Casiano Rodriguez-Leon > Parse-Eyapp > Parse::Eyapp::Base

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NAME ^

Parse::Eyapp::Base - Miscellaneous support functions for Parse::Eyapp

SYNOPSIS ^

  use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)

INTRODUCTION ^

Parse::Eyapp::Base holds a set of utility functions that give support to the other modules that made Parse::Eyapp. Several of them are related to the dynamic use of methods and subroutines.

SUBROUTINES ^

Function insert_method

Function insert_method receives as arguments a list of class names, the name of the method that will be inserted in such classes and a reference to the code implementing such method.

          insert_method( qw{CLASS1 CLASS2 ... }, 'subname', sub { ... } )

It inserts the method in the specified classes. A second way to call it is without the last argument, the handler:

          insert_method( qw{CLASS1 CLASS2 ... }, 'subname' )

In such case the function is deleted from all the specified classes and it no longer exists.

The caller class is assumed if no classes are specified:

          insert_method('subname', sub { ... } )

See the following session with the debugger:

  pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/lib/Parse/Eyapp$ perl -wde 0
  main::(-e:1):   0
    DB<1> use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)
    DB<2> insert_method( qw{PLUS MINUS TIMES }, 'printclass', sub { print "$_[0]\n" } )
    DB<3> $_->printclass for qw{PLUS MINUS TIMES }
  PLUS
  MINUS
  TIMES

    DB<4> insert_method( qw{PLUS MINUS TIMES }, 'printclass')
    DB<5> print $_->can('printclass')?"Yes\n":"No\n"  for qw{PLUS MINUS TIMES }
  No
  No
  No

Function insert_function

It works as insert_method (see section "Function insert_method"), only that instead of classes receives the full names of the functions to install and a reference to the code implementing such function. See an example of call:

  insert_function(
    qw{ FUNCTIONCALL::type_info VARARRAY::type_info VAR::type_info },
    \&type_info
  );

When the package is unspecified the caller package is assumed. See the following example:

  pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/lib/Parse/Eyapp$ perl -wde 0
  main::(-e:1):   0
    DB<1> use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)
    DB<2> insert_function('Tutu::tata', 'titi', sub{ print "Inside titi\n"})
    DB<3> titi()
  Inside titi

    DB<4> Tutu::tata()
  Inside titi

Function empty_method

The call to

                           empty_method(qw{CLASSES ... }, 'subname')

is equivalent to

                          insert_method(qw{CLASSES ... }, 'subname', sub {})

Consequently empty_method replaces the current CODE for function subname by an empty subroutine

Function push_method

The call

      push_method( qw{CLASS1 CLASS2 ... }, 'subname', sub { ... } )

saves the current methods CLASS1::subname, CLASS2::subname, etc. in a stack and proceeds to install the new handler specified through the last argument. See an example:

  pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/lib/Parse/Eyapp$ perl -wde 0
  main::(-e:1):   0
    DB<1> use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)
    DB<2> sub Tutu::titi { print "Inside first Tutu::titi!\n" }
    DB<3> push_method('Tutu', 'titi', sub { print "New titi!\n" })
    DB<4> Tutu::titi()
  New titi!

    DB<5> pop_method('Tutu', 'titi')
    DB<6> Tutu::titi()
  Inside first Tutu::titi!

    DB<7> push_method('Tutu', 'titi') # No handler: sub Tutu::titi no longer exists
    DB<8> print "Can't titi\n" unless Tutu->can('titi')
  Can't titi

    DB<9> pop_method('Tutu', 'titi') # Give me the old sub
    DB<10> Tutu::titi()
  Inside first Tutu::titi!

The caller class is assumed if no classes are specified.

In list context the push_method function returns an array of pointers to the old versions of the function. In a scalar context returns the first CODE reference. See the following example:

  pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/examples$ cat -n returnedbypushmethod.pl
     1  #!/usr/local/bin/perl -w
     2  use strict;
     3  use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all);
     4
     5  sub tutu { "tutu" }
     6  sub Chum::tutu { "chum" }
     7
     8  my @classes = qw{main Cham Chum};
     9
    10  my %oldf;
    11  our $tutu = 5;
    12  our @tutu = 9..12;
    13  $Cham::tutu = 8;
    14  @Cham::tutu = 1..3;
    15
    16  @oldf{@classes} = push_method(@classes, 'tutu', sub { "titi" });
    17
    18  print "Calling new function 'tutu':".&tutu()."\n";
    19
    20  for (@classes) {
    21    if (defined($oldf{$_})) {
    22      print "Old function 'tutu' in $_ gives: ".$oldf{$_}->()."\n";
    23    }
    24    else {
    25       print "Function 'tutu' wasn't defined in $_\n";
    26    }
    27  }

The following session with the debugger shows that:

