نديم ابن ﺤﻣﻮﺪﺓ الخمير - Nadim Khemir > Spreadsheet-Perl > Spreadsheet::Perl

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NAME ^

Spreadsheet::Perl - Pure Perl implementation of a spreadsheet engine

SYNOPSIS ^

  use Spreadsheet::Perl;
  use Spreadsheet::Perl::Arithmetic ;

  my $ss = tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl"

  $ss->SetNames("TEST_RANGE" => 'A5:B8') ;
  $ss{TEST_RANGE} = '7' ;
  
  DefineSpreadsheetFunction('AddOne', \&AddOne) ;
  
  $ss{A3} = PerlFormula('$ss->AddOne("A5") + $ss{A5}') ;
  print "A3 formula => " . $ss->GetFormulaText('A3') . "\n" ;
  print "A3 = $ss{A3}\n" ;

  $ss{'ABC1:ABD5'} = '10' ;

  $ss{A4} = PerlFormula('$ss->Sum("A5:B8", "ABC1:ABD5")') ;
  print "A4 = $ss{A4}\n" ;
  
  ...

DESCRIPTION ^

Spreadsheet::Perl is a pure Perl implementation of a spreadsheet engine.

Spreadsheet::Perl functionality:

Lots of examples in the 'examples' directory.

DRIVING FORCE ^

Why

I found no spreadsheet modules on CPAN.

I you have an application that takes some input and does calculation on them, chances are that implementing it through a spreadsheet will make it more maintainable and easier to develop. Here are the reasons (IMO) why:

How

I want Spreadsheets::Perl to:

CREATING A SPREADSHEET ^

Spreadsheet perl is implemented as a tie. Remember that you can use hash slices (I 'll give some examples). The spreadsheet functions are accessed through the tied object.

Simple creation

  use Spreadsheet::Perl ;
  my $ss = tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl" ; 

Setting up data

Setting the cell data

  use Spreadsheet::Perl ;
  tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl"
                , CELLS =>
                                {
                                  A1 =>
                                                {
                                                VALUE => 'hi'
                                                }
                                        
                                , A2 =>
                                                {
                                                VALUE => 'there'
                                                #~ or
                                                #~ PERL_FORMULA => [undef, '$ss{A1}']
                                                }
                                } ;

Setting the cell data, simple way

  use Spreadsheet::Perl ;
  tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl"
  @ss{'A1', 'B1:C2', 'A8'} = ('A', 'B', 'C');

Setting the spreadsheet attributes

  use Spreadsheet::Perl ;
  tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl"
                  , NAME => 'TEST'
                  , DEBUG => { PRINT_FORMULA => 1} ;

reading, cell only, data from a file

  <- start of ss_setup.pl ->
  # how to compute the data
  
  sub OneMillion
  {
  return(1_000_000) ;
  }
  
  #-----------------------------------------------------------------
  # the spreadsheet data
  #-----------------------------------------------------------------
  A1 => 120, 
  A2 => sub{1},
  A3 => PerlFormula('$ss->Sum("A1:A2")'),
  
  B1 => 3,
  
  c2 => "hi there",
  
  D1 => OneMillion()
  
  <- end of ss_setup.pl ->

  use Spreadsheet::Perl ;
  tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl", NAME => 'TEST' ;
  %ss = do "ss_setup.pl" or confess "Couldn't read setup file 'ss_setup.pl'" ;

insertion and deletion of rows and columns

Right now, SS::P will ONLY properly handle insertion/deletion within a single spreadsheet. That is, if you have multiply linked spreadsheets, do not use insertion/deletion. This is not automatically checked!

This is a temporary limitation and it will be removed.

If you use a spreadsheet that does not reference another spreadsheet, using insertion/deletion will update Perl formulas and dependencies just fine.

dumping a spreadsheet

Use the Dump function (see Debugging):

  my $ss = tied %ss ;
  ...
  print $ss->Dump() ;

Generates:

  ------------------------------------------------------------
  Spreadsheet::Perl=HASH(0x825540c) 'TEST' [3550 bytes]
  
  Cells:
  |- A1
  |  `- VALUE = 120
  |- A2
  |  `- VALUE = CODE(0x82554d8)
  |- A3
  |  |- ANCHOR = A3
  |  |- FETCH_SUB = CODE(0x825702c)
  |  |- FETCH_SUB_ARGS
  |  |- PERL_FORMULA = Object of type 'Spreadsheet::Perl::PerlFormula'
  |  |  |- 0 = CODE(0x923752c)
  |  |  `- 1 = $ss->Sum("A1:A2")
  |  |- GENERATED_FORMULA = $ss->Sum("A1:A2")
  |  `- NEED_UPDATE = 1
  |- B1
  |  `- VALUE = 3
  |- C2
  |  `- VALUE = hi there
  `- D1
     `- VALUE = 1000000
  
  Spreadsheet::Perl=HASH(0x825540c) 'TEST' dump end
  ------------------------------------------------------------

reading and writing a spreadsheet from a file

Version 0.06 has, prototype, functionality to read and write spreadsheets. Serializing of common format formulas are also supported.

  use Spreadsheet::Perl ;
  
  my $ss = tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl" ;

  $ss->Read('ss_data.pl') ;

  print $ss->DumpTable() ;
  
  $ss->Write('generated_ss_data.pl') ;

  undef $ss ;
  untie %ss ;
  
  $ss = tie %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl" ;
  $ss->Read('generated_ss_data.pl') ;
  
  print $ss->DumpTable() ;

You can find a small example in examples/read_write.. See also: "Function definition" bellow.

