Christian Hansen > Time-Moment-0.21 > Time::Moment

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NAME ^

Time::Moment - Represents a date and time of day with an offset from UTC

SYNOPSIS ^

    $tm = Time::Moment->new(
        year       => 2012,
        month      => 12,
        day        => 24,
        hour       => 15,
        minute     => 30,
        second     => 45,
        nanosecond => 123456789,
        offset     => 0,
    );
    $tm = Time::Moment->now;
    $tm = Time::Moment->now_utc;
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_epoch($seconds [, $nanosecond]);
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_object($object);
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_string($string);
    
    $year         = $tm->year;                          # [1, 9999]
    $quarter      = $tm->quarter;                       # [1, 4]
    $month        = $tm->month;                         # [1, 12]
    $week         = $tm->week;                          # [1, 53]
    
    $day          = $tm->day_of_year;                   # [1, 366]
    $day          = $tm->day_of_quarter;                # [1, 92]
    $day          = $tm->day_of_month;                  # [1, 31]
    $day          = $tm->day_of_week;                   # [1=Monday, 7=Sunday]
    
    $hour         = $tm->hour;                          # [0, 23]
    $minute       = $tm->minute;                        # [0, 59]
    $second       = $tm->second;                        # [0, 59]
    $millisecond  = $tm->millisecond;                   # [0, 999]
    $microsecond  = $tm->microsecond;                   # [0, 999_999]
    $nanosecond   = $tm->nanosecond;                    # [0, 999_999_999]
    
    $epoch        = $tm->epoch;
    $offset       = $tm->offset;                        # [-1080, 1080]
    
    $jd           = $tm->jd;
    $mjd          = $tm->mjd;
    
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_year($year);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_month($month);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_week($week);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_day_of_year($day);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_day_of_quarter($day);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_day_of_month($day);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_day_of_week($day);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_hour($hour);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_minute($minute);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_second($second);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_millisecond($millisecond);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_microsecond($microsecond);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_nanosecond($nanosecond);
    
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_offset_same_instant($offset);
    $tm2          = $tm1->with_offset_same_local($offset);
    
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_years($years);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_months($months);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_weeks($weeks);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_days($days);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_hours($hours);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_minutes($minutes);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_seconds($seconds);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_milliseconds($milliseconds);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_microseconds($microseconds);
    $tm2          = $tm1->plus_nanoseconds($nanoseconds);
    
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_years($years);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_months($months);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_weeks($weeks);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_days($days);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_hours($hours);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_minutes($minutes);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_seconds($seconds);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_milliseconds($milliseconds);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_microseconds($microseconds);
    $tm2          = $tm1->minus_nanoseconds($nanoseconds);
    
    $tm2          = $tm1->at_utc;
    
    $boolean      = $tm1->is_before($tm2);
    $boolean      = $tm1->is_after($tm2);
    $boolean      = $tm1->is_equal($tm2);
    
    $integer      = $tm1->compare($tm2);
    
    $string       = $tm->to_string;
    $string       = $tm->strftime($format);
    
    $integer      = $tm->length_of_year;                # [365, 366]
    $integer      = $tm->length_of_quarter;             # [90, 92]
    $integer      = $tm->length_of_month;               # [28, 31]
    $integer      = $tm->length_of_week_year;           # [52, 53]
    
    @values       = $tm->utc_rd_values;
    $seconds      = $tm->utc_rd_as_seconds;
    @values       = $tm->local_rd_values;
    $seconds      = $tm->local_rd_as_seconds;
    
    $integer      = $tm1 <=> $tm2;
    
    $boolean      = $tm1 == $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 != $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 <  $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 >  $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 <= $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 >= $tm2;
    
    $string       = "$tm";

DESCRIPTION ^

Time::Moment is an immutable object representing a date and time of day with an offset from UTC in the ISO 8601 calendar system.

Time is measured in nanoseconds since 1970-01-01T00Z. In Time:Moment leap seconds are ignored. It is assumed that there are exactly 86,400,000,000 nanoseconds per day. Time::Moment can represent all epoch integers from -62,135,596,800 to 2,534,02,300,799; this range suffices to measure times to nanosecond precision for any instant that is within 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z to 9999-12-31T23:59:59Z.

CONSTRUCTORS ^

new

    $tm = Time::Moment->new(
        year       => 2012,
        month      => 12,
        day        => 24,
        hour       => 15,
        minute     => 30,
        second     => 45,
        nanosecond => 123456789,
        offset     => 0,
    );

Constructs an instance of Time::Moment from the given components.

