Bertil Kronlund > Filter-Heredoc-0.01 > Filter::Heredoc::Cookbook

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NAME ^

Filter::Heredoc::Cookbook - The Filter::Heredoc Cookbook

VERSION ^

Version 0.01

DESCRIPTION ^

This is the Filter::Heredoc::Cookbook.

This is intended to provide examples and food for thoughts on the topic 'interesting here document concepts'.

POD AS HERE DOCUMENTS EMBEDDED IN SHELL SCRIPTS ^

Embedding documentation in source files as programmers reference is an excellent strategy to keep them up to date. Embedding POD in shell scripts as here documents achieves that goal.

Once documentation is in POD, tools like pod2pdf and pod2html converts files with embedded documentation to pdf or html formats:

    pod2pdf diskusage > diskusage.pdf
    pod2html --infile=diskusage > diskusage.html

Converting documentation to man pages can be done with:

    su -c 'pod2man diskusage > /usr/local/share/man/man1/diskusage.1p'

A problem is to spell check both the verbatim output and the embedded POD text but it has a solution.

Perls simple to use markup documentation language - i.e. POD

First, let's show how to embed POD in shell scripts. We need a smart here document delimiter and we need the POSIX colon (:) command which does nothing else than expanding arguments and performing redirections.

  : [arguments]

A very short example shows how to embed POD in shell scripts:

  #!/bin/bash
  # diskusage
  echo Demonstrate how to embed POD.
  echo This is a shell script line.
  
  : <<  =cut
  
  =head1 NAME

  diskusage - Send mail to top consumers of disk space

  =head1 SYNOPSIS

  diskusage 10000
  
  =cut

Note the use of '=cut' as the delimiter for the here document. Running this prints only the first two echo lines. Converting this short script file to pdf produces the documentation:

    pod2pdf diskusage > diskusage.pdf

Long example: spell checking a script with multilingual text

The 'diskusage' script will mail all users who exceeded a specified amount of disk space. However, and in this example only it does not provide a useful user message when the required argument is missing. The embedded POD text has included more information though.

  #!/bin/bash
  if [ "$#" -ne 1 ]; then
    exit 1
  fi
  startdir=$(pwd)
  cd /home
  files=$(ls -D)
  for user in $files ; do
   if [ -d "$user" ]; then
     amount=$(du -sm /home/$user 2>/dev/null | awk '{print $1}')
      if [ "$amount" -gt "$1" ]; then
        mail -s "Disk usage warning ( > $1 Mbytes)" $user <<- END_MAIL
        Hej. Skivminnet tar snart slut i ert tilldelade hemutrymme!
        Dina filer upptar $amount Mbytes.
        Tag snarast bort ej aktuella filer.

        Tack.
        Er sysadmin.
        END_MAIL
      fi
   fi
  done
  cd $startdir
  exit 0
  # end of shell script and start of POD part
  : << =cut
  
  =head1 NAME

  diskusage - Send mail to top consumers of disk space

  =head1 SYNOPSIS

  diskusage 10000

  =head1 DESCRIPTION

  I<diskusage> use the I<du> command to collect each users disk
  consumption below the home directory. This script will use I<mail>
  and send a warning if the found space is greater than the specified
  (Mbytes) maximum allowed amount.

  =head1 REQUIRED ARGUMENTS
  
  Amount of disk space when a mail warning will be sent to each end user.
  
  =head1 DIAGNOSTICS
  
  Exit codes:
    0: Normal exit
    1: User error
  
  =head1 LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

  Copyright 2011, Bertil Kronlund

  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
  under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published
  by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.

  See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.
  
  =head1 SEE ALSO
  
  L<du(1)>, L<mail(1)>
  
  =cut

The challenge here is to extract the right part and spell check the multilingual text. filter-heredoc extracts the here document and podspell extracts and removes the POD markup before spell checking the text itself.

