Alberto Manuel Brandão Simões > XML-DT-0.66 > XML::DT

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Module Version: 0.66   Source  

NAME ^

XML::DT - a package for down translation of XML files

SYNOPSIS ^

 use XML::DT;

 %xml=( 'music'    => sub{"Music from: $c\n"},
        'lyrics'   => sub{"Lyrics from: $v{name}\n"},
        'title'    => sub{ uc($c) },
        '-userdata => { something => 'I like' },
        '-default' => sub{"$q:$c"} );

 print dt($filename,%xml);

ABSTRACT ^

This module is a XML down processor. It maps tag (element) names to functions to process that element and respective contents.

DESCRIPTION ^

This module processes XML files with an approach similar to OMNIMARK. As XML parser it uses XML::LibXML module in an independent way.

You can parse HTML files as if they were XML files. For this, you must supply an extra option to the hash:

 %hander = ( -html => 1,
             ...
           );

You can also ask the parser to recover from XML errors:

 %hander = ( -recover => 1,
             ...
           );

Functions ^

dt

Down translation function dt receives a filename and a set of expressions (functions) defining the processing and associated values for each element.

dtstring

dtstring works in a similar way with dt but takes input from a string instead of a file.

dturl

dturl works in a similar way with dt but takes input from an Internet url instead of a file.

pathdt

The pathdt function is a dt function which can handle a subset of XPath on handler keys. Example:

 %handler = (
   "article/title"        => sub{ toxml("h1",{},$c) },
   "section/title"        => sub{ toxml("h2",{},$c) },
   "title"                => sub{ $c },
   "//image[@type='jpg']" => sub{ "JPEG: <img src=\"$c\">" },
   "//image[@type='bmp']" => sub{ "BMP: sorry, no bitmaps on the web" },
 )

 pathdt($filename, %handler);

Here are some examples of valid XPath expressions under XML::DT:

 /aaa
 /aaa/bbb
 //ccc                           - ccc somewhere (same as "ccc")
 /*/aaa/*
 //*                             - same as "-default"
 /aaa[@id]                       - aaa with an attribute id
 /*[@*]                          - root with an attribute
 /aaa[not(@name)]                - aaa with no attribute "name"
 //bbb[@name='foo']              - ... attribute "name" = "foo"
 /ccc[normalize-space(@name)='bbb']
 //*[name()='bbb']               - complex way of saying "//bbb"
 //*[starts-with(name(),'aa')]   - an element named "aa.*"
 //*[contains(name(),'c')]       - an element       ".*c.*"
 //aaa[string-length(name())=4]                     "...."
 //aaa[string-length(name())&lt;4]                  ".{1,4}"
 //aaa[string-length(name())&gt;5]                  ".{5,}"

Note that not all XPath is currently handled by XML::DT. A lot of XPath will never be added to XML::DT because is not in accordance with the down translation model. For more documentation about XPath check the specification at http://www.w3c.org or some tutorials under http://www.zvon.org

pathdtstring

Like the dtstring function but supporting XPath.

pathdturl

Like the dturl function but supporting XPath.

ctxt

Returns the context element of the currently being processed element. So, if you call ctxt(1) you will get your father element, and so on.

inpath

inpath(pattern) is true if the actual element path matches the provided pattern. This function is meant to be used in the element functions in order to achieve context dependent processing.

inctxt

inctxt(pattern) is true if the actual element father matches the provided pattern.

toxml

This is the default "-default" function. It can be used to generate XML based on $c $q and %v variables. Example: add a new attribute to element ele1 without changing it:

   %handler=( ...
     ele1 => sub { $v{at1} = "v1"; toxml(); },
   )

toxml can also be used with 3 arguments: tag, attributes and contents

   toxml("a",{href=> "http://local/f.html"}, "example")

returns:

 <a href='http://local/f.html'>example</a>

Empty tags are written as empty tags. If you want an empty tag with opening and closing tags, then use the tohtml.

tohtml

See toxml.

xmltree

This simple function just makes a HASH reference:

 { -c => $c, -q => $q, all_the_other_attributes }

The function toxml understands this structure and makes XML with it.

mkdtskel

Used by the mkdtskel script to generate automatically a XML::DT perl script file based on an XML file. Check mkdtskel manpage for details.

mkdtskel_fromDTD

Used by the mkdtskel script to generate automatically a XML::DT perl script file based on an DTD file. Check mkdtskel manpage for details.

mkdtdskel

Used by the mkdtskel script to generate automatically a XML::DT perl script file based on a DTD file. Check mkdtdskel manpage for details.

Accessing parents ^

With XML::DT you can access an element parent (or grand-parent) attributes, till the root of the XML document.

If you use c<$dtattributes[1]{foo} = 'bar'> on a processing function, you are defining the attribute foo for that element parent.

In the same way, you can use $dtattributes[2] to access the grand-parent. $dtattributes[-1] is, as expected, the XML document root element.

There are some shortcuts:

father
gfather
ggfather

You can use these functions to access to your father, grand-father (gfather) or great-grand-father (ggfather):

   father("x"); # returns value for attribute "x" on father element
   father("x", "value"); # sets value for attribute "x" on father
                                 # element

You can also use it directly as a reference to @dtattributes:

   father->{"x"};           # gets the attribute
   father->{"x"} = "value"; # sets the attribute
   $attributes = father;            # gets all attributes reference
root

You can use it as a function to access to your tree root element.

   root("x");          # gets attribute C<x> on root element
   root("x", "value"); # sets value for attribute C<x> on root

You can also use it directly as a reference to $dtattributes[-1]:

   root->{"x"};           # gets the attribute x
   root->{"x"} = "value"; # sets the attribute x
   $attributes = root;    # gets all attributes reference

User provided element processing functions ^

The user must provide an HASH with a function for each element, that computes element output. Functions can use the element name $q, the element content $c and the attribute values hash %v.