Parameters:

year

The year [1, 9999].

month

The month of the year [1, 12].

day

The day of the month [1, 31]. The day must be valid for the year and month, otherwise an exception is raised.

hour

The hour of the day [0, 23].

minute

The minute of the hour [0, 59].

second

The second of the minute [0, 59].

nanosecond

The nanosecond of the second [0, 999_999_999].

offset

The time zone offset from UTC in minutes [-1080, 1080].

now

    $tm = Time::Moment->now;

Constructs an instance of Time::Moment that is set to the current date and time from the system clock in the system time zone, with the offset set to the system's time zone offset from UTC.

now_utc

    $tm = Time::Moment->now_utc;

Constructs an instance of Time::Moment that is set to the current date and time from the system clock in the UTC time zone.

from_epoch

    $tm = Time::Moment->from_epoch($seconds);
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_epoch($seconds, $nanosecond);

Constructs an instance of Time::Moment from the given seconds from the epoch of 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z. The optional parameter nanosecond specifies the nanosecond of the second [0, 999_999_999].

Fractional seconds is supported if the constructor is invoked with seconds only:

    $tm = Time::Moment->from_epoch(0.123456); # 1970-01-01T00:00:00.123456Z

from_object

    $tm = Time::Moment->from_object($object);

Constructs an instance of Time::Moment from the given object. If the given object is an instance of Time::Moment it's returned otherwise an attempt is made to coerce the given object to an instance of Time::Moment.

Time::Moment implements coercion handlers for the following object types:

DateTime
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_object( DateTime->now );

The given DateTime object must be within the supported date range and must have a time zone or a time zone offset from UTC, coercing from the 'floating' time zone is not supported.

Time::Piece
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_object( scalar Time::Piece::localtime() );

The given Time::Piece object must be within the supported date range.

The coercion scheme is extensible and implemented as documented in Params::Coerce:

    $tm = Params::Coerce::coerce('Time::Moment', scalar Time::Piece::localtime());
    $tm = Params::Coerce::coerce('Time::Moment', DateTime->now);

Time::Moment also implements a coercion handler from Time::Moment to DateTime:

    $dt = Params::Coerce::coerce('DateTime', Time::Moment->now);

from_string

    $tm = Time::Moment->from_string($string);
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_string($string [, lenient => false]);

Constructs an instance of Time::Moment from the given string. The string must consist of a complete date representation and time of day followed by a time zone designator. The time of day may be reduced to hour of the day, the second of the minute may have a decimal fraction. The decimal sign can be either the comma [,] or the full stop [.]. A decimal fraction must have at least one digit and may have a total of nine digits, if the fractional precision is greater than nine digits, the value will be truncated.

The following are examples of complete date representations and time of day representations:

    Basic format:                 Example:
    YYYYMMDDThhmmssZ              20121224T121530Z
    YYYYMMDDThhmmss±hhmm          20121224T121530+0100
    YYYYMMDDThhmmss±hh            20121224T121530+01
    
    YYYYMMDDThhmmss.ssZ           20121224T121530.500Z
    YYYYMMDDThhmmss.ss±hhmm       20121224T121530.500+0100
    YYYYMMDDThhmmss.ss±hh         20121224T121530.500+01
    
    YYYYMMDDThhZ                  20121224T12Z              (reduced accuracy)
    YYYYMMDDThhmmZ                20121224T1215Z            (reduced accuracy)
    YYYYMMDDThhmm±hhmm            20121224T1215+0100        (reduced accuracy)
    YYYYMMDDThhmm±hh              20121224T1215+01          (reduced accuracy)
    
    Extended format:              Example:
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ          2012-12-24T12:15:30Z
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss±hh:mm     2012-12-24T12:15:30+01:00
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss±hh        2012-12-24T12:15:30+01
    
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.ssZ       2012-12-24T12:15:30.500Z
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.ss±hh:mm  2012-12-24T12:15:30.500+01:00
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.ss±hh     2012-12-24T12:15:30.500+01
    
    YYYY-MM-DDThhZ                2012-12-24T12Z            (reduced accuracy)
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mmZ             2012-12-24T12:15Z         (reduced accuracy)
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm±hh:mm        2012-12-24T12:15+01:00    (reduced accuracy)
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm±hh           2012-12-24T12:15+01       (reduced accuracy)

Where representations using calendar dates are shown, ordinal dates or week dates may be substituted. This ISO 8601 profile correspond to a subset of ISO 8601:2004 4.3 Date and time of day.

