Casiano Rodriguez-Leon > Parse-Eyapp > Parse::Eyapp::defaultactionsintro

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NAME ^

Parse::Eyapp::defaultactionsintro - Introduction to Default Actions and Grammar Reuse

Introduction ^

The examples used in this tutorial can be found in the directory examples/recycle accompanying this distribution

Default Actions ^

Default actions

When no action is specified both yapp and eyapp implicitly insert the semantic action { $_[1] }. In Parse::Eyapp you can modify such behavior using the %defaultaction { Perl code } directive. The { Perl code } clause that follows the %defaultaction directive is executed when reducing by any production for which no explicit action was specified.

Translator from Infix to Postfix

See the example in examples/eyapplanguageref/Postfix.eyp that translates an infix expression like a=b*-3 into a postfix expression like a b 3 NEG * = :

  Parse-Eyapp/examples/eyapplanguageref$ cat -n Postfix.eyp
     1  # File Postfix.eyp
     2  %right  '='
     3  %left   '-' '+'
     4  %left   '*' '/'
     5  %left   NEG
     6
     7  %defaultaction { return  "$left $right $op"; }
     8
     9  %%
    10  line: $exp  { print "$exp\n" }
    11  ;
    12
    13  exp:        $NUM  { $NUM }
    14          |   $VAR  { $VAR }
    15          |   VAR.left '='.op exp.right
    16          |   exp.left '+'.op exp.right
    17          |   exp.left '-'.op exp.right
    18          |   exp.left '*'.op exp.right
    19          |   exp.left '/'.op exp.right
    20          |   '-' $exp %prec NEG { "$exp NEG" }
    21          |   '(' $exp ')' { $exp }
    22  ;
    23
    24  %%
    25
    26  sub _Error {
    27    my($token)=$_[0]->YYCurval;
    28    my($what)= $token ? "input: '$token'" : "end of input";
    29    my @expected = $_[0]->YYExpect();
    30
    31    local $" = ', ';
    32    die "Syntax error near $what. Expected one of these tokens: @expected\n";
    33  }
    34
    35  my $x;
    36
    37  sub _Lexer {
    38    my($parser)=shift;
    39
    40    for ($x) {
    41      s/^\s+//;
    42      $_ eq '' and return('',undef);
    43
    44      s/^([0-9]+(?:\.[0-9]+)?)//   and return('NUM',$1);
    45      s/^([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*)// and return('VAR',$1);
    46      s/^(.)//s                    and return($1,$1);
    47    }
    48  }
    49
    50  sub Run {
    51    my($self)=shift;
    52    my $debug = shift @ARGV;
    53    $debug = 0x1F if $debug;
    54    print "Infix to postfix translator. Write an arithmetic expression: ";
    55    $x = <STDIN>;
    56    $self->YYParse(
    57      yylex => \&_Lexer,
    58      yyerror => \&_Error,
    59      yydebug => $debug,
    60    );
    61  }
    62
    63   # Modulino
    64   __PACKAGE__->new()->Run unless caller();

The file containing the Eyapp program must be compiled with eyapp:

 Parse-Eyapp/examples/eyapplanguageref$ eyapp Postfix.eyp

Next, you have to write a client program:

  Parse-Eyapp/examples/eyapplanguageref$ cat -n usepostfix.pl
     1  #!/usr/bin/perl -w
     2  use strict;
     3  use Postfix;
     4
     5  my $parser = new Postfix();
     6  $parser->Run;

Now we can run the client program:

 Parse-Eyapp/examples/eyapplanguageref$ usepostfix.pl
 Infix to postfix translator. Write an arithmetic expression: -(2*a-b*-3)
 2 a * b 3 NEG * - NEG

An alternative is to use the generated module as a modulino, compiling the grammar using option -b:

  Parse-Eyapp/examples/eyapplanguageref$ eyapp -b '' Postfix.eyp

This way, we can directly use the modulo as a script:

  Parse-Eyapp/examples/eyapplanguageref$ ./Postfix.pm
  Infix to postfix translator. Write an arithmetic expression: 2*3+b
  2 3 * b +

Default Actions, %name and YYName

In eyapp each production rule has a name. The name of a rule can be explicitly given by the programmer using the %name directive. For example, in the piece of code that follows the name ASSIGN is given to the rule exp: VAR '=' exp.