All those global variables are defined in $CALLER::.

Each time an element is find the associated function is called.

Content is calculated by concatenation of element contents strings and interior elements return values.

-default function

When a element has no associated function, the function associated with -default called. If no -default function is defined the default function returns a XML like string for the element.

When you use /-type definitions, you often need do set -default function to return just the contents: sub{$c}.

-outputenc option

-outputenc defines the output encoding (default is Unicode UTF8).

-inputenc option

-inputenc forces a input encoding type. Whenever that is possible, define the input encoding in the XML file:

 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='ISO-8859-1'?>

-pcdata function

-pcdata function is used to define transformation over the contents. Typically this function should look at context (see inctxt function)

The default -pcdata function is the identity

-cdata function

You can process <CDATA> in a way different from pcdata. If you define a -cdata method, it will be used. Otherwise, the -pcdata method is called.

-begin function

Function to be executed before processing XML file.

Example of use: initialization of side-effect variables

-end function

Function to be executed after processing XML file. I can use $c content value. The value returned by -end will be the dt return value.

Example of use: post-processing of returned contents

-recover option

If set, the parser will try to recover in XML errors.

-html option

If set, the parser will try to recover in errors. Note that this differs from the previous one in the sense it uses some knowledge of the HTML structure for the recovery.

-userdata option

Use this to pass any information you like to your handlers. The data structure you pass in this option will be available as $u in your code. -- New in 0.62.

Elements with values other than strings (-type) ^

By default all elements return strings, and contents ($c) is the concatenation of the strings returned by the sub-elements.

In some situations the XML text contains values that are better processed as a structured type.

The following types (functors) are available:

THE_CHILD

Return the result of processing the only child of the element.

LAST_CHILD

Returns the result of processing the last child of the element.

STR

concatenates all the sub-elements returned values (DEFAULT) all the sub-element should return strings to be concatenated;

SEQ

makes an ARRAY with all the sub elements contents; attributes are ignored (they should be processed in the sub-element). (returns a ref) If you have different types of sub-elements, you should use SEQH

SEQH

makes an ARRAY of HASH with all the sub elements (returns a ref); for each sub-element:

 -q  => element name
 -c  => contents
 at1 => at value1    for each attribute
MAP

makes an HASH with the sub elements; keys are the sub-element names, values are their contents. Attributes are ignored. (they should be processed in the sub-element) (returns a ref)

MULTIMAP

makes an HASH of ARRAY; keys are the sub-element names; values are lists of contents; attributes are ignored (they should be processed in the sub-element); (returns a ref)

MMAPON(element-list)

makes an HASH with the sub-elements; keys are the sub-element names, values are their contents; attributes are ignored (they should be processed in the sub-element); for all the elements contained in the element-list, it is created an ARRAY with their contents. (returns a ref)

XML

return a reference to an HASH with:

 -q  => element name
 -c  => contents
 at1 => at value1    for each attribute
ZERO

don't process the sub-elements; return ""

When you use /-type definitions, you often need do set -default function returning just the contents sub{$id}.

An example:

 use XML::DT;
 %handler = ( contacts => sub{ [ split(";",$c)] },
              -default => sub{$c},
              -type    => { institution => 'MAP',
                            degrees     =>  MMAPON('name')
                            tels        => 'SEQ' }
            );
 $a = dt ("f.xml", %handler);

with the following f.xml

 <degrees>
    <institution>
       <id>U.M.</id>
       <name>University of Minho</name>
       <tels>
          <item>1111</item>
          <item>1112</item>
          <item>1113</item>
       </tels>
       <where>Portugal</where>
       <contacts>J.Joao; J.Rocha; J.Ramalho</contacts>
    </institution>
    <name>Computer science</name>
    <name>Informatica </name>
    <name> history </name>
 </degrees>

would make $a

 { 'name' => [ 'Computer science',
               'Informatica ',
               ' history ' ],
   'institution' => { 'tels' => [ 1111, 1112, 1113 ],
                      'name' => 'University of Minho',
                      'where' => 'Portugal',
                      'id' => 'U.M.',
                      'contacts' => [ 'J.Joao',
                               ' J.Rocha',
                               ' J.Ramalho' ] } };

DT Skeleton generation ^

It is possible to build an initial processor program based on an example

To do this use the function mkdtskel(filename).

Example:

 perl -MXML::DT -e 'mkdtskel "f.xml"' > f.pl

DTD skeleton generation ^

It makes a naive DTD based on an example(s).

To do this use the function mkdtdskel(filename*).

Example:

 perl -MXML::DT -e 'mkdtdskel "f.xml"' > f.dtd

SEE ALSO ^

mkdtskel(1) and mkdtdskel(1)

AUTHORS ^

Home for XML::DT;

http://natura.di.uminho.pt/~jj/perl/XML/

Jose Joao Almeida, <jj@di.uminho.pt>

Alberto Manuel Simões, <albie@alfarrabio.di.uminho.pt>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^

Michel Rodriguez <mrodrigu@ieee.org>

José Carlos Ramalho <jcr@di.uminho.pt>

Mark A. Hillebrand

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE ^

Copyright 1999-2012 Project Natura.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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