Dumping a table

Håkon Nessjøen (author of Text::ASCIITable) was nice enough to contribute a module to dump the spreadsheet in table form.

The functionality can be access through two, equivalent, function names: DumpTable (an alias) and GenerateASCIITable. The functions take the following arguments:

1- a list of ranges within an array reference or 'undef' for the whole spreadsheet
2- a boolean, when set, the spreadsheet attributes are also displayed
3- options passed to Text::ASCIITable
4- arguments passed to Text::ASCIITable::draw

Most of the time you'll call DumpTable without argument or with the first argument set.

  print $ss->DumpTable() ;
  
  generates :
  
  .----------------------------------------------------.
  | @  | A   | B   | C   | D   | E   | F   | G   | H   |
  |====================================================|
  | 1  | A1  | B1  | C1  | D1  | E1  | F1  | G1  | H1  |
  |----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----|
  | 2  | A2  | B2  | C2  | D2  | E2  | F2  | G2  | H2  |
  |----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----|
  | 3  | A3  | B3  | C3  | D3  | E3  | F3  | G3  | H3  |
  |----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----|
  ...
  ...
  |----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----|
  | 10 | A10 | B10 | C10 | D10 | E10 | F10 | G10 | H10 |
  '----------------------------------------------------'
  
  print $ss->DumpTable(['B4:C5', 'A2:B6', 'NAMED_RANGE']) ;
  
  .-------------.
  | @ | B  | C  |
  |=============|
  | 4 | B4 | C4 |
  |---+----+----|
  | 5 | B5 | C5 |
  '-------------'
  
  .-------------.
  | @ | A  | B  |
  |=============|
  | 2 | A2 | B2 |
  |---+----+----|
  | 3 | A3 | B3 |
  |---+----+----|
  | 4 | A4 | B4 |
  |---+----+----|
  | 5 | A5 | B5 |
  |---+----+----|
  | 6 | A6 | B6 |
  '-------------'
  
  .-------------------------------------------------------.
  | @ | A  | B  | C  | D  | E  | F  | G  | H  | I | J | K |
  |=======================================================|
  | 4 | A4 | B4 | C4 | D4 | E4 | F4 | G4 | H4 |   |   |   |
  |---+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+---+---+---|
  | 5 | A5 | B5 | C5 | D5 | E5 | F5 | G5 | H5 |   |   |   |
  '-------------------------------------------------------'
  
  print $ss->DumpTable
                (
                  undef
                , undef 
                , {
                    alignHeadRow => 'center',
                  , headingText  => 'Some Title'
                  }
                ) ;

  .------------------------------------------------------.
  |                      Some Title                      |
  |======================================================|
  | @ |                     A                    | B | C |
  |======================================================|
  | 1 | datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata | B | B |
  |---+------------------------------------------+---+---|
  | 2 | datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata | B | B |
  |---+------------------------------------------+---+---|
  | 3 | datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata |   |   |
  |---+------------------------------------------+---+---|
  | 4 | datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata |   |   |
  |---+------------------------------------------+---+---|
  | 5 | datadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadatadata |   |   |
  |---+------------------------------------------+---+---|
  | 6 |                                          |   |   |
  |---+------------------------------------------+---+---|
  | 7 |                                          |   |   |
  |---+------------------------------------------+---+---|
  | 8 | C                                        |   |   |
  '------------------------------------------------------'

It is possible to give a page width. if the page width is not set, the screen width is used. If there is no screen width available (redirecting to a file for example) 78 is used as a width.

  print $ss->DumpTable(['A4:O5'], undef, {pageWidth => 40}) ;
  
  .--------------------------------------------
  | @ | A  | B  | C  | D  | E  | F  | G  | H  |
  |============================================
  | 4 | A4 | B4 | C4 | D4 | E4 | F4 | G4 | H4 |
  |---+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
  | 5 | A5 | B5 | C5 | D5 | E5 | F5 | G5 | H5 |
  '--------------------------------------------
  'TEST' 1/4.
  
  .--------------------------------
  | @ | I | J | K | L | M | N | O |
  |================================
  | 4 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---|
  | 5 |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  '--------------------------------
  'TEST' 2/4.

  ...

You can set the 'noPageCount' option if you don't want the page count.

Note: If $ss->{DEBUG}{PRINT_DEPENDENT_LIST} is set, the cells depending on a specific cell are listed in the inline information ( a reverse dependency list)

To make sure the dependent list is up to date before display, Recalculate() is called before dumping the spreadsheet.

See Text::ASCIITable.

CELL and RANGE: ADDRESSING, NAMING ^

Cells are index with a scheme I call baseAA (please let me know if it has a better name). A cell address is a combination of letters and a figure, ex: 'A1', 'BB45', 'ABDE15'.

BaseAA figures match /[A-Z]{1,4}/. see Spreadsheet::ConvertAA. There is no limit on the numeric figure. Spreadsheet::Perl is implemented as a hash thus allowing for sparse spreadsheets.

Address format

Addresses are composed of:

The following are valid addresses: A1 TEST!A1 A1:BB5 TEST!A5:CE43

For a range, the order of the baseAA figures is important!