If the optional boolean parameter lenient is true the following examples is also accepted where the date is a complete calendar date and time of day in extended format:

    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ssZ          2012-12-24 12:15:30Z
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ssz          2012-12-24 12:15:30z
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss±hhmm      2012-12-24 12:15:30+0100
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss±hh:mm     2012-12-24 12:15:30+01:00
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss±hh        2012-12-24 12:15:30+01
    
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ssZ       2012-12-24 12:15:30.500Z
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ssz       2012-12-24 12:15:30.500z
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ss±hhmm   2012-12-24 12:15:30.500+0100
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ss±hh:mm  2012-12-24 12:15:30.500+01:00
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ss±hh     2012-12-24 12:15:30.500+01
    
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mmZ             2012-12-24 12:15Z
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mmz             2012-12-24 12:15z
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm±hhmm         2012-12-24 12:15+0100
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm±hh:mm        2012-12-24 12:15+01:00
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm±hh           2012-12-24 12:15+01
    
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss ±hh:mm    2012-12-24 12:15:30 +01:00
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss ±hhmm     2012-12-24 12:15:30 +0100
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss ±hh       2012-12-24 12:15:30 +01
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss GMT       2012-12-24 12:15:30 GMT
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss GMT±hh    2012-12-24 12:15:30 GMT+01
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss UTC       2012-12-24 12:15:30 UTC
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss UTC±hh    2012-12-24 12:15:30 UTC+01
    
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ss ±hhmm  2012-12-24 12:15:30.500 +0100
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ss ±hh:mm 2012-12-24 12:15:30.500 +01:00
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.ss ±hh    2012-12-24 12:15:30.500 +01
    
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm ±hh:mm       2012-12-24 12:15 +01:00
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm ±hhmm        2012-12-24 12:15 +0100
    YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm ±hh          2012-12-24 12:15 +01

The time designator [T] may be in lower case [t] or replaced with a single space. A single space is also accepted between the time of day and the zone designator if the time designator is replaced with a single space. The zone designator may be in basic format even though the calendar date and time of day is in extended format. The UTC designator [Z] may also be in lower case [z]. The literal string GMT or UTC may be used as a UTC designator and may have an offset. Usage of these string representations is strongly discouraged as they do not conform to the ISO 8601 standard.

INSTANCE METHODS ^

year

    $year = $tm->year;

Returns the year [1, 9999].

quarter

    $quarter = $tm->quarter;

Returns the quarter of the year [1, 4].

month

    $month = $tm->month;

Returns the month of the year [1, 12].

week

    $week = $tm->week;

Returns the week of the year [1, 53].

day_of_year

    $day = $tm->day_of_year;

Returns the day of the year [1, 366].

day_of_quarter

    $day = $tm->day_of_quarter;

Returns the day of the quarter [1, 92].

day_of_month

    $day = $tm->day_of_month;

Returns the day of the month [1, 31].

day_of_week

    $day = $tm->day_of_week;

Returns the day of the week [1=Monday, 7=Sunday].

hour

    $hour = $tm->hour;

Returns the hour of the day [0, 23].

minute

    $minute = $tm->minute;

Returns the minute of the hour [0, 59].

second

    $second = $tm->second;

Returns the second of the minute [0, 59].

millisecond

    $millisecond = $tm->millisecond;

Returns the millisecond of the second [0, 999].

microsecond

    $microsecond = $tm->microsecond;

Returns the microsecond of the second [0, 999_999].

nanosecond

    $nanosecond = $tm->nanosecond;

Returns the nanosecond of the second [0, 999_999_999].

epoch

    $epoch = $tm->epoch;

Returns the number of integral seconds from the epoch of 1970-01-01T00Z.

offset

    $offset = $tm->offset;

Returns the time zone offset from UTC in minutes [-1080, 1080].

jd

    $jd = $tm->jd;

Returns the Julian Date. Julian Date is a count of days elapsed since -4713-11-24T12Z. The fractional part corresponds to the fraction of the day after noon.

mjd

    $mjd = $tm->mjd;

Returns the Modified Julian Date. Modified Julian Date is a count of days elapsed since 1858-11-17T00Z. The fractional part corresponds to the fraction of the day after midnight.

    $tm = Time::Moment->now;
    say $tm->jd - $tm->mjd; # 2400000.5

with_year

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_year($year);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given year [1, 9999] altered. The day of the month of the date is unchanged unless the day does not exist in the month. In that case, the day is set to the last day of the month.

with_month

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_month($month);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given month of the year [1, 12] altered. The day of the month of the date is unchanged unless the day does not exist in the given month. In that case, the day is set to the last day of the given month.

with_week

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_week($week);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given week of the year [1, 53] altered. The week of the year must be valid for the year, otherwise an exception is raised.

with_day_of_year

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_day_of_year($day);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given day of the year [1, 366] altered. The day must be valid for the year, otherwise an exception is raised.

with_day_of_quarter

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_day_of_quarter($day);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given day of the quarter [1, 92] altered. The day must be valid for the year and quarter, otherwise an exception is raised.

