Abhijit Menon-Sen > Mojolicious-4.26 > Mojolicious::Controller

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NAME ^

Mojolicious::Controller - Controller base class

SYNOPSIS ^

  # Controller
  package MyApp::Foo;
  use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious::Controller';

  # Action
  sub bar {
    my $self = shift;
    my $name = $self->param('name');
    $self->res->headers->cache_control('max-age=1, no-cache');
    $self->render(json => {hello => $name});
  }

DESCRIPTION ^

Mojolicious::Controller is the base class for your Mojolicious controllers. It is also the default controller class for Mojolicious unless you set controller_class in your application.

ATTRIBUTES ^

Mojolicious::Controller inherits all attributes from Mojo::Base and implements the following new ones.

app

  my $app = $c->app;
  $c      = $c->app(Mojolicious->new);

A reference back to the application that dispatched to this controller, defaults to a Mojolicious object.

  # Use application logger
  $c->app->log->debug('Hello Mojo!');

match

  my $m = $c->match;
  $c    = $c->match(Mojolicious::Routes::Match->new);

Router results for the current request, defaults to a Mojolicious::Routes::Match object.

  # Introspect
  my $foo = $c->match->endpoint->pattern->defaults->{foo};

tx

  my $tx = $c->tx;
  $c     = $c->tx(Mojo::Transaction::HTTP->new);

The transaction that is currently being processed, usually a Mojo::Transaction::HTTP or Mojo::Transaction::WebSocket object.

  # Check peer information
  my $address = $c->tx->remote_address;

METHODS ^

Mojolicious::Controller inherits all methods from Mojo::Base and implements the following new ones.

cookie

  my $value  = $c->cookie('foo');
  my @values = $c->cookie('foo');
  $c         = $c->cookie(foo => 'bar');
  $c         = $c->cookie(foo => 'bar', {path => '/'});

Access request cookie values and create new response cookies.

  # Create response cookie with domain and expiration date
  $c->cookie(user => 'sri', {domain => 'example.com', expires => time + 60});

finish

  $c = $c->finish;
  $c = $c->finish(1000);
  $c = $c->finish(1003 => 'Cannot accept data!');
  $c = $c->finish('Bye!');

Close WebSocket connection or long poll stream gracefully.

flash

  my $foo = $c->flash('foo');
  $c      = $c->flash({foo => 'bar'});
  $c      = $c->flash(foo => 'bar');

Data storage persistent only for the next request, stored in the session.

  # Show message after redirect
  $c->flash(message => 'User created successfully!');
  $c->redirect_to('show_user', id => 23);

on

  my $cb = $c->on(finish => sub {...});

Subscribe to events of tx, which is usually a Mojo::Transaction::HTTP or Mojo::Transaction::WebSocket object. Note that this method will automatically respond to WebSocket handshake requests with a 101 response status.

  # Do something after the transaction has been finished
  $c->on(finish => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->app->log->debug('We are done!');
  });

  # Receive WebSocket message
  $c->on(message => sub {
    my ($c, $msg) = @_;
    $c->app->log->debug("Message: $msg");
  });

  # Receive JSON object via WebSocket message
  $c->on(json => sub {
    my ($c, $hash) = @_;
    $c->app->log->debug("Test: $hash->{test}");
  });

  # Receive WebSocket "Binary" message
  $c->on(binary => sub {
    my ($c, $bytes) = @_;
    my $len = length $bytes;
    $c->app->log->debug("Received $len bytes.");
  });

param

  my @names       = $c->param;
  my $foo         = $c->param('foo');
  my @foo         = $c->param('foo');
  my ($foo, $bar) = $c->param(['foo', 'bar']);
  $c              = $c->param(foo => 'ba;r');
  $c              = $c->param(foo => qw(ba;r ba;z));

Access GET/POST parameters, file uploads and route placeholder values that are not reserved stash values. Note that this method is context sensitive in some cases and therefore needs to be used with care, there can always be multiple values, which might have unexpected consequences. Parts of the request body need to be loaded into memory to parse POST parameters, so you have to make sure it is not excessively large.

  # List context is ambiguous and should be avoided
  my $hash = {foo => $self->param('foo')};

  # Better enforce scalar context
  my $hash = {foo => scalar $self->param('foo')};

  # The multi name form can also enforce scalar context
  my $hash = {foo => $self->param(['foo'])};

For more control you can also access request information directly.

  # Only GET parameters
  my $foo = $c->req->url->query->param('foo');

  # Only GET and POST parameters
  my $foo = $c->req->param('foo');

  # Only file uploads
  my $foo = $c->req->upload('foo');

redirect_to

  $c = $c->redirect_to('named', foo => 'bar');
  $c = $c->redirect_to('named', {foo => 'bar'});
  $c = $c->redirect_to('/perldoc');
  $c = $c->redirect_to('http://mojolicio.us/perldoc');

Prepare a 302 redirect response, takes the same arguments as url_for.