  $ss{'A1:D5'} = 7; is equivalent to $ss{'D5:A1'} = 7; 

but

  $ss{'A1:D5'} = PerlFormula('$ss{H10}'); is NOT equivalent to $ss{'D5:A1'} = PerlFormula('$ss{H10}'); 

because formulas are regenerated for each cell. Spreadsheet::Perl goes from the first baseAA figure to the second one by iterating the row, then the column.

It is also possible to index cells with numerals only: $ss{"1,7"}. Remember that A is 1 and there are no zeros.

Names

It is possible to give a name to a cell or to a range:

  my $ss = tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl" ;
  @ss{'A1', 'A2'} = ('cell A1', 'cell A2') ;
  
  $ss->SetCellName("FIRST", "A1") ;
  print  $ss{FIRST} . ' ' . $ss{A2} . "\n" ;
  
  $ss->SetRangeName("FIRST_RANGE", "A1:A2") ;
  print  "First range: @{$ss{FIRST_RANGE}}\n" ;

Names must be upper case.

Note that, for the moment, column/row insertion and deletion do not work with cell/range names. Or, more exactely, SS:P can not change cell addresses in named range. IE: after insertion of a row, formula "$ss{B4}" may become "$ss{C4}". if cell B4 had the name "MYCELL", SS:P could not modify the formula "$ss{MYCELL}". In future version, we may choose between replacing MYCELL with a cell address automatically or invalidate all the cells containing a named address that is influenced by a column/row insertion/deletion.

LABELING ROW AND COLUMN HEADERS ^

        $ss{A0} = 'column A' ;
        $ss{B0} = 'column B' ;
        $ss{@1} = 'row 1' ;
        $ss{@2} = 'row 2' ;

The subs label_column and label_row can also be used.

        $ss->label_column('A' => "First column") ;
        $ss->label_row(1 => 'row 1') ;
        $ss->label_row(2 => 'row 2') ;

OTHER SPREADSHEET ^

To use inter-spreadsheet formulas, you need to make the spreadsheet aware of the other spreadsheets by calling the AddSpreadsheet function.

  tie my %romeo, "Spreadsheet::Perl", NAME => 'ROMEO' ;
  my $romeo = tied %romeo ;

  tie my %juliette, "Spreadsheet::Perl", NAME => 'JULIETTE' ;
  my $juliette = tied %juliette ;

  $romeo->AddSpreadsheet('JULIETTE', $juliette) ;
  $juliette->AddSpreadsheet('ROMEO', $romeo) ;
  
  $romeo{'B1:B5'} = 10 ;
  
  $juliette{A4} = 5 ;
  $juliette{A5} = PerlFormula('$ss->Sum("JULIETTE!A4") + $ss->Sum("ROMEO!B1:B2")') ; 

SPREADSHEET Functions ^

Locking

Locking the spreadsheet:

  tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl", LOCKED => 1 ;
  $ss->Lock() ;
  $ss->Lock(1) ;

Unlocking the spreadsheet:

  $ss->Lock(0) ;

Locking a Range

Locking a range:

  LockRange('A1:B6') ;
  LockRange('A1:B6', 1) ;

Unlocking a range:

  LockRange('A1:B6', 0) ;

Cache

Spreadsheet::Perl caches the result of the formulas and recalculates cell values only when needed.

Calculation control

Spreadsheet::Perl computes the value of a cell (see Cache above) when the cell is accessed. If a cell A1 depends on cell A2 and cell A2 is modified, the value of cell A1 is not updated until it is accessed. If you want to update all the cell (in need of being updated) use:

  $ss->Recalculate() ;

This comes handy if you want to flush the result to a database linked to the spreadsheet

It is possible to force the recalculation of the spreadsheet every time a cell with dependent is set:

  tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl", AUTOCALC => 1 ;
  $ss->SetAutocalc() ;
  $ss->SetAutocalc(1) ;

Turning off auto recalculation:

  $ss->SetAutocalc(0) ;

AUTOCALC is set to 0 by default.

Function definition

Spreadsheet::Perl comes with a single formula function defined (Sum).

Spreadsheet::Perl uses perl arithmetics so all the functions available in perl are available to you. You can define your own functions.

  sub AddOne
  {
  my $ss = shift ;
  my $address = shift ;
  
  return($ss->Get($address) + 1) ;
  }
  
  DefineSpreadsheetFunction('AddOne', \&AddOne) ;

  $ss{A3} = PerlFormula('$ss->AddOne("A1") + $ss{A2}') ;

Sub AddOne is now available in all your spreadsheets.

DefineSpreadsheetFunction takes the following parameters:

1 - A function name
2 - A sub reference or undef if item 3 is defined
3 - A text representation for the function (for file serialization)
2 - A module name (for file serialization)

The sub will be passed a reference to the spreadsheet object as first argument. The other argument are those you pass to the function in your formula.

Function collections

If you implement more than a few formula functions, you may want to move those functions into a perl module. "use" Spreadsheet::Perl in your module and register your functions through DefineSpreadsheetFunction.

  package MyPackageName ;
  
  sub DoSomething{}
  
  AddSpreadsheetFunction('DoSomething', \&DoSomething, undef, __PACKAGE__) ;

Later in a script:

  use Spreadsheet::Perl ;
  use MyPackageName ;
  
  # DoSomething is now available within formulas
  $ss{A1} = PF('$ss->DoSomething('A2:A3', 'arg2', 'arg3')') ;
  ...
  $ss->Write('somefile.pl') ; # serializes the formula and "MyPackageName" module name in the file.