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ perl -wd returnedbypushmethod.pl
  main::(returnedbypushmethod.pl:8):
  8:      my @classes = qw{main Cham Chum};
    DB<1> c 18
  main::(returnedbypushmethod.pl:18):
  18:     print "Calling new function 'tutu':".&tutu()."\n";
    DB<2> n
  Calling new function 'tutu':titi
  main::(returnedbypushmethod.pl:20):
  20:     for (@classes) {
    DB<2> x @tutu
  0  9
  1  10
  2  11
  3  12
    DB<3> x @Cham::tutu
  0  1
  1  2
  2  3
    DB<4> p $Cham::tutu
  8
    DB<5> c
  Old function 'tutu' in main gives: tutu
  Function 'tutu' wasn't defined in Cham
  Old function 'tutu' in Chum gives: chum

Function pop_method

The call

                     pop_method(qw{CLASS1 CLASS2 ... }, 'subname' )

pops the methods in the tops of the stacks associated with CLASS1::subname, CLASS2::subname, etc. See the example in the section push_method above.

Examples of push_method and pop_method

Hiding functions

See the following example:

  package Tutu;
  use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all);

  sub tutu {
    print "Inside tutu\n"
  }

  sub plim {

    # When the stack is empty the old 'tutu' remains ...
    pop_method('tutu');

    &tutu(); # Inside tutu

    push_method('tutu'); # Tutu disapears
  }

  package main;

  Tutu::plim(); 
  # main can't call 'tutu'
  print "Can't tutu\n" unless Tutu->can('tutu');
  Tutu::plim();

When executed the former program produces this output:

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ localsubbase.pl
  Inside tutu
  Can't tutu
  Inside tutu

Changing the Behavior of Method-parametric Methods

A common situation where I need the couple (push_method, pop_method) is to control the behavior of method str when debugging:

  pl@nereida:~/Lbook/code/Simple-Types/script$ perl -wd usetypes.pl prueba26.c 2
  Loading DB routines from perl5db.pl version 1.28
  Editor support available.
  main::(usetypes.pl:5):  my $filename = shift || die "Usage:\n$0 file.c\n";
    DB<1> c Parse::Eyapp::Node::str
  1 int f() {
  2   int a[30];
  3
  4   return;
  5 }
  Parse::Eyapp::Node::str(/home/pl/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/lib//Parse/Eyapp/Node.pm:716):
  716:      my @terms;

Let us assume I want to see the syntax tree for this program. I can see it using $_[0]->str but the problem is that nodes PROGRAM and FUNCTION have defined a footnote method that will dump their symbol and type tables producing hundred of lines of output and making difficult to see the shape of the tree. This is because method str calls method footnote wherever the node being visited can do footnote. The solution is to use push_method to make the footnote methods disappear:

    DB<2> use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)
    DB<3> push_method(qw{PROGRAM FUNCTION}, 'footnote')

The use of push_method without an explicit code handler eliminates the CODE entry for footnote:

    DB<4> p $_->can('footnote')? "1\n" : "0\n" for (qw{PROGRAM FUNCTION})
  0
  0

Now I can see the shape of the tree:

    DB<5> p $_[0]->str

  PROGRAM(
    FUNCTION[f](
      EMPTYRETURN
    )
  ) # PROGRAM

If I want back the footnote methods I can use pop_method:

    DB<6> pop_method(qw{PROGRAM FUNCTION}, 'footnote')
    DB<7> p $_->can('footnote')? "1\n" : "0\n" for (qw{PROGRAM FUNCTION})
    1
    1

Now the information will be profuse:

    DB<8> p $_[0]->str

  PROGRAM^{0}(
    FUNCTION[f]^{1}(
      EMPTYRETURN
    )
  ) # PROGRAM
  ---------------------------
  0)
  Types:
  $VAR1 = {
    'CHAR' => bless( {
      'children' => []
    }, 'CHAR' ),
    ..... etc, etc.
    'A_30(INT)' => bless( {
      'children' => [
        $VAR1->{'INT'}
      ]
    }, 'A_30' )
  };
  Symbol Table:
  $VAR1 = {
    'f' => {
      'type' => 'F(X_0(),INT)',
      'line' => 1
    }
  };

  ---------------------------
  1)
  $VAR1 = {
    'a' => {
      'type' => 'A_30(INT)',
      'line' => 2
    }
  };

You can still do something like this to achieve a similar effect:

  DB<9> p eval { local (*PROGRAM::footnote, *FUNCTION::footnote) = (sub {}, sub {}); $_[0]->str }

  PROGRAM(
    FUNCTION[f](
      EMPTYRETURN
    )
  ) # PROGRAM

but is certainly more verbose and does not eliminate function footnote from the PROGRAM and FUNCTION classes.

Therefore the usefulness of push_method is when you either want to temporarily delete your function/methods or localize them not necessarily in a scope basis.

Function compute_lines

The call

                compute_lines(\$text, $filename, $pattern)

Substitutes all the occurrences of $pattern by #line $number $filename in string $text. where $number is the line number.