with_day_of_month

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_day_of_month($day);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given day of the month [1, 31] altered. The day must be valid for the year and month, otherwise an exception is raised.

with_day_of_week

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_day_of_week($day);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given day of the week [1=Monday, 7=Sunday] altered.

with_hour

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_hour($hour);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given hour of day [0, 23] altered.

with_minute

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_minute($minute);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given minute of hour [0, 59] altered.

with_second

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_second($second);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given second of minute [0, 59] altered.

with_millisecond

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_millisecond($millisecond);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given millisecond of the second [0, 999] altered.

with_microsecond

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_microsecond($microsecond);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given microsecond of the second [0, 999_999] altered.

with_nanosecond

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_nanosecond($nanosecond);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given nanosecond of the second [0, 999_999_999] altered.

with_offset_same_instant

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_offset_same_instant($offset);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given time zone offset from UTC in minutes [-1080, 1080] altered. The resulting time is at the same instant.

    $tm1 = Time::Moment->from_string('2012-12-24T15:30:45+01');
    $tm2 = $tm1->with_offset_same_instant(0);
    say $tm2; # 2012-12-24T14:30:45Z

with_offset_same_local

    $tm2 = $tm1->with_offset_same_local($offset);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given time zone offset from UTC in minutes [-1080, 1080] altered. The resulting time has the same local time.

    $tm1 = Time::Moment->from_string('2012-12-24T15:30:45+01');
    $tm2 = $tm1->with_offset_same_local(0);
    say $tm2; # 2012-12-24T15:30:45Z

plus_years

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_years($years);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of years added. The day of the month of the date is unchanged unless the day does not exist in the resulting month. In that case, the day is set to the last day of the resulting month. For example, 2012-02-29 plus one year results in 2013-02-28.

plus_months

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_months($months);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of months added. The day of the month of the date is unchanged unless the day does not exist in the resulting month. In that case, the day is set to the last day of the resulting month. For example, 2013-01-31 plus one month results in 2013-02-28; 2013-02-28 plus one month results in 2013-03-28.

plus_weeks

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_weeks($weeks);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of weeks added.

plus_days

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_days($days);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of days added.

plus_hours

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_hours($hours);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of hours added.

plus_minutes

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_minutes($minutes);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of minutes added.

plus_seconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_seconds($seconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of seconds added.

plus_milliseconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_milliseconds($milliseconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of milliseconds added.

plus_microseconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_microseconds($microseconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of microseconds added.

plus_nanoseconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_nanoseconds($nanoeconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of nanoseconds added.

minus_years

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_years($years);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of years subtracted. The day of the month of the date is unchanged unless the day does not exist in the resulting month. In that case, the day is set to the last day of the resulting month. For example, 2012-02-29 minus one year results in 2011-02-28.

minus_months

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_months($months);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of months subtracted. The day of the month of the date is unchanged unless the day does not exist in the resulting month. In that case, the day is set to the last day of the resulting month. For example, 2013-03-31 minus one month results in 2013-02-28; 2013-02-28 minus one month results in 2013-01-28.

minus_weeks

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_weeks($weeks);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of weeks subtracted.

minus_days

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_days($days);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of days subtracted.

minus_hours

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_hours($hours);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of hours subtracted.

minus_minutes

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_minutes($minutes);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of minutes subtracted.

minus_seconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_seconds($seconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of seconds subtracted.

minus_milliseconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_milliseconds($milliseconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of milliseconds subtracted.

minus_microseconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_microseconds($microseconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of microseconds subtracted.

minus_nanoseconds

    $tm2 = $tm1->minus_nanoseconds($nanoseconds);

Returns a copy of this instance with the given number of nanoseconds subtracted.

at_utc

    $tm2 = $tm1->at_utc;

Returns a copy of this instance with the time zone set to UTC.

is_before

    $boolean = $tm->is_before($other);

Returns a boolean indicating whether or not the instant of this time is before the other time.

is_after

    $boolean = $tm->is_after($other);

Returns a boolean indicating whether or not the instant of this time is after the other time.

is_equal

    $boolean = $tm->is_equal($other);

Returns a boolean indicating whether or not the instant of this time is equal the other time.

compare

    $integer = $tm->compare($other);

Returns an integer indicating whether the instant of this time is before, after or equal another time. Returns a value less than zero if this time is before the other; zero if this date is equal the other time; a value greater than zero if this time is after the other time.

to_string

    $string = $tm->to_string;
    $string = $tm->to_string([reduced => false]);

Returns a string representation of the instance. If the optional boolean parameter reduced is true a shorter representation is attempted.

