free} and $RE{comment}{Pascal}{GPC} respectively. These patterns only set $1 when {-keep} is used, which will then include the entire comment.

See http://info.borland.com/techpubs/delphi5/oplg/, http://www.freepascal.org/docs-html/ref/ref.html and http://www.gnu-pascal.de/gpc/.

$RE{comment}{Pascal}{Workshop}

The Workshop Pascal compiler, from SUN Microsystems, allows comments that are delimited with either { and }, delimited with (*) and *), delimited with /*, and */, or starting and ending with a double quote ("). When {-keep} is used, only $1 is set, and returns the entire comment.

See http://docs.sun.com/db/doc/802-5762.

PEARL

Comments in PEARL start with a ! and last till the end of the line, or start with /* and end with */. With {-keep}, $1 will be set to the entire comment.

PHP

Comments in PHP start with either # or // and last till the end of the line, or are delimited by /* and */. With {-keep}, $1 will be set to the entire comment.

PL/B

In PL/B, comments start with either . or ;, and end with the next newline. See http://www.mmcctech.com/pl-b/plb-0010.htm.

PL/I

The PL/I language has comments starting with /* and ending with */.

PL/SQL

In PL/SQL, comments either start with -- and run till the end of the line, or start with /* and end with */.

Perl

Perl uses comments that start with a #, and continue till the end of the line.

Portia

The Portia programming language has comments that start with //, and last till the end of the line.

Python

Python uses comments that start with a #, and continue till the end of the line.

Q-BAL

Comments in the Q-BAL language start with ` (a backtick), and contine till the end of the line.

QML

In QML, comments start with # and last till the end of the line. See http://www.questionmark.com/uk/qml/overview.doc.

R

The statistical language R uses comments that start with a # and end with the following new line. See http://www.r-project.org/.

REBOL

Comments for the REBOL language start with ; and last till the end of the line.

Ruby

Comments in Ruby start with # and last till the end of the time.

Scheme

Scheme comments start with ;, and last till the end of the line. See http://schemers.org/.

shell

Comments in various shells start with a # and end at the end of the line.

Shelta

The esotoric language Shelta uses comments that start and end with a ;. See http://www.catseye.mb.ca/esoteric/shelta/index.html.

SLIDE

The SLIDE language has two froms of comments. First there is the line comment, which starts with a # and includes the rest of the line (just like Perl). Second, there is the multiline, nested comment, which are delimited by (* and *). Under C{-keep}>, only $1 is set, and is set to the entire comment. This pattern needs at least Perl version 5.6.0. See http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~ug/slide/docs/slide/spec/spec_frame_intro.shtml.

slrn

Configuration files for slrn have comments starting with a % and lasting the rest of the line.

Smalltalk

Smalltalk uses comments that start and end with a double quote, ".

SMITH

Comments in the SMITH language start with ;, and last till the end of the line.

Squeak

In the Smalltalk variant Squeak, comments start and end with ". Double quotes can appear inside comments by doubling them.

SQL

Standard SQL uses comments starting with two or more dashes, and ending at the end of the line.

MySQL does not follow the standard. Instead, it allows comments that start with a # or -- (that's two dashes and a space) ending with the following newline, and comments starting with /*, and ending with the next ; or */ that isn't inside single or double quotes. A pattern for this is returned by $RE{comment}{SQL}{MySQL}. With {-keep}, only $1 will be set, and it returns the entire comment.

Tcl

In Tcl, comments start with # and continue till the end of the line.

TeX

The documentation language TeX uses comments starting with % and ending at the end of the line.

troff

The document formatting language troff uses comments starting with \", and continuing till the end of the line.

Ubercode

The Windows programming language Ubercode uses comments that start with // and continue to the end of the line. See http://www.ubercode.com.

vi

In configuration files for the editor vi, one can use comments starting with ", and ending at the end of the line.

*W

In the language *W, comments start with ||, and end with !!.

zonefile

Comments in DNS zonefiles start with ;, and continue till the end of the line.

ZZT-OOP

The in-game language ZZT-OOP uses comments that start with a ' character, and end at the following newline. See http://dave2.rocketjump.org/rad/zzthelp/lang.html.

REFERENCES ^

[Go 90]

Charles F. Goldfarb: The SGML Handbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1990. ISBN 0-19-853737-9. Ch. 10.3, pp 390-391.

SEE ALSO ^

Regexp::Common for a general description of how to use this interface.

AUTHOR ^

Damian Conway (damian@conway.org)

MAINTAINANCE ^

This package is maintained by Abigail (regexp-common@abigail.be).

BUGS AND IRRITATIONS ^

Bound to be plenty.

For a start, there are many common regexes missing. Send them in to regexp-common@abigail.be.

LICENSE and COPYRIGHT ^

This software is Copyright (c) 2001 - 2009, Damian Conway and Abigail.

This module is free software, and maybe used under any of the following licenses:

 1) The Perl Artistic License.     See the file COPYRIGHT.AL.
 2) The Perl Artistic License 2.0. See the file COPYRIGHT.AL2.
 3) The BSD Licence.               See the file COPYRIGHT.BSD.
 4) The MIT Licence.               See the file COPYRIGHT.MIT.
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