The saved file will now "use" MyPackageName automaticaly when you read the file.

Please contribute your functions to Spreadsheet::Perl.

Misc spreadsheet functions

SETTING AND READING CELLS ^

Cells have one value and attributes. Cells values are perl scalars, anything you can assign to a perl scalar can be assigned to a cell value (see bellow for the one exception). Attributes have different format and are handled by the spreadsheet.

Setting a value

Anything that can be assigned to a perl variable can be assigned to a cell with the exception of object rooted in "Spreadsheet::Perl" which are reserved and carry a special meaning.

  $ss{A1} = 458_627 ;
  $ss{A1} = undef ;
  $ss{A1} = '' ;
  $ss{A1} = function_call() ; # assign the value returned from the call
  $ss{A1} = \&Function ;
  $ss{A1} = \@_ ;
  
  $ss{A1} = $object_within_spreadsheet_perl_hierarchy ; # this is valid but may (and will) carry a special meaning.

  $ss->Set('A1', "some value') ; # OO style

locking

Cell locking is done through the LockRange function:

  $ss->LockRange('A1') ;

Finding out the lock state of a cell:

  $cell_is_locked = $ss->IsCellLocked('A1') ;

Formulas

cell dependencies

Cell dependencies are automatically handled by Spreadsheet::Perl. If a dependency is changed, the formula will be re-evaluated next time the cell, containing the formula, is accessed.

circular dependencies

If circular dependencies between cells exist, Spreadsheet::Perl will generate a dump of the cycle as well as a perl stack dump to help you debug your formulas. The following formulas:

  $ss{'A1:A5'} = PerlFormula('$ss{"A2"}') ; #automatic address offsetting
  $ss{A6} = PerlFormula('$ss{A1}') ;
  print "$ss{A1}\n" ;

generate:

  -----------------
  Spreadsheet::Perl=HASH(0x813d234) 'TEST' Dependent stack:
  -----------------
  TEST!A1 : $ss->Get("A2")[main] cyclic_error.pl:18
  TEST!A2 : $ss->Get("A3")[main] cyclic_error.pl:18
  TEST!A3 : $ss->Get("A4")[main] cyclic_error.pl:18
  TEST!A4 : $ss->Get("A5")[main] cyclic_error.pl:18
  TEST!A5 : $ss->Get("A6")[main] cyclic_error.pl:18
  TEST!A6 : $ss->Get("A1")[main] cyclic_error.pl:19
  TEST!A1 : $ss->Get("A2")[main] cyclic_error.pl:18
  -----------------
  
  At cell 'TEST!A6' formula: $ss->Get("A1") defined at 'main cyclic_error.pl 19':
        Found cyclic dependencies! at /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0/Spreadsheet/Perl.pm line 242.
  #ERROR

setting a formula

Formulas can be written in different formats. The native format is perl code. There seems to be a consensus about what standard format the formulas should use, I call that format "common format".

Native format

PerlFormula and PF take a string as argument. The string must be a valid Perl code.

PerlFormula can be used as a member function and define multiple formulas in one call

  $ss->PerlFormula
        (
          'B1'    => '$ss{A1} + $ss{A2}'
        , 'B2'    => '$ss{A4} + $ss{A3}'
        , 'B3:B5' => '$ss{A4} + $ss{A3}'
        ) ;

or it can used to set a cell or a cell range formula.

  $ss{'A1:A5'} = PerlFormula('$ss{"A2"}') ;

  $ss{'A1'} = PerlFormula('ANY VALID PERL CODE') ;

When used with a cell or a cell range, extra user data can be passed

  $ss{'A1'} = PF('PERL CODE', \$user_data, $more_user_date, 42, "something") ;

The formulas can also be part of the Spreadsheet dump

  $ss->{DEBUG}{INLINE_INFORMATION}++ ; # show the formulas in the table dump
  print $ss->DumpTable() ;:

The following variables are available in the formula:

If a range is assigned a formula, the cell addresses within the formulas are automatically offseted, fixed address element can be protected by square brackets.

  # formula 1
  $ss{'C1:C2'} = PerlFormula('$ss->Sum("A1:A2")') ;
  
  Formula definition (anchor'C1:C2' @ cell 'C1'): $ss->Sum("A1:A2")
  generated formula => $ss->Sum("A1:A2")
  
  Formula definition (anchor'C1:C2' @ cell 'C2'): $ss->Sum("A1:A2")
  generated formula  => $ss->Sum("A2:A3")
  
  # formula 2
  $ss{'D1:E2'} = PerlFormula('$ss->Sum("[A]1:A[3]")') ;
  
  Formula definition (anchor'D1:E2' @ cell 'D1'): $ss->Sum("[A]1:A[3]")
  generated formula => $ss->Sum("A1:A3")
  
  Formula definition (anchor'D1:E2' @ cell 'D2'): $ss->Sum("[A]1:A[3]")
  generated formula => $ss->Sum("A2:A3")
  
  Formula definition (anchor'D1:E2' @ cell 'E1'): $ss->Sum("[A]1:A[3]")
  generated formula => $ss->Sum("A1:B3")
  
  Formula definition (anchor'D1:E2' @ cell 'E2'): $ss->Sum("[A]1:A[3]")
  generated formula => $ss->Sum("A2:B3")

common format

This is the format accepted by excel and gnumeric. I will _not_ implement that format because:

  =SUM(IF(A2:A20=A2,IF(B2:B20=38,1,0)))

is about the ugliest a formula language can get. Is all this user friendly syntax only because someone thought it was too difficult to present a mutiline editor to the end user?