  # Conditional redirect
  return $c->redirect_to('login') unless $c->session('user');

  # Moved permanently
  $c->res->code(301);
  $c->redirect_to('some_route');

render

  my $success = $c->render;
  my $success = $c->render(controller => 'foo', action => 'bar');
  my $success = $c->render(template => 'foo/index');
  my $success = $c->render(template => 'index', format => 'html');
  my $success = $c->render(data => $bytes);
  my $success = $c->render(text => 'Hello!');
  my $success = $c->render(json => {foo => 'bar'});
  my $success = $c->render(handler => 'something');
  my $success = $c->render('foo/index');
  my $output  = $c->render('foo/index', partial => 1);

Render content using "render" in Mojolicious::Renderer and emit after_render hook unless the result is partial. If no template is provided a default one based on controller and action or route name will be generated, all additional values get merged into the stash.

render_exception

  $c = $c->render_exception('Oops!');
  $c = $c->render_exception(Mojo::Exception->new('Oops!'));

Render the exception template exception.$mode.$format.* or exception.$format.* and set the response status code to 500. Also sets the stash values exception to a Mojo::Exception object and snapshot to a copy of the stash for use in the templates.

render_later

  $c = $c->render_later;

Disable automatic rendering to delay response generation, only necessary if automatic rendering would result in a response.

  # Delayed rendering
  $c->render_later;
  Mojo::IOLoop->timer(2 => sub {
    $c->render(text => 'Delayed by 2 seconds!');
  });

render_maybe

  my $success = $c->render_maybe;
  my $success = $c->render_maybe(controller => 'foo', action => 'bar');
  my $success = $c->render_maybe('foo/index', format => 'html');

Try to render content but do not call render_not_found if no response could be generated, takes the same arguments as render.

  # Render template "index_local" only if it exists
  $self->render_maybe('index_local') or $self->render('index');

render_not_found

  $c = $c->render_not_found;

Render the not found template not_found.$mode.$format.* or not_found.$format.* and set the response status code to 404.

render_static

  my $success = $c->render_static('images/logo.png');
  my $success = $c->render_static('../lib/MyApp.pm');

Render a static file using "serve" in Mojolicious::Static, usually from the public directories or DATA sections of your application. Note that this method does not protect from traversing to parent directories.

rendered

  $c = $c->rendered;
  $c = $c->rendered(302);

Finalize response and emit after_dispatch hook, defaults to using a 200 response code.

req

  my $req = $c->req;

Get Mojo::Message::Request object from "req" in Mojo::Transaction.

  # Longer version
  my $req = $c->tx->req;

  # Extract request information
  my $url      = $c->req->url->to_abs;
  my $userinfo = $c->req->url->to_abs->userinfo;
  my $host     = $c->req->url->to_abs->host;
  my $agent    = $c->req->headers->user_agent;
  my $body     = $c->req->body;
  my $hash     = $c->req->json;
  my $foo      = $c->req->json('/23/foo');
  my $dom      = $c->req->dom;
  my $bar      = $c->req->dom('div.bar')->first->text;

res

  my $res = $c->res;

Get Mojo::Message::Response object from "res" in Mojo::Transaction.

  # Longer version
  my $res = $c->tx->res;

  # Force file download by setting a custom response header
  $c->res->headers->content_disposition('attachment; filename=foo.png;');

respond_to

  $c = $c->respond_to(
    json => {json => {message => 'Welcome!'}},
    html => {template => 'welcome'},
    any  => sub {...}
  );

Automatically select best possible representation for resource from Accept request header, format stash value or format GET/POST parameter, defaults to rendering an empty 204 response. Since browsers often don't really know what they actually want, unspecific Accept request headers with more than one MIME type will be ignored, unless the X-Requested-With header is set to the value XMLHttpRequest.

  $c->respond_to(
    json => sub { $c->render(json => {just => 'works'}) },
    xml  => {text => '<just>works</just>'},
    any  => {data => '', status => 204}
  );

send

  $c = $c->send({binary => $bytes});
  $c = $c->send({text   => $bytes});
  $c = $c->send({json   => {test => [1, 2, 3]}});
  $c = $c->send([$fin, $rsv1, $rsv2, $rsv3, $op, $bytes]);
  $c = $c->send(Mojo::ByteStream->new($chars));
  $c = $c->send($chars);
  $c = $c->send($chars => sub {...});

Send message or frame non-blocking via WebSocket, the optional drain callback will be invoked once all data has been written. Note that this method will automatically respond to WebSocket handshake requests with a 101 response status.

  # Send "Text" message
  $c->send('I ♥ Mojolicious!');

  # Send JSON object as "Text" message
  $c->send({json => {test => 'I ♥ Mojolicious!'}});

  # Send JSON object as "Binary" message
  use Mojo::JSON 'j';
  $c->send({binary => j({test => 'I ♥ Mojolicious!'})});

  # Send "Ping" frame
  $c->send([1, 0, 0, 0, 9, 'Hello World!']);

  # Make sure previous message has been written before continuing
  $c->send('First message!' => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->send('Second message!');
  });

For mostly idle WebSockets you might also want to increase the inactivity timeout, which usually defaults to 15 seconds.

