Casiano Rodriguez-Leon > Parse-Eyapp-1.182 > Parse::Eyapp::YATW

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NAME ^

Parse::Eyapp::YATW - Tree transformation objects

SYNOPSIS ^

  #!/usr/bin/perl -w
  use strict;
  use Rule6;
  use Parse::Eyapp::YATW;

  my %BinaryOperation = (PLUS=>'+', MINUS => '-', TIMES=>'*', DIV => '/');

  sub set_terminfo {
    no warnings;
    *TERMINAL::info = sub { $_[0]{attr} };
  }
  sub is_foldable {
    my ($op, $left, $right);
    return 0 unless defined($op = $BinaryOperation{ref($_[0])});
    return 0 unless ($left = $_[0]->child(0), $left->isa('NUM'));
    return 0 unless ($right = $_[0]->child(1), $right->isa('NUM'));

    my $leftnum = $left->child(0)->{attr};
    my $rightnum = $right->child(0)->{attr};
    $left->child(0)->{attr} = eval "$leftnum $op $rightnum";
    $_[0] = $left;
  }

  my $parser = new Rule6();
  my $input = "2*3";
  my $t = $parser->Run(\$input);
  &set_terminfo;
  print "\n***** Before ******\n";
  print $t->str;
  my $p = Parse::Eyapp::YATW->new(PATTERN => \&is_foldable);
  $p->s($t);
  print "\n***** After ******\n";
  print $t->str."\n";

INTRODUCTION ^

Parse::Eyapp:YATW objects implement tree transformations. They have two attributes PATTERN and NAME. PATTERN is a reference to the code implementing the transformation. NAME is the name of the transformation.

Though usually you build a transformation by means of Treeregexp programs you can directly invoke the method new to build a tree transformation. A transformation object can be built from a function that conforms to the YATW tree transformation call protocol

For a subroutine pattern_sub to work as a YATW tree transformation - as subroutine is_foldable in the SYNOPSIS section - has to conform to the following call description:

  pattern_sub(
      $_[0],  # Node being visited
      $_[1],  # Father of this node
      $index, # Index of this node in @Father->children
      $self,  # The YATW pattern object
  );

The pattern_sub must return TRUE if matched and FALSE otherwise.

The function is_foldable in the SYNOPSIS section (file examples/YATW/foldrule6.pl) holds the properties to be a YATW tree transformation

     1    sub is_foldable {
     2      my ($op, $left, $right);
     3  
     4      return 0 unless defined($op = $BinaryOperation{ref($_[0])});
     5      return 0 unless ($left = $_[0]->child(0), $left->isa('NUM'));
     6      return 0 unless ($right = $_[0]->child(1), $right->isa('NUM'));
     7  
     8      my $leftnum = $left->child(0)->{attr};
     9      my $rightnum = $right->child(0)->{attr};
    10      $left->child(0)->{attr} = eval "$leftnum $op $rightnum";
    11      $_[0] = $left;
    12    }

First, checks that the current node is one of PLUS, MINUS, TIMES or DIV (line 4). Then checks that both children are NUMbers (lines 5 and 6). In such case proceeds to modify its left child with the result of operating both children (line 10). The matching tree is finally substituted by its left child (line 11).

This is the output of the program in the SYNOPSIS section:

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ eyapp Rule6.yp; foldrule6.pl

  ***** Before ******
  TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2]),NUM(TERMINAL[3]))
  ***** After ******
  NUM(TERMINAL[6])

Follows the grammar description file in Rule6.yp:

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ cat -n Rule6.yp
     1  %{
     2  use Data::Dumper;
     3  %}
     4  %right  '='
     5  %left   '-' '+'
     6  %left   '*' '/'
     7  %left   NEG
     8  %tree
     9
    10  %%
    11  line: exp  { $_[1] }
    12  ;
    13
    14  exp:      %name NUM
    15              NUM
    16          | %name VAR
    17            VAR
    18          | %name ASSIGN
    19            VAR '=' exp
    20          | %name PLUS
    21            exp '+' exp
    22          | %name MINUS
    23            exp '-' exp
    24          | %name TIMES
    25            exp '*' exp
    26          | %name DIV
    27            exp '/' exp
    28          | %name UMINUS
    29            '-' exp %prec NEG
    30          |   '(' exp ')'  { $_[2] } /* Let us simplify a bit the tree */
    31  ;
    32
    33  %%
    34
    35  use Tail2;

The module Tail2 in file examples/Tail2.pm implements the lexical analyzer plus the error and run methods.