If Someone feels that the common format (or any other language) is more "appropriate" than Perl and contributes a translator, I'll be happy to add it to the distribution.

Steffen Müller (author of Math::Symbolic) was nice enough to contribute a translator for the 0.07 release. This doesn't make Spreadsheet::Perl compatible with Gnumeric but goes a long way towards that goal.

  $ss->Formula
        (
          B1      => 'cos(A1 + A2)'
        , B2      => 'A4 + A3'
        , 'B3:B5' => 'log(A4) + A3'
        , 'B6:b7' => 'Sum(A4:A5) + Sum(A3)'
        , B8      => 'log(Sum(A4:A5)) + log(A3)'
        ) ;

Examples of translation:

  SSHEET!A1:BB15 => $ss{'SSHEET!A1:BB15'}

  SSHEET!A1 => $ss{'SSHEET!A1'}

  2*Sum(SSHEET!A1:AD4)+log(A5) => ((2 * $ss->Sum('SSHEET!A1:AD4')) + log($ss{'A5'}))

  Function(Sum(SSHEET!A1:B1)^cos(Sum(SSHEET!NAMEDRANGE))) =>
  $ss->Function(($ss->Sum('SSHEET!A1:B1') ** cos($ss->Sum('SSHEET!NAMEDRANGE'))))

Note that some functions are translated as class functions ('Sum' in the example above) and other as global functions ('log' in the example above). Spreadsheet::Perl doesn't define any global functions (this will certainly change when I have time to go through this). The funtions bellow let manipulate the global functions. Spreadsheet::Perl will re-compile the translator as needed.

Common format formulas come at a cost. To translate the formula, Parse::Recdescent must be loaded (that times at 0.25s on my 700 MHz box), the grammar must be compiled and the formulas translated. This can amout to seconds when compared to pure perl formulas. Nevertheless, this is very good to experiment with. If needed, the parser can be tinkered with or re-written in C. Once the formulas are translated, you get the same speed as the perl format formulas.

RangeValues

There are different way to assign values to a range.

  $ss{'A1:A5'} = 5 ; # all the cells within the range have "5" as value.
  @ss{'A1', 'A2', 'A3', 'A4', 'A5'} = (10 .. 15) ; # perl slice notation 
  $ss{'A1:A5'} = RangeValues(10 .. 15) ;
  
  $ss{'A1:A5'} = RangeValuesSub(\my_sub, $argument_1, $argument_2) ;

RangeValuesSub

RangeValuesSub is passed the following arguments:

1 - a sub reference
2 - an optional list of arguments

The sub is called, multiple times, to fill the cell of ranges. It is passed these arguments:

1 - a reference to the spreadsheet
2 - an anchor (the first cell of the range)
3 - the address of the cell to generate a value for
4 - the optional list of arguments passed to RangeValuesSub

RangeValuesSub can be used when the values are to be generated dynamically or could be used to create 'Auto-fill' functionality.

Setting formats

the cell formats are hold within a hash, you can set as many different formats as you wish. Your format can be a complex perl structure, Spreadsheet::Perl only handle the first level of the hash:

  $ss{A1} = Format(ANSI => {HEADER => "blink"}) ;
  $ss{A1} = Format(ANSI => {HEADER => "red_on_black"}) ; # override previous
  $ss{A1} = Format(POD => {FOOTER => "B<>"}) ; # add this format to cell A1

The format data must be passed as a perl hash reference.

Setting Validators

a Validator is defined in this way:

  $ss{'A1:A2'} = Validator('only letters', \&OnlyLetters) ;

Validator, removes all previously set validators and sets the validator passed as argument. Validator takes these arguments:

1 - a name
2 - a sub reference
3 - an optional list of arguments

A cell can have multiple validators. use ValidatorAdd to append new validators.

Validators are passed the following arguments:

1 - a reference to the spreadsheet
2 - the address of the cell to be set
3 - a reference to the cell to be set
4 - the optional list of arguments passed to Validator[Add]

The value is set if all the cell validators return true. Spreadsheet::Perl is silent, your validator has to give the user feedback.

Setting User data

You can store private data into the cell. It is out of limits for Spreadsheet::Perl. the user data is stored in a hash.

  $ss{A1} = UserData(NAME => 'private data', ARRAY => ['hi']) ;

Setting fetch and store callbacks

You can map your own set of Fetch and Store data from/in a cell. You will be working with the spreadsheet internals.

Fetch callback

I recommend that you don't use this system to compute values depending on other cells; the dependency mechanism will still work but it is better to use formula so it will still work when row/columns deleting/inserting is implemented. This mechanism is still very useful when you need to access a value that changes between cell access and is not depending on other cells. The description field is displayed when generating a table and $ss->{DEBUG}{INLINE_INFORMATION} is set, that can be of a great help when debugging your spreadsheet.

  $ss{A1} = FetchFunction('some description', \&MySub) ;

FetchFunction takes these arguments

1 - a description string
2 - a sub reference
3 - an optional list of arguments

The following arguments are passed to the fetch callback

1 - a reference to the spreadsheet
2 - the address of the cell
3 - the optional list of arguments passed to FetchFunction

Caching (volatile cells)

Spreadsheet::Perl caches cell values (and updates them when a dependency has changed). If you want a cell to return a different value every time it is accessed (when using AUTOCALC = 0 and Recalculate for example), you need to turn caching off for that cell.