The string will be in one of the following representations:

    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm                (only if reduced => true)
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fff
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.ffffff
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fffffffff

Followed by a zone designator in one of the following representations:

    Z
    ±hh                             (only if reduced => true)
    ±hh:mm

The shortest representation will be used where the omitted parts are implied to be zero.

strftime

    $string = $tm->strftime($format);

Formats time according to the conversion specifications in the given $format string. The format string consists of zero or more conversion specifications and ordinary characters. All ordinary characters are copied directly into the resulting string. A conversion specification consists of a percent sign % and one other character.

The following conversion specifications are supported:

%a

Replaced by the C locale's abbreviated day of the week name. Example: Mon, Tue, ..., Sun.

%A

Replaced by the C locale's full day of the week name. Example: Monday, Tuesday, ..., Sunday.

%b

Replaced by the C locale's abbreviated month name. Example: Jan, Feb, ..., Dec.

%B

Replaced by the C locale's full month name. Example: January, February, ..., December.

%c

Replaced by the C locale's date and time representation. Equivalent to "%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Y".

%C

Replaced by the year divided by 100 and truncated to an integer, as a decimal number [00, 99].

%d

Replaced by the day of the month as a decimal number [01, 31].

%D

Equivalent to "%m/%d/%y".

%e

Replaced by the day of the month as a decimal number [1, 31]; a single digit is preceded by a space.

%f

Replaced by the fractional second including the preceding decimal point or by an empty string if no fractional seconds are present. This conversion specification permits use of an optional maximum field width [0, 9] where the default field width of 0 will use the shortest of the following representations:

    .fff        (millisecond)
    .ffffff     (microsecond)
    .fffffffff  (nanosecond)

Example:

    $tm = Time::Moment->from_string('2012-12-24T15:30:45.123456Z');
    $tm->strftime('%f');    # '.123456'
    $tm->strftime('%4f');   # '.1234'
    
    $tm = Time::Moment->from_string('2012-12-24T15:30:45Z');
    $tm->strftime('%f');    # ''
    $tm->strftime('%4f');   # ''

%4f is replaced by decimal point and exactly four fractional digits (zero-padded on the right or truncated if needed) if fractional seconds are present.

This conversion specification is an extension to the "IEEE Std 1003.1".

%F

Equivalent to "%Y-%m-%d".

%g

Replaced by the last 2 digits of the year of the week as a decimal number [00, 99].

%G

Replaced by the week-based year as a decimal number [0001, 9999].

%h

Equivalent to %b.

%H

Replaced by the hour of day (24-hour clock) as a decimal number [00, 23].

%I

Replaced by the hour of day (12-hour clock) as a decimal number [01, 12].

%j

Replaced by the day of the year as a decimal number [001, 366].

%k

Replaced by the hour of day (24-hour clock) as a decimal number [1, 23]; a single digit is preceded by a space.

This conversion specification is an extension to the "IEEE Std 1003.1".

%l

Replaced by the hour of day (12-hour clock) as a decimal number [1, 12]; a single digit is preceded by a space.

This conversion specification is an extension to the "IEEE Std 1003.1".

%m

Replaced by the month of the year as a decimal number [01, 12].

%M

Replaced by the minute of hour as a decimal number [00, 59].

%n

Replaced by a <newline> character.

%N

Replaced by the fractional second as a decimal number. This conversion specification permits use of an optional maximum field width [0, 9] where the default field width of 0 will use the shortest of the following representations:

    fff        (millisecond)
    ffffff     (microsecond)
    fffffffff  (nanosecond)

Example:

    $tm = Time::Moment->from_string('2012-12-24T15:30:45.123456Z');
    $tm->strftime('%N');    # '123456'
    $tm->strftime('%4N');   # '1234'

%4N is replaced by exactly four fractional digits (zero-padded on the right or truncated if needed).

This conversion specification is an extension to the "IEEE Std 1003.1".

%p

Replaced by the C locale's meridian notation. Example: AM, PM.

%r

Replaced by the C locale's time in a.m. and p.m. notation. Equivalent to "%I:%M:%S %p".

%R

Replaced by the time in 24-hour notation. Equivalent to "%H:%M".

%s

Replaced by the number of seconds from the epoch of 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z as a decimal number.

This conversion specification is an extension to the "IEEE Std 1003.1".

%S

Replaced by the second of hour as a decimal number [00, 60].

%t

Replaced by a <tab> character.

%T

Replaced by the time of day. Equivalent to "%H:%M:%S".

%u

Replaced by the day of the week as a decimal number [1, 7], with 1 representing Monday.

%U

Replaced by the week number of the year as a decimal number [00, 53]. The first Sunday of January is the first day of week 1; days in the new year before this are in week 0.