Function slurp_file

The call

                my $input = slurp_file($filename, "c");

returns a string with the contents of the file $filename assuming extension "c".

  pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/lib/Parse/Eyapp$ perl -wde 0
  main::(-e:1):   0
    DB<1> use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)
    DB<2> !!ls *yp # There are two files with extension .yp in this directory
  Parse.yp  Treeregexp.yp
    DB<3> $x = slurp_file('Parse', 'yp') # read the whole file
    DB<4> p $x =~ tr/\n// # file Parse.yp has 1038 lines
  1038

Function valid_keys

The call

              valid_keys(%hash)

Returns a string with the keys of the %hash separated by commas:

  pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/lib/Parse/Eyapp$ perl -wde 0
  main::(-e:1):   0
    DB<1> use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)
    DB<2> %h = ( SCOPE_NAME => 'STRING', ENTRY_NAME => 'STRING', SCOPE_DEPTH => 'STRING')
    DB<3> $x = valid_keys(%h)
    DB<4> p $x
  ENTRY_NAME, SCOPE_DEPTH, SCOPE_NAME

Function invalid_keys

It is called with two hash references:

    DB<5> p invalid_keys(\%h, { SCOPE_NAME => 'a', ENTRY_NAMe => 'b', SCOPE_DEPTH => 'c'})
  ENTRY_NAMe

It returns the first key in the second hash that does not appear in the first hash. See a more complete example:

  pl@nereida:~/src/perl/YappWithDefaultAction/lib/Parse/Eyapp$ head -31 Scope.pm | cat -n
     1  package Parse::Eyapp::Scope;
     2  use strict;
     3  use warnings;
     4  use Carp;
     5  use List::MoreUtils qw(part);
     6  use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(valid_keys invalid_keys);
     7
     8  my %_new_scope = (
     9    SCOPE_NAME      => 'STRING',
    10    ENTRY_NAME      => 'STRING',
    11    SCOPE_DEPTH     => 'STRING',
    12  );
    13  my $valid_scope_keys = valid_keys(%_new_scope);
    14
    15  sub new {
    16   my $class = shift;
    17    my %args = @_;
    18
    19    if (defined($a = invalid_keys(\%_new_scope, \%args))) {
    20      croak("Parse::Eyapp::Scope::new Error!:\n"
    21           ."unknown argument $a. Valid arguments for new are:\n  $valid_scope_keys")
    22    }
    23    $args{ENTRY_NAME}      = 'entry' unless defined($args{ENTRY_NAME});
    24    $args{SCOPE_NAME}      = 'scope' unless defined($args{SCOPE_NAME});
    25    $args{SCOPE_DEPTH}     = ''      unless defined($args{SCOPE_DEPTH});
    26    $args{PENDING_DECL}    = [];
    27    $args{SCOPE_MARK}      = 0;
    28    $args{DEPTH}           = -1; # first depth is 0
    29
    30    bless \%args, $class;
    31  }

Function write_file

The call

              write_file($filename, $textref)

simply opens a file with name $filename writes in it the text referenced by $texterf and closes the file

Function numbered

The call

                numbered($input) 

Returns a string like $input but with lines numbered and the numbers correctly indented. See an example:

    DB<1> use Parse::Eyapp::Base qw(:all)
    DB<2> $input = "Another line!\n"x12
    DB<3> $output = numbered($input)
    DB<4> p $output
   1 Another line!
   2 Another line!
   3 Another line!
   4 Another line!
   5 Another line!
   6 Another line!
   7 Another line!
   8 Another line!
   9 Another line!
  10 Another line!
  11 Another line!
  12 Another line!

SEE ALSO ^

CONTRIBUTORS ^

AUTHOR ^

Casiano Rodriguez-Leon (casiano@ull.es)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ^

This work has been supported by CEE (FEDER) and the Spanish Ministry of Educacion y Ciencia through Plan Nacional I+D+I number TIN2005-08818-C04-04 (ULL::OPLINK project http://www.oplink.ull.es/). Support from Gobierno de Canarias was through GC02210601 (Grupos Consolidados). The University of La Laguna has also supported my work in many ways and for many years.

A large percentage of code is verbatim taken from Parse::Yapp 1.05. The author of Parse::Yapp is Francois Desarmenien.

I wish to thank Francois Desarmenien for his Parse::Yapp module, to my students at La Laguna and to the Perl Community. Thanks to the people who have contributed to improve the module (see "CONTRIBUTORS" in Parse::Eyapp). Thanks to Larry Wall for giving us Perl. Special thanks to Juana.

LICENCE AND COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c) 2006-2008 Casiano Rodriguez-Leon (casiano@ull.es). All rights reserved.

Parse::Yapp copyright is of Francois Desarmenien, all rights reserved. 1998-2001

These modules are free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

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