  ${A1} = NoCache() ;

Store callback

You can also attach a 'store' sub to a cell. whenever the cell is assigned a value, your sub will be called.

  $ss{'A1:A5'} = StoreFunction('description', \&StorePlus, 5) ;

StoreFunction takes the following arguments:

1 - a description string
2 - a sub reference
3 - an optional list of arguments to be passed when the callback is, well, called.

The callback is called with these arguments

1 - a spreadsheet object reference
2 - the address of the cell to set
3 - the value to store
4 - the, optional, arguments passed to StoreFunction

Your store callback must store the data directly in the spreadsheet data structure without calling the Store/Set functions. You can find a typical implementation in the examples.

Delete callback

You can also attach a 'delete' sub to a cell. Your sub will be called when the cell is deleted.

  $ss{'A1:A5'} = DeleteFunction('description', \&DeleteCallback, 1, 2, 3) ;

StoreFunction takes the following arguments:

1 - a description string
2 - a sub reference
3 - an optional list of arguments to be passed when the callback is, well, called.

The callback is called with these arguments

1 - a spreadsheet object reference
2 - the address of the cell to set
3 - the, optional, arguments passed to StoreFunction

Perl scalar mapping

Few problems fit the two dimensional mapping spreadsheets use. For a given project, you may already have data structure that you want to perform calculation on (thought spreadsheet). Mapping from the domain structure and back is time consuming, error prone and borring. Even if that process cannot be eliminated, Spreadsheet::Perl can do half the job. Here is a simple example:

  my $variable = 25 ;
  
  $ss{A1} = Ref('description', \$variable) ;
  $ss{A2} = PerlFormula('$ss{A1}') ;
  
  print "$ss{A1} $ss{A2}\n" ; # fetch the data from the scalar variable
  
  $ss{A1} = 52 ; # set the scalar
    
  print "\$variable = $variable\n" ;

Ref can be called as attribute creator (as above) or as a spreadsheet member (as bellow).

  $ss->Ref
        (
        'description',
        'A1'      => \($struct->{something}), 
        'A2'      => \$variable,
        'A3:A5' => \$variable
        ) ;

$ss->get_reference_description('A1') or $ss->REF_INFO('A1') can be used to retrieve the description field of cell, eg, A1.

A more complex example (based on examples/ref2.pl) which also show the usage of debug flags

        use strict ;
        use warnings ;

        use Data::TreeDumper ;
        use Spreadsheet::Perl ;

        my $ss = tie my %ss, "Spreadsheet::Perl", NAME => 'TEST' ;

        # set some debugging flags so we can see what is happening in the spreadsheet

        # show when a value is fetched from one of the following cells
        # we could also have used "$ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH}++; " but it doesn't show the details of the fetch operation
        $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_TRIGGER}{A1}++ ;
        $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_TRIGGER}{A2}++ ;
        $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_TRIGGER}{A3}++ ;

        # show which formulas are applied
        $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_SUB}++ ;
        

        # show when something is stored in a cell, tht can be a value, a formula, ...
        $ss->{DEBUG}{STORE}++;

        # show when dependencies are marked for recalculation
        $ss->{DEBUG}{MARK_ALL_DEPENDENT}++ ;
         
        # plain perl variables
        my $variable = 25 ;
        my $variable_2 = 30 ;
        my $struct = {result => 'hello world'} ;

        # make cells refer to perl scalars. Note that this is a two way relationship
        $ss->Ref
                (
                'Ref and formulas',
                'A1' => \$variable,
                'A2' => \$variable_2,
                'A3' => \$struct->{result},
                ) ;

        # set formulas over the perl scalars.
        
        $ss->PerlFormula
                (
                'A2' => '$ss{A1} * 2',  
                'A3' => '$ss{A2} * 2',  
                ) ;

        # fetch the values, running the formulas as necessary
        print "$ss{A1} $ss{A2} $ss{A3}\n" ;

        # fetch the values, running the formulas as necessary, here some results will be cached
        print "$ss{A1} $ss{A2} $ss{A3}\n" ;

        # show the values of the perl scalars
        print DumpTree 
                {
                '$variable' => $variable,
                '$variable_2' => $variable_2,
                '$struct'=> $struct,
                }, 'scalars:' ;

        # set a cell and the perl scalar underneath 
        $ss{A1} = 10 ;

        # fetch the values, running the formulas as necessary
        print "$ss{A1} $ss{A2} $ss{A3}\n" ;

        # show the values of the perl scalars
        print DumpTree 
                {
                '$variable' => $variable,
                '$variable_2' => $variable_2,
                '$struct'=> $struct,
                }, 'scalars:' ;

The output is the following (comments are added as an explanation):

        # make cells refer to perl scalars. (arguments are passed in a hash thus the order)
        Storing To 'A3'
        Storing To 'A1'
        Storing To 'A2'
        
        # set formulas over the perl scalars.
        Storing To 'A3'
        Storing To 'A2'
        
        # fetch the values, running the formulas as necessary
        # this is the result of the first: print "$ss{A1} $ss{A2} $ss{A3}\n" ;
        
        # A1, the value comes from the scalar
        Fetching cell 'A1'.
          => Fetching cell 'A1' value from scalar reference.
          
        # A2, the value comes from the formula
        Fetching cell 'A2'.
          => Cell 'A2' value from scalar reference shadowed by formula.
          