%V

Replaced by the week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number [01, 53]. If the week containing 1 January has four or more days in the new year, then it is considered week 1. Otherwise, it is the last week of the previous year, and the next week is week 1. Both January 4th and the first Thursday of January are always in week 1.

%w

Replaced by the day of the week as a decimal number [0, 6], with 0 representing Sunday.

%W

Replaced by the week number of the year as a decimal number [00, 53]. The first Monday of January is the first day of week 1; days in the new year before this are in week 0.

%x

Replaced by the C locale's date representation. Equivalent to "%m/%d/%y".

%X

Replaced by the C locale's time representation. Equivalent to "%H:%M:%S".

%y

Replaced by the last two digits of the year as a decimal number [00, 99].

%Y

Replaced by the year as a decimal number [0001, 9999].

%z

Replaced by the offset from UTC in the ISO 8601 basic format (±hhmm).

%Z

Replaced by the offset from UTC in the ISO 8601 extended format or by UTC designator (±hh:mm or Z).

%%

Replaced by %.

length_of_year

    $integer = $tm->length_of_year;

Returns the length of the year in days [365, 366].

length_of_quarter

    $integer = $tm->length_of_quarter;

Returns the length of the quarter of the year in days [90, 92].

length_of_month

    $integer = $tm->length_of_month;

Returns the length of the month of the year in days [28, 31].

length_of_week_year

    $integer = $tm->length_of_week_year;

Returns the length of the week of the year in weeks [52, 53].

utc_rd_values

    ($rd, $sod, $nanosecond) = $tm->utc_rd_values;

Returns a list of three elements:

$rd

The number of days from the Rata Die epoch of 0001-01-01.

$sod

The second of the day [0, 86_399].

$nanosecond

The nanosecond of the second [0, 999_999_999].

utc_rd_as_seconds

    $seconds = $tm->utc_rd_as_seconds;

Returns the number of seconds from the Rata Die epoch of 0001-01-01T00:00:00Z.

local_rd_values

    ($rd, $sod, $nanosecond) = $tm->local_rd_values;

Returns a list of three elements:

$rd

The number of days from the Rata Die epoch of 0001-01-01.

$sod

The second of the day [0, 86_399].

$nanosecond

The nanosecond of the second [0, 999_999_999].

local_rd_as_seconds

    $seconds = $tm->local_rd_as_seconds;

Returns the number of seconds from the Rata Die epoch of 0001-01-01T00:00:00.

OVERLOADED OPERATORS ^

stringification

    $string = "$tm";

The $string will be in one of the following representations:

    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fff
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.ffffff
    YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fffffffff

Followed by a zone designator in one of the following representations:

    Z
    ±hh:mm

The shortest representation will be used where the omitted parts are implied to be zero. This representation is conformant with ISO 8601 profiles, such as:

The to_string method or the strftime format string "%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%f%Z" produces an equivalent string representation:

    "$tm" eq $tm->to_string;
    "$tm" eq $tm->strftime("%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%f%Z");

The total length of the string representation will be between 20 and 35 characters (inclusive).

comparison

    $integer      = $tm1 <=> $tm2;
    
    $boolean      = $tm1 == $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 != $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 <  $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 >  $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 <= $tm2;
    $boolean      = $tm1 >= $tm2;

SERIALIZATION ^

Storable

The serialized representation of a Time::Moment is a string of 16 bytes that contains MAGIC (2 bytes), time zone offset from UTC (2 bytes), the number of days from Rata Die (4 bytes), second of the day (4 bytes) and nanosecond of the second (4 bytes).

The total size of the serialized Time::Moment instance using nfreeze is 34 bytes.

JSON

Time::Moment implements a TO_JSON method that returns the stringified representation of the instance.

CBOR

Time::Moment implements a TO_CBOR method that returns the stringified representation of the instance using tag 0 (standard date/time string).

See CBOR::XS, RFC 7049 Section 2.4.1 and eg/cbor.pl for an example how to roundtrip instances of Time::Moment.

Sereal

Sereal version 2.030 or later implements support for the generic serialization protocol FREEZE/THAW.

FREEZE/THAW

Time::Moment implements a FREEZE method that returns the stringified representation of the instance and a THAW method according to the serialization protocol specified in Types::Serialiser.