Find the existing delimiters in the (diskusage) example script with:

    filter-heredoc --list diskusage

which produces this output:

    (diskusage:19)END_MAIL 
    (diskusage:63)=cut 

Match and spell check only the first multilingual here document part:

    filter-heredoc -qm END_MAIL diskusage | hunspell -d sv_SE -l

The POD text can be filtered directly with podspell:

    podspell diskusage | aspell list -l en
    podspell diskusage | ispell -a | grep \&

Automated spell checking of shell scripts

I have not found any automated spell check solution for this kind of scripts but set up a t-test using Test::Spelling for POD:

    #!/usr/bin/perl
    # xt/spelling.t
    use Test::More;
    use Test::Spelling 0.11;

    my $spellchecker = q{aspell list -l en};
    set_spell_cmd($spellchecker);
    add_stopwords( <DATA> );
    all_pod_files_spelling_ok();

    __DATA__
    onestopword
    anotherstopword

CHANGES FILE IN HEREDOC FORMAT ^

The Changes or ChangeLog describes the code history of revisions. The GNU project defined a policy in their GNU Coding Standards.

See http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/standards.html#Change-Logs

Changes file in here document format

Changes files can enhance it's readability by adding section headings and grouping related changes together. An example from Dancer:

  SECURITY, API CHANGES, BUG FIXES, ENHANCEMENTS, DOCUMENTATION

Individual changes are detailed under each section. This is for humans to read. Rewriting this in here document format improves searching and possible also this simplifies writing a t-test on policies.

An shorted example from Dancer when I use sections as delimiters:

    : <<END_VERSION;<<END_API_CHANGES;<<END_BUG_FIXES;<<END_ENHANCEMENTS

    1.3079_05 (02.10.2011)
    END_VERSION
    * Deprecation of 'before', 'before_template' and 'after' in favor of hook
      (Alberto Simões)
    END_API_CHANGES
    * Minor corrections (jamhed, felixdo)
    * Log if a view and or a layout is not found
    (Alberto Simões, reported
      by David Previous)
    END_BUG_FIXES
    * Add support for the HTTP 'PATCH' verb
    (David Precious)
    END_ENHANCEMENTS

Note the important usage of the END-prefix and that each section text is now described above this line. Suppose our interest is focused only in all section of API CHANGES. Use filter-heredoc to find these with:

    filter-heredoc --quiet --match=END_VERSION,END_API_CHANGES Changes

The results shows all API CHANGES for this Changes file:

    1.3079_05 (02.10.2011)
    * Deprecation of 'before', 'before_template' and 'after' in favor
      of hook (Alberto Simões)

    1.3079_04 (02.10.2011)

    1.3079_03 (10.09.2011)

    1.3029_01 (01.04.2011)

Hints on writing Changes files as here documents

There is no need to include a #!/bin/bash or make this file executable. There shall be at least one space character between the colon (:) operator and the redirector (<<). No trailing spaces are allowed after the delimiter word. Test the new Changes file for errors with bash :

    bash Changes

TODO ^

Write a spell check t-test when all text is in here documents.

Write a policy t-test to enforce a changes policy and when Changes is formatted as a here document.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS ^

Please report any bugs or feature requests to http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=Filter-Heredoc or at <bug-filter-heredoc at rt.cpan.org>.

AUTHOR ^

Bertil Kronlund, <bkron at cpan.org>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^

Special thanks to M. Ivkovic and his blog post at:

http://bahut.alma.ch/2007/08/embedding-documentation-in-shell-script_16.html

who pointed me in the direction to use embedded POD in shell scripts. This inspired me to create the Filter::Heredoc module.

SEE ALSO ^

Filter::Heredoc(3), filter-heredoc(1)

pod2man(1), pod2html(1), pod2pdf(1), podspell(1), aspell(1), hunspell(1), ispell(1), Test::Spelling(3)

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright 2011, Bertil Kronlund

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.

See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.

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