        # run the formula, note that the formula is also displayed in the dump
        Running Sub @ 'TEST!A2' formula: $ss{A1} * 2
        # fetch the A1 cell refered to in the formula
        Fetching cell 'A1'.
          => Fetching cell 'A1' value from scalar reference.
          
        # A3, identic to A2  
        Fetching cell 'A3'.
          => Cell 'A3' value from scalar reference shadowed by formula.
        Running Sub @ 'TEST!A3' formula: $ss{A2} * 2
        Fetching cell 'A2'.
        
        # the result of the first print
        25 50 100
        
        
        # fetch the values, running the formulas as necessary, here some results are cached
        # this is the result of the second: print "$ss{A1} $ss{A2} $ss{A3}\n" ;"
        
        # fetched from the perl scalar
        Fetching cell 'A1'.
          => Fetching cell 'A1' value from scalar reference.
          
        # A2 and A3 are fetched from the spreadsheet, since they are cached,
        # there is no need to run the formulas again
        Fetching cell 'A2'.
        Fetching cell 'A3'.
        
        # the result of the second print
        25 50 100
        
        # show the values of the perl scalars
        scalars:
        +- $struct  [H1]
        |  +- result = 100  [S2]
        +- $variable = 25  [S3]
        +- $variable_2 = 50  [S4]
        
        # set a cell and the perl scalar underneath 
        # the cells that have dependencies on A1 are marked for recalculation
        Storing To 'A1'
           'A2' needs update
              'A3' needs update
              
              
        # fetch the values, running the formulas as necessary      
        Fetching cell 'A1'.
          => Fetching cell 'A1' value from scalar reference.
        Fetching cell 'A2'.
        Running Sub @ 'TEST!A2' formula: $ss{A1} * 2
        Fetching cell 'A1'.
          => Fetching cell 'A1' value from scalar reference.
        Fetching cell 'A3'.
        Running Sub @ 'TEST!A3' formula: $ss{A2} * 2
        Fetching cell 'A2'.
        10 20 40
        
        # show the values of the perl scalars
        scalars:
        +- $struct  [H1]
        |  +- result = 40  [S2]
        +- $variable = 10  [S3]
        +- $variable_2 = 20  [S4]               

Note that Ref accepts reference to scalars only.

Removing the mapping

Simply delete the cell:

  delete ${A1} ;

Store on fetch

You can direct Spreadsheet::Perl to call the 'store callback' of a cell everytime the cell is fetched. What is this good for? Here is an example:

  $ss{A3} = PF('$ss{A1} + $ss{A2}') ;
  
  $ss{A3} = StoreOnFetch() ; # set the store on fetch attribute for this cell
  
  $ss{A3} = StoreFunction('formula to db', \&MyStoreCallback) ;
  
  $ss{'A1:A2'} = 10 ;
  $ss->Recalculate() ;

This lets you calculate the value of a cell through a formula and store that value wherever you wish to. For example a database, a perl scalar or even mail the value.

Reading values

Use the normal perl assignment:

  my $value = $ss{A1} ;

You can read multiple values using slices:

my ($value1, $value2) = @ss{'A1', 'A2'} ;

Reading range values

I you want to read all the values contained in a range, use the following syntax:

  my $values = $ss{'A1:A10'} ;

An array reference is returned. It contains the values ordered by rows first then by columns.

Copying cell values from a spreadsheet to another spreadsheet or to another hash

Use Perl hash slices:

  tie my %spreadsheet, "Spreadsheet::Perl" ;
  my $spreadsheet = tied %$spreadsheet ;
  
  my @cells = qw(A1 B6 C4) ;
  
  @spreadsheet{@cells} = qw( first second third ) ;
  
  my %copy_hash ;
  @copy_hash{@cells} =  @spreadsheet{@cells} ;
  
  print DumpTree(\%copy_hash, 'CopyHash:') ;

Reading attributes

Cell attributes are handled internally by Spreadsheet::Perl, some of those attributes need to be synchronized or influence the way Spreadsheet::Perl handles the cell. You still get the attributes through an extended address. This is easier explained with an example:

  $ss{A1} = UserData(FIRST => 1, SECOND => 2) ; # stored in a hash
  $user_data_hash = $ss{A1.USER_DATA} ;

The attributes you can use are:

OUTPUT ^

HTML

As of version 0.04, there is a simple way to generate HTML tables. It uses the Data::Table module. This is an interim solution and it is limited but it might just do what you want.

  ...
  print $ss->GenerateHtml() ;
  $ss->GenerateHtmlToFile('output_file_name.html') ;

See "Dumping a table".

DEBUGGING ^

Dump

The Dump function, err, dumps the spreadsheet. It takes the following arguments:

Debug handle

All debug output is done through the handle set in $ss{DEBUG}{ERROR_HANDLE}. It is set to STDERR but could be set to a file or other logging facilities.