EXAMPLE FORMAT STRINGS ^

ISO 8601 - Data elements and interchange formats

Date

Calendar date - 24 December 2012

    Basic format:               Example:
    %Y%m%d                      20121224
    %y%m                        201212      (reduced accuracy)

    Extended format:            Example:
    %Y-%m-%d                    2012-12-24
    %Y-%m                       2012-12     (reduced accuracy)

Ordinal date - 24 December 2012

    Basic format:               Example:
    %Y%j                        2012359
    
    Extended format:            Example:
    %Y-%j                       2012-359

Week date - Monday, 24 December 2012

    Basic format:               Example:
    %GW%V%u                     2012W521
    %GW%V                       2012W52     (reduced accuracy)

    Extended format:            Example:
    %G-W%V-%u                   2012-W52-1
    %G-W%V                      2012-W52    (reduced accuracy)

Time of day

Local time - 30 minutes and 45 seconds past 15 hours

    Basic format:               Example:
    %H%M%S                      153045
    %H%M                        1530        (reduced accuracy)

    Extended format:            Example:
    %H:%M:%S                    15:30:45
    %H:%M                       15:30       (reduced accuracy)

Local time with decimal fractions - 30 minutes and 45 and a half second past 15 hours

    Basic format:               Example:
    %H%M%S%f                    153045.500
    %H%M%S.%1N                  153045.5

    Extended format:            Example:
    %H:%M:%S%f                  15:30:45.500
    %H:%M:%S.%1N                15:30:45.5

Local time and the difference from UTC - 30 minutes and 45 seconds past 15 hours, one hour ahead of UTC

    Basic format:               Example:
    %H%M%S%z                    153045+0100

    Extended format:            Example:
    %H:%M:%S%Z                  15:30:45+01:00

Date and time of day

Combinations of calendar date and time of day

    Basic format:               Example:
    %Y%m%dT%H%M%S%z             20121224T153045+0100
    %Y%m%dT%H%M%S%f%z           20121224T153045.500+0100
    %Y%m%dT%H%M%z               20121224T1530+0100      (reduced accuracy)

    Extended format:            Example:
    %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%Z         2012-12-24T15:30:45+01:00
    %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S%f%Z       2012-12-24T15:30:45.500+01:00
    %Y-%m-%dT%H:%M%Z            2012-12-24T15:30+01:00  (reduced accuracy)

Combinations of ordinal date and time of day

    Basic format:               Example:
    %Y%jT%H%M%S%z               2012359T153045+0100
    %Y%jT%H%M%S%f%z             2012359T153045.500+0100
    %Y%jT%H%M%z                 2012359T1530+0100       (reduced accuracy)

    Extended format:            Example:
    %Y-%jT%H:%M:%S%Z            2012-359T15:30:45+01:00
    %Y-%jT%H:%M:%S%f%Z          2012-359T15:30:45.500+01:00
    %Y-%jT%H:%M%Z               2012-359T15:30+01:00    (reduced accuracy)

Combinations of week date and time of day

    Basic format:               Example:
    %GW%V%uT%H%M%S%z            2012W521T153045+0100
    %GW%V%uT%H%M%S%f%z          2012W521T153045.500+0100
    %GW%V%uT%H%M%f%z            2012W521T1530+0100      (reduced accuracy)

    Extended format:            Example:
    %G-W%V-%uT%H:%M:%S%Z        2012-W52-1T15:30:45+01:00
    %G-W%V-%uT%H:%M:%S%f%Z      2012-W52-1T15:30:45.500+01:00
    %G-W%V-%uT%H:%M%Z           2012-W52-1T15:30+01:00  (reduced accuracy)

ISO 9075 - Information technology - Database languages - SQL

Literal values from Part 2: Foundation (SQL/Foundation)

    Date:                       Example:
    %Y-%m-%d                    2012-12-24
    
    Time:                       Example:
    %H:%M:%S                    15:30:45
    %H:%M:%S%f                  15:30:45.500
    
    Timestamp:                  Example:
    %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S           2012-12-24 15:30:45
    %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %:z       2012-12-24 15:30:45 +01:00
    %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S%f         2012-12-24 15:30:45.500
    %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S%f %:z     2012-12-24 15:30:45.500 +01:00

RFC 1123 - Requirements for Internet Hosts

RFC 822 as updated by RFC 1123.

    Format:                     Example:
    %a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %z    Mon, 24 Dec 2012 15:30:45 +0100

RFC 2616 - HTTP/1.1

RFC 2616 - 3.3.1 Full Date.

    Format:                     Example:
    %a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT   Mon, 24 Dec 2012 14:30:45 GMT

An HTTP date value represents time as an instance of UTC:

    $string = $tm->at_utc->strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT");

RFC 5322 - Internet Message Format

RFC 5322 - 3.3. Date and Time Specification.

    Format:                     Example:
    %a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %z    Mon, 24 Dec 2012 15:30:45 +0100
    %a, %d %b %Y %H:%M %z       Mon, 24 Dec 2012 15:30 +0100
    %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %z        24 Dec 2012 15:30:45 +0100
    %d %b %Y %H:%M %z           24 Dec 2012 15:30 +0100

TIME ZONES ^

An instance of Time::Moment represents an unambiguous point in time, but it's not fully time zone aware. When performing arithmetic on the local date or time value or altering the components of the local date or time it may be necessary to use a time zone to convert to the correct representation.