When no explicit name is given the rule has an implicit name. The implicit name of a rule is shaped by concatenating the name of the syntactic variable on its left, an underscore and the ordinal number of the production rule Lhs_# as it appears in the .output file. Avoid giving names matching such pattern to production rules. The patterns /${lhs}_\d+$/ where ${lhs} is the name of the syntactic variable are reserved for internal use by eyapp.

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ cat -n Lhs.eyp
   1  # Lhs.eyp
   2
   3  %right  '='
   4  %left   '-' '+'
   5  %left   '*' '/'
   6  %left   NEG
   7
   8  %defaultaction {
   9    my $self = shift;
  10    my $name = $self->YYName();
  11    bless { children => [ grep {ref($_)} @_] }, $name;
  12  }
  13
  14  %%
  15  input:
  16              /* empty */
  17                { [] }
  18          |   input line
  19                {
  20                  push @{$_[1]}, $_[2] if defined($_[2]);
  21                  $_[1]
  22                }
  23  ;
  24
  25  line:     '\n'       { }
  26          | exp '\n'   {  $_[1] }
  27  ;
  28
  29  exp:
  30              NUM   { $_[1] }
  31          |   VAR   { $_[1] }
  32          |   %name ASSIGN
  33              VAR '=' exp
  34          |   %name PLUS
  35              exp '+' exp
  36          |   %name MINUS
  37              exp '-' exp
  38          |   %name TIMES
  39              exp '*' exp
  40          |   %name DIV
  41              exp '/' exp
  42          |   %name UMINUS
  43              '-' exp %prec NEG
  44          |  '(' exp ')'  { $_[2] }
  45  ;

Inside a semantic action the name of the current rule can be recovered using the method YYName of the parser object.

The default action (lines 8-12) computes as attribute of the left hand side a reference to an object blessed in the name of the rule. The object has an attribute children which is a reference to the list of children of the node. The call to grep

  11    bless { children => [ grep {ref($_)} @_] }, $name;

excludes children that aren't references. Notice that the lexical analyzer only returns references for the NUM and VAR terminals:

  59  sub _Lexer {
  60      my($parser)=shift;
  61
  62      for ($parser->YYData->{INPUT}) {
  63          s/^[ \t]+//;
  64          return('',undef) unless $_;
  65          s/^([0-9]+(?:\.[0-9]+)?)//
  66                  and return('NUM', bless { attr => $1}, 'NUM');
  67          s/^([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*)//
  68                  and return('VAR',bless {attr => $1}, 'VAR');
  69          s/^(.)//s
  70                  and return($1, $1);
  71      }
  72      return('',undef);
  73  }

follows the client program:

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ cat -n uselhs.pl
       1  #!/usr/bin/perl -w
       2  use Lhs;
       3  use Data::Dumper;
       4
       5  $parser = new Lhs();
       6  my $tree = $parser->Run;
       7  $Data::Dumper::Indent = 1;
       8  if (defined($tree)) { print Dumper($tree); }
       9  else { print "Cadena no válida\n"; }

When executed with input a=(2+3)*b the parser produces the following tree:

  ASSIGN(TIMES(PLUS(NUM[2],NUM[3]), VAR[b]))

See the result of an execution:

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ uselhs.pl
  a=(2+3)*b
  $VAR1 = [
    bless( {
      'children' => [
        bless( { 'attr' => 'a' }, 'VAR' ),
        bless( {
          'children' => [
            bless( {
              'children' => [
                bless( { 'attr' => '2' }, 'NUM' ),
                bless( { 'attr' => '3' }, 'NUM' )
              ]
            }, 'PLUS' ),
            bless( { 'attr' => 'b' }, 'VAR' )
          ]
        }, 'TIMES' )
      ]
    }, 'ASSIGN' )
  ];

The name of a production rule can be changed at execution time. See the following example:

  29  exp:
  30              NUM   { $_[1] }
  31          |   VAR   { $_[1] }
  32          |   %name ASSIGN
  33              VAR '=' exp
  34          |   %name PLUS
  35              exp '+' exp
  36          |   %name MINUS
  37              exp '-' exp
  38                {
  39                  my $self = shift;
  40                  $self->YYName('SUBTRACT'); # rename it
  41                  $self->YYBuildAST(@_); # build the node
  42                }
  43          |   %name TIMES
  44              exp '*' exp
  45          |   %name DIV
  46              exp '/' exp
  47          |   %name UMINUS
  48              '-' exp %prec NEG
  49          |  '(' exp ')'  { $_[2] }
  50  ;