The handle can be used from withing formulas if necessary:

  $ss{A9} = PerlFormula
                ('
                my $dh = $ss->{DEBUG}{ERROR_HANDLE} ;
                print $dh "Doing something\n" ;
                $ss->Sum("A1:A7", "A8") ;
                ') ;

Debug flags

$ss->{DEBUG}

I don't removes the flags I create while developing Spreadsheet::Perl if I think it can be useful to the user (that's me at least). The following flags exist:

  $ss->{DEBUG}{SUB}++ ; # show whenever a value has to be calculated
  $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCHED}++ ; # counts how many times the cell is fetched
  $ss->{DEBUG}{STORED}++ ; # counts how many times the cell is stored
  
  $ss->{DEBUG}{PRINT_FORMULA}++ ; # show the info about formula generation
  $ss->{DEBUG}{PRINT_FORMULA_EVAL_STATUS}++ ; # show the info about formula execution
  $ss->{DEBUG}{INLINE_INFORMATION}++ ; # inline cell information in the table dump
  $ss->{DEBUG}{PRINT_ORIGINAL_FORMULA}++ ; # inline original formula in the table dump
  $ss->{DEBUG}{PRINT_FORMULA_ERROR}++ ; # inline the error generated by the formula evaluation
  $ss->{DEBUG}{PRINT_DEPENDENT_LIST}++ # inline the list of dependents in the table dump
  $ss->{DEBUG}{PRINT_CYCLIC_DEPENDENCY})++ # inline dependency cyles in the table dump

  $ss->{DEBUG}{DEFINED_AT}++ ; # show where the cell has been defined
  $ss->{DEBUG}{ADDRESS_LIST}++ ; # shows the generated address lists
  $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_FROM_OTHER}++ ; # show when an inter spreadsheet value is fetched
  $ss->{DEBUG}{DEPENDENT_STACK_ALL}++ ; # show the dependent stack every time a value is fetched
  $ss->{DEBUG}{DEPENDENT_STACK}{A1}++ ; # show the dependent stack every time the cell is fetched
  $ss->{DEBUG}{DEPENDENT}++ ; # store information about dependent and show them in dump
  $ss->{DEBUG}{MARK_ALL_DEPENDENT}++; # shows when any dependent cell is marked as needing an update
  $ss->{DEBUG}{MARK_DEPENDENT}{$cell_name} # shows when dependent cell '$cell_name' is marked as needing an update 
  $ss->{DEBUG}{VALIDATOR}++ ; # display calls to all validators in spreadsheet
  
  $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH}++ ; # shows when a cell value is fetched
  $self->{DEBUG}{FETCH_VALUE}++ ; # shows which value is fetched

  $ss->{DEBUG}{STORE}++ ; # shows when a cell value is stored
  $ss->{DEBUG}{RECORD_STORE_ALL}++ # keep all call stacks for all the STORE
  $ss->{DEBUG}{RECORD_STORE}{A1}++ # keep all call stacks for A1
  # RECORD_STORE_ALL and RECORD_STORE are memory hoags! And generate gigantic dumps but are great debugging help
  # RECORD_STORE does not have to be set through out your application, it canbe set and unset as you wish
  # remember that you can pass addresses and ranges to Dump().
  # print $ss->Dump(['A1', 'B0']) ;#
  
  $iss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_TRIGGER}{'A1'}++ ; # displays a message when 'A1' is fetched
  $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_TRIGGER}{'A1'} = sub {my ($ss, $address) = @_} ; # calls the sub when 'A1' is fetched
  $ss->{DEBUG}{FETCH_TRIGGER_HANDLER} = sub {my ($ss, $address) = @_} ; # calls sub when any trigger is fetched and no specific sub exists
  $ss->{DEBUG}{STORE_TRIGGER}{'A1'}++ ; # displays a message when 'A1' is stored
  $ss->{DEBUG}{STORE_TRIGGER}{'A1'} = sub {my ($ss, $address) = @_} ; # calls the sub when 'A1' is stored
  $ss->{DEBUG}{STORE_TRIGGER_HANDLER} = sub {my ($ss, $address, $value) = @_} ; # calls sub when any trigger is stored and no specific sub exists

more will be added when the need arises.

$ss->{DEBUG_MODULE}

This flag 'family' is reserved for modules that are not part of the distribution. The 'Arithmetic.pm' module (which is a part of the distribution at version 0.04 will be made available as a separate package) includes these lines:

  if(exists $ss->{DEBUG_MODULE}{ARITHMETIC_SUM})
          {
          print $ss->{DEBUG}{ERROR_HANDLE} "Sum: $current_address => $cell_value\n" ;
          }

TODO ^

There is still a lot to do (the basics are there) and I have the feeling I will not get the time needed. If someone is willing to help or take over, I'll be glad to step aside.

Here are some of the things that I find missing, this doesn't mean all are good ideas:

Lots is available on CPAN, just some glue is needed.

AUTHOR ^

Khemir Nadim ibn Hamouda. <nadim@khemir.net>

  Copyright (c) 2004 Nadim Ibn Hamouda el Khemir. All rights
  reserved.  This program is free software; you can redis-
  tribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl
  itself.

If you find any value in this module or want to influence it's development, mail me! All hints, tips, flames and wishes are welcome at <nadim@khemir.net>.

SEE ALSO ^

Spreadsheet::Engine

I, of course prefere my implementation that, IMHO, does much more; but Spreadsheet::Engine provides a lot of functions like SQRT, TODAY, TRIM, ... Since Spreadsheet::Perl allows you to use perl as a cell formula language, there is little need for that.

If you need to load spreadsheet with "common format" formulas, Spreadsheet::Engine may be a goog alternative. Stealing all those to add them to Spreadsheet::Perl has crossed my mind and it's not much work. Either send me a patch or ask and I may add them.

DEPENDENCIES ^

Spreadsheet::ConvertAA.

Data::TreeDumper.

Text::ASCIITable.

Some examples need these:

Prima.

Data::Table.

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