  # Increase inactivity timeout for connection to 300 seconds
  Mojo::IOLoop->stream($c->tx->connection)->timeout(300);

session

  my $session = $c->session;
  my $foo     = $c->session('foo');
  $c          = $c->session({foo => 'bar'});
  $c          = $c->session(foo => 'bar');

Persistent data storage, all session data gets serialized with Mojo::JSON and stored Base64 encoded in HMAC-SHA1 signed cookies. Note that cookies usually have a 4096 byte limit, depending on browser.

  # Manipulate session
  $c->session->{foo} = 'bar';
  my $foo = $c->session->{foo};
  delete $c->session->{foo};

  # Expiration date in seconds from now (persists between requests)
  $c->session(expiration => 604800);

  # Expiration date as absolute epoch time (only valid for one request)
  $c->session(expires => time + 604800);

  # Delete whole session by setting an expiration date in the past
  $c->session(expires => 1);

signed_cookie

  my $value  = $c->signed_cookie('foo');
  my @values = $c->signed_cookie('foo');
  $c         = $c->signed_cookie(foo => 'bar');
  $c         = $c->signed_cookie(foo => 'bar', {path => '/'});

Access signed request cookie values and create new signed response cookies. Cookies failing HMAC-SHA1 signature verification will be automatically discarded.

stash

  my $hash = $c->stash;
  my $foo  = $c->stash('foo');
  $c       = $c->stash({foo => 'bar'});
  $c       = $c->stash(foo => 'bar');

Non persistent data storage and exchange, application wide default values can be set with "defaults" in Mojolicious. Many stash values have a special meaning and are reserved, the full list is currently action, app, cb, controller, data, extends, format, handler, json, layout, namespace, partial, path, status, template and text. Note that all stash values with a mojo.* prefix are reserved for internal use.

  # Remove value
  my $foo = delete $c->stash->{foo};

url_for

  my $url = $c->url_for;
  my $url = $c->url_for(name => 'sebastian');
  my $url = $c->url_for({name => 'sebastian'});
  my $url = $c->url_for('test', name => 'sebastian');
  my $url = $c->url_for('test', {name => 'sebastian'});
  my $url = $c->url_for('/perldoc');
  my $url = $c->url_for('//mojolicio.us/perldoc');
  my $url = $c->url_for('http://mojolicio.us/perldoc');
  my $url = $c->url_for('mailto:sri@example.com');

Generate a portable Mojo::URL object with base for a route, path or URL.

  # "/perldoc?foo=bar" if application is deployed under "/"
  $c->url_for('/perldoc')->query(foo => 'bar');

  # "/myapp/perldoc?foo=bar" if application is deployed under "/myapp"
  $c->url_for('/perldoc')->query(foo => 'bar');

You can also use the helper "url_with" in Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers to inherit query parameters from the current request.

  # "/list?q=mojo&page=2" if current request was for "/list?q=mojo&page=1"
  $c->url_with->query([page => 2]);

write

  $c = $c->write;
  $c = $c->write($bytes);
  $c = $c->write(sub {...});
  $c = $c->write($bytes => sub {...});

Write dynamic content non-blocking, the optional drain callback will be invoked once all data has been written.

  # Keep connection alive (with Content-Length header)
  $c->res->headers->content_length(6);
  $c->write('Hel' => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->write('lo!')
  });

  # Close connection when finished (without Content-Length header)
  $c->write('Hel' => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->write('lo!' => sub {
      my $c = shift;
      $c->finish;
    });
  });

For Comet (long polling) you might also want to increase the inactivity timeout, which usually defaults to 15 seconds.

  # Increase inactivity timeout for connection to 300 seconds
  Mojo::IOLoop->stream($c->tx->connection)->timeout(300);

write_chunk

  $c = $c->write_chunk;
  $c = $c->write_chunk($bytes);
  $c = $c->write_chunk(sub {...});
  $c = $c->write_chunk($bytes => sub {...});

Write dynamic content non-blocking with chunked transfer encoding, the optional drain callback will be invoked once all data has been written.

  # Make sure previous chunk has been written before continuing
  $c->write_chunk('He' => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->write_chunk('ll' => sub {
      my $c = shift;
      $c->finish('o!');
    });
  });

You can call finish at any time to end the stream.

  2
  He
  2
  ll
  2
  o!
  0

HELPERS ^

In addition to the attributes and methods above you can also call helpers on Mojolicious::Controller objects. This includes all helpers from Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers and Mojolicious::Plugin::TagHelpers.

  $c->layout('green');
  $c->title('Welcome!');

SEE ALSO ^

Mojolicious, Mojolicious::Guides, http://mojolicio.us.

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