When the client program is executed we can see the presence of the SUBTRACT nodes:

  pl@nereida:~/LEyapp/examples$ useyynamedynamic.pl
  2-b
  $VAR1 = [
    bless( {
      'children' => [
        bless( {
          'attr' => '2'
        }, 'NUM' ),
        bless( {
          'attr' => 'b'
        }, 'VAR' )
      ]
    }, 'SUBTRACT' )
  ];

Grammar Reuse ^

Terence Parr in his talk "Reuse of Grammars with Embedded Semantic Actions" (see http://www.cs.vu.nl/icpc2008/docs/Parr.pdf) explains the problem:

 "Because many applications deal with the same language, the reuse of a common
syntax specification with different semantics provides a number of advantages.
While the advantages are obvious, the mechanism for grammar reuse is not so
clear.  To go beyond syntax checking, grammars must have some way to specify
the translation or interpretation logic (the semantics). Unfortunately, the act
of specifying the semantics can lock a grammar into one specific application
since the grammar is often modified to suit (e.g., programmers often want to
embed unrestricted semantic actions)." 

The incoming sections deal with different solutions to the problem.

An Action Method for each Production

Default actions provide a way to write reusable grammars. Here is one solution:

  pl@europa:~/LEyapp/examples/recycle$ cat -n Noactions.eyp
     1  %left   '+'
     2  %left   '*'
     3
     4  %defaultaction {
     5    my $self = shift;
     6
     7    my $class = $self->YYPrefix;
     8    $class .=  $self->YYName;
     9
    10    $class->action(@_);
    11  }
    12
    13  %%
    14  exp:        %name NUM
    15                NUM
    16          |   %name PLUS
    17                exp '+' exp
    18          |   %name TIMES
    19                exp '*' exp
    20          |   '(' exp ')'
    21                { $_[2] }
    22  ;
    23
    24  %%
    25
    26  sub _Error {
    27    my($token)=$_[0]->YYCurval;
    28    my($what)= $token ? "input: '$token'" : "end of input";
    29    my @expected = $_[0]->YYExpect();
    30
    31    local $" = ', ';
    32    die "Syntax error near $what. Expected one of these tokens: @expected\n";
    33  }
    34
    35
    36  my $x = '';
    37
    38  sub _Lexer {
    39    my($parser)=shift;
    40
    41    for ($x) {
    42      s/^\s+//;
    43      $_ eq '' and return('',undef);
    44
    45      s/^([0-9]+(?:\.[0-9]+)?)//   and return('NUM',$1);
    46      s/^([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*)// and return('VAR',$1);
    47      s/^(.)//s                    and return($1,$1);
    48    }
    49  }
    50
    51  sub Run {
    52    my($self)=shift;
    53    $x = shift;
    54    my $debug = shift;
    55
    56    $self->YYParse(
    57      yylex    => \&_Lexer,
    58      yyerror  => \&_Error,
    59      yydebug  => $debug,
    60    );
    61  }

This grammar is reused by the following program to implement a calculator: and a translator from infix to postfix:

  pl@europa:~/LEyapp/examples/recycle$ cat -n calcu_and_post.pl
     1  #!/usr/bin/perl
     2  use warnings;
     3  use Noactions;
     4
     5  sub Calc::NUM::action {
     6    return $_[1];
     7  }
     8
     9  sub Calc::PLUS::action {
    10    $_[1]+$_[3];
    11  }
    12
    13  sub Calc::TIMES::action {
    14    $_[1]*$_[3];
    15  }
    16
    17  sub Post::NUM::action {
    18    return $_[1];
    19  }
    20
    21  sub Post::PLUS::action {
    22    "$_[1] $_[3] +";
    23  }
    24
    25  sub Post::TIMES::action {
    26    "$_[1] $_[3] *";
    27  }
    28
    29  my $debug = shift || 0;
    30  my $pparser = Noactions->new( yyprefix => 'Post::');
    31  print "Write an expression: ";
    32  my $x = <STDIN>;
    33  my $t = $pparser->Run($x, $debug);
    34
    35  print "$t\n";
    36
    37  my $cparser = Noactions->new(yyprefix => 'Calc::');
    38  my $e = $cparser->Run($x, $debug);
    39
    40  print "$e\n";