Parse::Eyapp:YATW Methods ^

Parse::Eyapp:YATW objects represent tree transformations. They carry the information of what nodes match and how to modify them.

Parse::Eyapp::YATW->new

Builds a treeregexp transformation object. Though usually you build a transformation by means of Treeregexp programs you can directly invoke the method to build a tree transformation. A transformation object can be built from a function that conforms to the YATW tree transformation call protocol (see the section "The YATW Tree Transformation Call Protocol"). Follows an example (file examples/12ts_simplify_with_s.pl):

 nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples> \
        sed -ne '68,$p' 12ts_simplify_with_s.pl | cat -n
  1  sub is_code {
  2    my $self = shift; # tree
  3
  4    # After the shift $_[0] is the father, $_[1] the index
  5    if ((ref($self) eq 'CODE')) {
  6      splice(@{$_[0]->{children}}, $_[1], 1);
  7      return 1;
  8    }
  9    return 0;
 10  }
 11
 12  Parse::Eyapp->new_grammar(
 13    input=>$translationscheme,
 14    classname=>'Calc',
 15    firstline =>7,
 16  );
 17  my $parser = Calc->new();                # Create the parser
 18
 19  $parser->YYData->{INPUT} = "2*-3\n";  print "2*-3\n"; # Set the input
 20  my $t = $parser->Run;                    # Parse it
 21  print $t->str."\n";
 22  my $p = Parse::Eyapp::YATW->new(PATTERN => \&is_code);
 23  $p->s($t);
 24  { no warnings; # make attr info available only for this display
 25    local *TERMINAL::info = sub { $_[0]{attr} };
 26    print $t->str."\n";
 27  }

After the Parse::Eyapp::YATW object $p is built at line 22 the call to method $p->s($t) applies the transformation is_code using a bottom-up traversing of the tree $t. The achieved effect is the elimination of CODE references in the translation scheme tree. When executed the former code produces:

 nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples> 12ts_simplify_with_s.pl
 2*-3
 EXP(TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL,CODE),TERMINAL,UMINUS(TERMINAL,NUM(TERMINAL,CODE),CODE),CODE),CODE)
 EXP(TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2]),TERMINAL[*],UMINUS(TERMINAL[-],NUM(TERMINAL[3]))))

The file foldrule6.pl in the examples/ distribution directory gives you another example:

 nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples> cat -n foldrule6.pl
   1  #!/usr/bin/perl -w
   2  use strict;
   3  use Rule6;
   4  use Parse::Eyapp::YATW;
   5
   6  my %BinaryOperation = (PLUS=>'+', MINUS => '-', TIMES=>'*', DIV => '/');
   7
   8  sub set_terminfo {
   9    no warnings;
  10    *TERMINAL::info = sub { $_[0]{attr} };
  11  }
  12  sub is_foldable {
  13    my ($op, $left, $right);
  14    return 0 unless defined($op = $BinaryOperation{ref($_[0])});
  15    return 0 unless ($left = $_[0]->child(0), $left->isa('NUM'));
  16    return 0 unless ($right = $_[0]->child(1), $right->isa('NUM'));
  17
  18    my $leftnum = $left->child(0)->{attr};
  19    my $rightnum = $right->child(0)->{attr};
  20    $left->child(0)->{attr} = eval "$leftnum $op $rightnum";
  21    $_[0] = $left;
  22  }
  23
  24  my $parser = new Rule6();
  25  $parser->YYData->{INPUT} = "2*3";
  26  my $t = $parser->Run;
  27  &set_terminfo;
  28  print "\n***** Before ******\n";
  29  print $t->str;
  30  my $p = Parse::Eyapp::YATW->new(PATTERN => \&is_foldable);
  31  $p->s($t);
  32  print "\n***** After ******\n";
  33  print $t->str."\n";

when executed produces:

 nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples> foldrule6.pl

 ***** Before ******
 TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2]),NUM(TERMINAL[3]))
 ***** After ******
 NUM(TERMINAL[6])