Time::Moment is API compatible with DateTime::TimeZone and DateTime::TimeZone::Tzfile.

Converting from UTC to designated time zone

    $tm     = Time::Moment->now;
    $zone   = DateTime::TimeZone->new(name => 'America/New_York');
    $offset = int($zone->offset_for_datetime($tm) / 60);
    
    say $tm->with_offset_same_instant($offset);

Converting from local time to designated time zone

    $tm     = Time::Moment->now;
    $zone   = DateTime::TimeZone->new(name => 'America/New_York');
    $offset = int($zone->offset_for_local_datetime($tm) / 60);
    
    say $tm->with_offset_same_local($offset);

The Effect of Daylight Saving Time

The time zone Europe/Brussels has 01:00 UTC as standard time, and 02:00 UTC as daylight savings time, with transition dates according to the European Summer Time.

    $zone = DateTime::TimeZone->new(name => 'Europe/Brussels');
    
    sub convert_from_utc {
        my ($tm, $zone) = @_;
        my $offset = int($zone->offset_for_datetime($tm) / 60);
        return $tm->with_offset_same_instant($offset);
    }
    
    sub convert_from_local {
        my ($tm, $zone) = @_;
        my $offset = int($zone->offset_for_local_datetime($tm) / 60);
        return $tm->with_offset_same_local($offset);
    }

European Summer Time begins (clocks go forward) at 01:00 UTC on the last Sunday in March, in 2014 the transition date is March 30.

    $tm1 = Time::Moment->from_string('2014-03-29T12:00:00+01:00');
    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_hours(24);
    say convert_from_utc($tm2, $zone);   # 2014-03-30T13:00:00+02:00
    say convert_from_local($tm2, $zone); # 2014-03-30T12:00:00+02:00

During the transition from standard time to daylight savings time, the local time interval between 02:00:00 and 02:59:59 does not exist. Local time values in that interval are invalid. DateTime::TimeZone raises an exception when attempting to convert non-existing local time.

    $tm1 = Time::Moment->from_string('2014-03-29T22:00:00+01:00');
    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_hours(4);
    say convert_from_utc($tm2, $zone);   # 2014-03-30T03:00:00+02:00
    say convert_from_local($tm2, $zone); # raises an exception

European Summer Time ends (clocks go backward) at 01:00 UTC on the last Sunday in October, in 2014 the transition date is October 26.

    $tm1 = Time::Moment->from_string('2014-10-25T12:00:00+02:00');
    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_hours(24);
    say convert_from_utc($tm2, $zone);   # 2014-10-26T11:00:00+01:00
    say convert_from_local($tm2, $zone); # 2014-10-26T12:00:00+01:00

During the transition from daylight savings time to standard time, the local time interval between 02:00:00 and 02:59:59 is repeated. Local time values in that interval are ambiguous because they occur twice. When DateTime::TimeZone converts an ambiguous local time it returns the numerically lowest offset (usually the standard one).

    $tm1 = Time::Moment->from_string('2014-10-25T22:00:00+02:00');
    $tm2 = $tm1->plus_hours(4);
    say convert_from_utc($tm2, $zone);   # 2014-10-26T02:00:00+02:00
    say convert_from_local($tm2, $zone); # 2014-10-26T02:00:00+01:00

DIAGNOSTICS ^

(F) Usage: %s

Method called with wrong number of arguments.

(F) Parameter '%s' is out of the range [%d, %d]
(F) Parameter '%s' is out of range
(F) Parameter 'seconds' is out of range

Seconds since the epoch of 1970-01-01T:00:00:00Z (0) is out of the range:

    [ -62135596800 (0001-01-01T00:00:00Z),
      253402300799 (9999-12-31T23:59:59Z) ]
(F) Cannot coerce object of type %s to Time::Moment
(F) Cannot parse the given string
(F) %s is not an instance of Time::Moment
(F) A %s object can only be compared to another %s object ('%s', '%s')

THREAD SAFETY ^

Time::Moment is thread safe.

SEE ALSO ^

DateTime

Time::Piece

SUPPORT ^

Bugs / Feature Requests

Please report any bugs or feature requests through the issue tracker at https://github.com/chansen/p5-time-moment/issues. You will be notified automatically of any progress on your issue.

SOURCE CODE

This is open source software. The code repository is available for public review and contribution under the terms of the license.

https://github.com/chansen/p5-time-moment

    git clone https://github.com/chansen/p5-time-moment

AUTHOR ^

Christian Hansen chansen@cpan.org

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright 2013-2014 by Christian Hansen.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

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