Alex J. G. Burzyński > String-Bash-1.110960 > String::Bash

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Module Version: 1.110960   Source  

NAME ^

String::Bash - Parameter expansion in strings

VERSION ^

version 1.110960

SYNOPSIS ^

    use String::Bash qw( bash );

    # pass hashref
    print bash "Hello %{name:-Guest}!", { name => 'Alex' };

    # or key/value pairs
    print bash "Hello %{name:-Guest}!", name => 'Alex';

    # or object which can('name');
    my $user = My::Users->new( name => 'Alex' );
    print bash "Hello %{name:-Guest}!", $user;

    # or use lexical vars
    my $name = 'Alex';
    print bash "Hello %{name:-Guest}!";

all will print

    Hello Alex

or if name is undefined or empty

    Hello Guest

DESCRIPTION ^

String::Bash is based on shell parameter expansion from Bash, thus it allows to provide default values, substrings and in-place substitutions, changing case of characters and nesting.

The String::Bash provides bash exported with Sub::Exporter.

REPLACEMENT VALUES ^

Replacements can be provided in four different ways:

Hash reference

    my $hashref = { param1 => 'value1', ... };
    print bash $format, $hashref;

Key/value pairs

    print bash $format, param1 => 'value1', ...;

Object

    print bash $format, $object;

Please note that $object needs to implement read/write accessors (if "%{param:=word}" is used, otherwise read-only are sufficient) for all parameters used in $format.

Lexical variables

    my $param1 = ...;
    our $param2 = ...;
    print bash $format;

Lexical (my) and package (our) scalar variables visible at the scope of bash caller are available as replacement.

FORMAT SYNTAX ^

Please assume that following variables are visible in below examples:

    my $param = 'hello';
    my $not_set;
    my $param2 = 'WELCOME';

%{param}

    print bash "%{param}"; # hello

Value of $param is substituted.

%{param:-word}

    print bash "%{param:-word}";    # hello
    print bash "%{not_set:-word}";  # word

If $param is unset or null, the expansion of word is substituted. Otherwise, the value of $param is substituted.

The word can be another parameter so nesting is possible:

    print bash "%{not_set:-%{param2}}"; # WELCOME

%{param:=word}

    print bash "%{not_set:=word}"; # word

If $param is unset or null, the expansion of word is assigned to $param. The value of $param is then substituted.

Notes on replacement syntax:

%{param:+word}

    print bash "%{param:+word}";   # word
    print bash "%{not_set:+word}"; #

If $param is null or unset, nothing is substituted, otherwise the expansion of word is substituted.

%{param:offset}

%{param:offset:length}

    print bash "%{param:2}";     # llo
    print bash "%{param:2:2}";   # ll

Expands to up to length characters of $param starting at the character specified by offset. If length is omitted, expands to the substring of $param starting at the character specified by offset.

%{#param}

    print bash "%{#param}";   # 5

The length in characters of the value of $param is substituted.

%{param#word}

%{param##word}

    print bash "%{param#he*l}";   # lo
    print bash "%{param##he*l}";  # o

The word is expanded to produce a pattern (see "Pattern expansion"). If the pattern matches the beginning of the value of $param, then the result of the expansion is the expanded value of $param with the shortest matching pattern (the '#' case) or the longest matching pattern (the '##' case) deleted.

%{param%word}

%{param%%word}

    print bash "%{param%l*o}";   # hel
    print bash "%{param%%l*o}";  # he

The word is expanded to produce a pattern (see "Pattern expansion"). If the pattern matches a trailing portion of the value of $param, then the result of the expansion is the value of $param with the shortest matching pattern (the '%' case) or the longest matching pattern (the '%%' case) deleted.

%{param/pattern/string}

    print bash "%{param/l/t}";   # hetlo
    print bash "%{param//l/t}";  # hetto
    print bash "%{param/#h/t}";  # tello
    print bash "%{param/%o/t}";  # hellt

The pattern is expanded to produce a pattern (see "Pattern expansion"). The longest match of pattern against $param value is replaced with string. If pattern begins with '/', all matches of pattern are replaced with string. Normally only the first match is replaced. If pattern begins with '#', it must match at the beginning of the value of $param. If pattern begins with '%', it must match at the end of the $param. If string is null, matches of pattern are deleted and the / following pattern may be omitted.

%{param^pattern}

%{param^^pattern}

%{param,pattern}

%{param,,pattern}

    print bash "%{param^}";     # Hello
    print bash "%{param^^}";    # HELLO
    print bash "%{param2,}";    # wELCOME
    print bash "%{param2,,}";   # welcome

    print bash "%{param^[hl]}";     # Hello
    print bash "%{param^^[hl]}";    # HeLLo
    print bash "%{param2,[WE]}";    # wELCOME
    print bash "%{param2,,[WE]}";   # weLCOMe

This expansion modifies the case of alphabetic characters in $param. The pattern is expanded to produce a pattern (see "Pattern expansion"). The '^' operator converts lowercase letters matching pattern to uppercase; the ',' operator converts matching uppercase letters to lowercase. The '^^' and ',,' expansions convert each matched character in $param; the '^' and ',' expansions match and convert only the first character in the value of $param. If pattern is omitted, it is treated like a '?', which matches every character.

NOTES ^

Pattern expansion

Pattern expansion is performed using following rules (based on filename expansion):

    # Character       # Replacement (perl syntax)
    *                 .*
    ?                 .
    [a-z]             [a-z]

Please do not use perl regular expression syntax in pattern substitutions, or you may get unexpected results.

COMPATIBILITY WITH BASH ^

String::Bash provides only syntax described above and some of Bash features (like expansions of arrays) are not available - but please let me know if you need them.

SEE ALSO ^

AUTHOR ^

Alex J. G. Burzyński <ajgb@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE ^

This software is copyright (c) 2011 by Alex J. G. Burzyński <ajgb@cpan.org>.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

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