Reusing Grammars Using Inheritance

An method to reuse a grammar is via inheritance. The client inherits the generated parser module and expands it with methods that inherit or overwrite the actions. Here is an example. Initially we have this Eyapp grammar:

  pl@europa:~/LEyapp/examples/recycle$ cat -n NoacInh.eyp
     1  %left   '+'
     2  %left   '*'
     3
     4  %defaultaction {
     5    my $self = shift;
     6
     7    my $action = $self->YYName;
     8
     9    $self->$action(@_);
    10  }
    11
    12  %%
    13  exp:        %name NUM
    14                NUM
    15          |   %name PLUS
    16                exp '+' exp
    17          |   %name TIMES
    18                exp '*' exp
    19          |   '(' exp ')'
    20                { $_[2] }
    21  ;
    22
    23  %%
    24
    25  sub _Error {
    26    my($token)=$_[0]->YYCurval;
    27    my($what)= $token ? "input: '$token'" : "end of input";
    28    my @expected = $_[0]->YYExpect();
    29
    30    local $" = ', ';
    31    die "Syntax error near $what. Expected one of these tokens: @expected\n";
    32  }
    33
    34
    35  my $x = '';
    36
    37  sub _Lexer {
    38    my($parser)=shift;
    39
    40    for ($x) {
    41      s/^\s+//;
    42      $_ eq '' and return('',undef);
    43
    44      s/^([0-9]+(?:\.[0-9]+)?)//   and return('NUM',$1);
    45      s/^([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*)// and return('VAR',$1);
    46      s/^(.)//s                    and return($1,$1);
    47    }
    48  }
    49
    50  sub Run {
    51    my($self)=shift;
    52    $x = shift;
    53    my $debug = shift;
    54
    55    $self->YYParse(
    56      yylex => \&_Lexer,
    57      yyerror => \&_Error,
    58      yydebug => $debug,
    59    );
    60  }

The following program defines two classes: CalcActions that implements the actions for the calculator and package PostActions that implements the actions for the infix to postfix translation. This way we have an example that reuses the former grammar twice:

  pl@europa:~/LEyapp/examples/recycle$ cat -n icalcu_and_ipost.pl
     1  #!/usr/bin/perl -w
     2  package CalcActions;
     3  use strict;
     4  use base qw{NoacInh};
     5
     6  sub NUM {
     7    return $_[1];
     8  }
     9
    10  sub PLUS {
    11    $_[1]+$_[3];
    12  }
    13
    14  sub TIMES {
    15    $_[1]*$_[3];
    16  }
    17
    18  package PostActions;
    19  use strict;
    20  use base qw{NoacInh};
    21
    22  sub NUM {
    23    return $_[1];
    24  }
    25
    26  sub PLUS {
    27    "$_[1] $_[3] +";
    28  }
    29
    30  sub TIMES {
    31    "$_[1] $_[3] *";
    32  }
    33
    34  package main;
    35  use strict;
    36
    37  my $calcparser = CalcActions->new();
    38  print "Write an expression: ";
    39  my $x = <STDIN>;
    40  my $e = $calcparser->Run($x);
    41
    42  print "$e\n";
    43
    44  my $postparser = PostActions->new();
    45  my $p = $postparser->Run($x);
    46
    47  print "$p\n";

The subroutine used as default action in NoacInh.eyp is so useful that is packed as the Parse::Eyapp::Driver method YYDelegateaction.

See files examples/recycle/NoacYYDelegateaction.eyp and examples/recycle/icalcu_and_ipost_yydel.pl for an example of use of YYDelegateaction.

Reusing Grammars by Dynamic Substitution of Semantic Actions

The methods YYSetaction and YYAction of the parser object provide a way to selectively substitute some actions of a given grammar. Let us consider once more a postfix to infix translator:

  pl@europa:~/LEyapp/examples/recycle$ cat -n PostfixWithActions.eyp
     1  # File PostfixWithActions.eyp
     2  %right  '='
     3  %left   '-' '+'
     4  %left   '*' '/'
     5  %left   NEG
     6
     7  %%
     8  line: $exp  { print "$exp\n" }
     9  ;
    10
    11  exp:        $NUM
    12                  { $NUM }
    13          |   $VAR
    14                  { $VAR }
    15          |   %name ASSIGN
    16                VAR.left '='exp.right
    17                  { "$_[3] &$_[1] ASSIGN"; }
    18          |   %name PLUS
    19                exp.left '+'exp.right
    20                  { "$_[1] $_[3] PLUS"; }
    21          |   %name MINUS
    22                exp.left '-'exp.right
    23                  { "$_[1] $_[3] MINUS"; }
    24          |   %name TIMES
    25                exp.left '*'exp.right
    26                  { "$_[1] $_[3] TIMES"; }
    27          |   %name DIV
    28                exp.left '/'exp.right
    29                  { "$_[1] $_[3] DIV"; }
    30          |   %name NEG '-' $exp %prec NEG
    31                  { "$exp NEG" }
    32          |   '(' $exp ')'
    33                  { $exp }
    34  ;
    35
    36  %%
    37
    38  sub _Error {
    39    my($token)=$_[0]->YYCurval;
    40    my($what)= $token ? "input: '$token'" : "end of input";
    41    my @expected = $_[0]->YYExpect();
    42
    43    local $" = ', ';
    44    die "Syntax error near $what. Expected one of these tokens: @expected\n";
    45  }
    46
    47  my $x;
    48
    49  sub _Lexer {
    50    my($parser)=shift;
    51
    52    for ($x) {
    53      s/^\s+//;
    54      $_ eq '' and return('',undef);
    55
    56      s/^([0-9]+(?:\.[0-9]+)?)//   and return('NUM',$1);
    57      s/^([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*)// and return('VAR',$1);
    58      s/^(.)//s                    and return($1,$1);
    59    }
    60  }
    61
    62  sub Run {
    63    my($self)=shift;
    64    $x = shift;
    65    $self->YYParse( yylex => \&_Lexer, yyerror => \&_Error,
    66      #yydebug => 0xFF
    67    );
    68  }

The program rewritepostfixwithactions.pl uses the former grammar to translate infix expressions to postfix expressions. It also implements a calculator reusing the grammar in PostfixWithActions.eyp. It does so using the YYSetaction method. The semantic actions for the productions named

are selectively substituted by the appropriate actions, while the other semantic actions remain unchanged:

  pl@europa:~/LEyapp/examples/recycle$ cat -n rewritepostfixwithactions.pl
     1  #!/usr/bin/perl
     2  use warnings;
     3  use PostfixWithActions;
     4
     5  my $debug = shift || 0;
     6  my $pparser = PostfixWithActions->new();
     7  print "Write an expression: ";
     8  my $x = <STDIN>;
     9
    10  # First, trasnlate to postfix ...
    11  $pparser->Run($x, $debug);
    12
    13  # And then selectively substitute
    14  # some semantic actions
    15  # to obtain an infix calculator ...
    16  my %s;            # symbol table
    17  $pparser->YYSetaction(
    18    ASSIGN => sub { $s{$_[1]} = $_[3] },
    19    PLUS   => sub { $_[1] + $_[3] },
    20    TIMES  => sub { $_[1] * $_[3] },
    21    DIV    => sub { $_[1] / $_[3] },
    22    NEG    => sub { -$_[2] },
    23  );
    24
    25  $pparser->Run($x, $debug);

When running this program the output is:

  examples/recycle$ ./rewritepostfixwithactions.pl
  Write an expression: 2*3+4
  2 3 TIMES 4 PLUS
  10
  examples/recycle$ rewritepostfixwithactions.pl
  Write an expression: a = 2*(b = 3+5)
  2 3 5 PLUS &b ASSIGN TIMES &a ASSIGN
  16

SEE ALSO ^

REFERENCES ^

CONTRIBUTORS ^

AUTHOR ^

Casiano Rodriguez-Leon (casiano@ull.es)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ^

This work has been supported by CEE (FEDER) and the Spanish Ministry of Educacion y Ciencia through Plan Nacional I+D+I number TIN2005-08818-C04-04 (ULL::OPLINK project http://www.oplink.ull.es/). Support from Gobierno de Canarias was through GC02210601 (Grupos Consolidados). The University of La Laguna has also supported my work in many ways and for many years.

A large percentage of code is verbatim taken from Parse::Yapp 1.05. The author of Parse::Yapp is Francois Desarmenien.

I wish to thank Francois Desarmenien for his Parse::Yapp module, to my students at La Laguna and to the Perl Community. Thanks to the people who have contributed to improve the module (see "CONTRIBUTORS" in Parse::Eyapp). Thanks to Larry Wall for giving us Perl. Special thanks to Juana.

LICENCE AND COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c) 2006-2008 Casiano Rodriguez-Leon (casiano@ull.es). All rights reserved.

Parse::Yapp copyright is of Francois Desarmenien, all rights reserved. 1998-2001

These modules are free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

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