The YATW Tree Transformation Call Protocol

For a subroutine pattern_sub to work as a YATW tree transformation - as subroutines is_foldable and is_code above - has to conform to the following call description:

  pattern_sub(
      $_[0],  # Node being visited
      $_[1],  # Father of this node
      $index, # Index of this node in @Father->children
      $self,  # The YATW pattern object
  );

The pattern_sub must return TRUE if matched and FALSE otherwise.

The protocol may change in the near future. Avoid using other information than the fact that the first argument is the node being visited.

Parse::Eyapp::YATW->buildpatterns

Works as Parse::Eyapp->new but receives an array of subs conforming to the YATW Tree Transformation Call Protocol.

  our @all = Parse::Eyapp::YATW->buildpatt(\&delete_code, \&delete_tokens);

$yatw->delete

The root of the tree that is currently matched by the YATW transformation $yatw will be deleted from the tree as soon as is safe. That usually means when the processing of their siblings is finished. The following example (taken from file examples/13ts_simplify_with_delete.pl in the Parse::Eyapp distribution) illustrates how to eliminate CODE and syntactic terminals from the syntax tree:

 pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples$ \
        sed -ne '62,$p' 13ts_simplify_with_delete.pl | cat -n
  1  sub not_useful {
  2    my $self = shift; # node
  3    my $pat = $_[2];  # get the YATW object
  4
  5    (ref($self) eq 'CODE') or ((ref($self) eq 'TERMINAL') and ($self->{token} eq $self->{attr}))
  6      or do { return 0 };
  7    $pat->delete();
  8    return 1;
  9  }
 10
 11  Parse::Eyapp->new_grammar(
 12    input=>$translationscheme,
 13    classname=>'Calc',
 14    firstline =>7,
 15  );
 16  my $parser = Calc->new();                # Create the parser
 17
 18  $parser->YYData->{INPUT} = "2*3\n"; print $parser->YYData->{INPUT};
 19  my $t = $parser->Run;                    # Parse it
 20  print $t->str."\n";                      # Show the tree
 21  my $p = Parse::Eyapp::YATW->new(PATTERN => \&not_useful); 
 22  $p->s($t);                               # Delete nodes
 23  print $t->str."\n";                      # Show the tree

when executed we get the following output:

 pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples$ 13ts_simplify_with_delete.pl
 2*3
 EXP(TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2],CODE),TERMINAL[*],NUM(TERMINAL[3],CODE),CODE))
 EXP(TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2]),NUM(TERMINAL[3])))

$yatw->unshift

The call $yatw->unshift($b) safely unshifts (inserts at the beginning) the node $b in the list of its siblings of the node that matched (i.e in the list of siblings of $_[0]). The following example shows a YATW transformation insert_child that illustrates the use of unshift (file examples/26delete_with_trreereg.pl):

 pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples$ \
         sed -ne '70,$p' 26delete_with_trreereg.pl | cat -n
  1  my $transform = Parse::Eyapp::Treeregexp->new( STRING => q{
  2
  3      delete_code : CODE => { $delete_code->delete() }
  4
  5      {
  6        sub not_semantic {
  7          my $self = shift;
  8          return  1 if ((ref($self) eq 'TERMINAL') and ($self->{token} eq $self->{attr}));
  9          return 0;
 10        }
 11      }
 12
 13      delete_tokens : TERMINAL and { not_semantic($TERMINAL) } => {
 14        $delete_tokens->delete();
 15      }
 16
 17      insert_child : TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL), NUM(TERMINAL)) => {
 18        my $b = Parse::Eyapp::Node->new( 'UMINUS(TERMINAL)',
 19          sub { $_[1]->{attr} = '4.5' }); # The new node will be a sibling of TIMES
 20
 21        $insert_child->unshift($b); 
 22      }
 23    },
 24  )->generate();
 25
 26  Parse::Eyapp->new_grammar(
 27    input=>$translationscheme,
 28    classname=>'Calc',
 29    firstline =>7,
 30  );
 31  my $parser = Calc->new();                # Create the parser
 32
 33  $parser->YYData->{INPUT} = "2*3\n"; print $parser->YYData->{INPUT}; # Set the input
 34  my $t = $parser->Run;                # Parse it
 35  print $t->str."\n";                        # Show the tree
 36  # Get the AST
 37  our ($delete_tokens, $delete_code);
 38  $t->s($delete_tokens, $delete_code);
 39  print $t->str."\n";                        # Show the tree
 40  our $insert_child;
 41  $insert_child->s($t);
 42  print $t->str."\n";                        # Show the tree

When is executed the program produces the following output:

 pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples$ 26delete_with_trreereg.pl
 2*3
 EXP(TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2],CODE),TERMINAL[*],NUM(TERMINAL[3],CODE),CODE))
 EXP(TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2]),NUM(TERMINAL[3])))
 EXP(UMINUS(TERMINAL[4.5]),TIMES(NUM(TERMINAL[2]),NUM(TERMINAL[3])))

Don't try to take advantage that the transformation sub receives in $_[1] a reference to the father (see the section "The YATW Tree Transformation Call Protocol") and do something like:

  unshift $_[1]->{children}, $b

it is unsafe.

$yatw->insert_before

A call to $yatw->insert_before($node) safely inserts $node in the list of siblings of $_[0] just before $_[0] (i.e. the node that matched with $yatw). The following example (see file examples/YATW/moveinvariantoutofloopcomplexformula.pl) illustrates its use:

  my $p = Parse::Eyapp::Treeregexp->new( STRING => q{
    moveinvariant: WHILE(VAR($b), BLOCK(@a, ASSIGN($x, $e), @c)) 
         and { is_invariant($ASSIGN, $WHILE) } => {
           my $assign = $ASSIGN;
           $BLOCK->delete($ASSIGN);
           $moveinvariant->insert_before($assign);
         }
    },
  );

Here the ASSIGN($x, $e) subtree - if is loop invariant - will be moved to the list of siblings of $WHILE just before the $WHILE. Thus a program like

  "a =1000; c = 1; while (a) { c = c*a; b = 5; a = a-1 }\n"

is transformed in s.t. like:

  "a =1000; c = 1; b = 5; while (a) { c = c*a; a = a-1 }\n"

TREE MATCHING AND TREE SUBSTITUTION ^

See the documentation in Parse::Eyapp::treematchingtut

SEE ALSO ^

REFERENCES ^

CONTRIBUTORS ^

AUTHOR ^

Casiano Rodriguez-Leon (casiano@ull.es)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ^

This work has been supported by CEE (FEDER) and the Spanish Ministry of Educacion y Ciencia through Plan Nacional I+D+I number TIN2005-08818-C04-04 (ULL::OPLINK project http://www.oplink.ull.es/). Support from Gobierno de Canarias was through GC02210601 (Grupos Consolidados). The University of La Laguna has also supported my work in many ways and for many years.

A large percentage of code is verbatim taken from Parse::Yapp 1.05. The author of Parse::Yapp is Francois Desarmenien.

I wish to thank Francois Desarmenien for his Parse::Yapp module, to my students at La Laguna and to the Perl Community. Thanks to the people who have contributed to improve the module (see "CONTRIBUTORS" in Parse::Eyapp). Thanks to Larry Wall for giving us Perl. Special thanks to Juana.

LICENCE AND COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c) 2006-2008 Casiano Rodriguez-Leon (casiano@ull.es). All rights reserved.

Parse::Yapp copyright is of Francois Desarmenien, all rights reserved. 1998-2001

These modules are free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

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