Christian Soeller > PDL-2.4.3 > PDL::Basic

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NAME ^

PDL::Basic -- Basic utility functions for PDL

DESCRIPTION ^

This module contains basic utility functions for creating and manipulating piddles. Most of these functions are simplified interfaces to the more flexible functions in the modules PDL::Primitive and PDL::Slices.

SYNOPSIS ^

 use PDL::Basic;

FUNCTIONS ^

xvals

Fills a piddle with X index values

 $x = xvals($somearray);
 $x = xvals([OPTIONAL TYPE],$nx,$ny,$nz...);

etc. see zeroes.

  perldl> print xvals zeroes(5,10)
  [
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
   [0 1 2 3 4]
  ]

yvals

Fills a piddle with Y index values

 $x = yvals($somearray); yvals(inplace($somearray));
 $x = yvals([OPTIONAL TYPE],$nx,$ny,$nz...);

etc. see zeroes.

 perldl> print yvals zeroes(5,10)
 [
  [0 0 0 0 0]
  [1 1 1 1 1]
  [2 2 2 2 2]
  [3 3 3 3 3]
  [4 4 4 4 4]
  [5 5 5 5 5]
  [6 6 6 6 6]
  [7 7 7 7 7]
  [8 8 8 8 8]
  [9 9 9 9 9]
 ]

zvals

Fills a piddle with Z index values

 $x = zvals($somearray); zvals(inplace($somearray));
 $x = zvals([OPTIONAL TYPE],$nx,$ny,$nz...);

etc. see zeroes.

 perldl> print zvals zeroes(3,4,2)
 [
  [
   [0 0 0]
   [0 0 0]
   [0 0 0]
   [0 0 0]
  ]
  [
   [1 1 1]
   [1 1 1]
   [1 1 1]
   [1 1 1]
  ]
 ]

xlinvals

X axis values between endpoints (see xvals).

 $a = zeroes(100,100);
 $x = $a->xlinvals(0.5,1.5);
 $y = $a->ylinvals(-2,-1);
 # calculate Z for X between 0.5 and 1.5 and
 # Y between -2 and -1.
 $z = f($x,$y);            

xlinvals, ylinvals and zlinvals return a piddle with the same shape as their first argument and linearly scaled values between the two other arguments along the given axis.

ylinvals

Y axis values between endpoints (see yvals).

See xlinvals for more information.

zlinvals

Z axis values between endpoints (see zvals).

See xlinvals for more information.

xlogvals

X axis values logarithmicly spaced between endpoints (see xvals).

 $a = zeroes(100,100);
 $x = $a->xlogvals(1e-6,1e-3);
 $y = $a->ylinvals(1e-4,1e3);
 # calculate Z for X between 1e-6 and 1e-3 and
 # Y between 1e-4 and 1e3.
 $z = f($x,$y);            

xlogvals, ylogvals and zlogvals return a piddle with the same shape as their first argument and logarithmicly scaled values between the two other arguments along the given axis.

ylogvals

Y axis values logarithmicly spaced between endpoints (see yvals).

See xlogvals for more information.

zlogvals

Z axis values logarithmicly spaced between endpoints (see zvals).

See xlogvals for more information.

ndcoords

Enumerate pixel coordinates for an N-D piddle

$indices = ndcoords($pdl) $indices = ndcoords(@dimlist)

Returns an enumerated list of coordinates suitable for use in indexND or range: you feed in a dimension list and get out a piddle whose 0th dimension runs over dimension index and whose 1st through Nth dimensions are the dimensions given in the input. If you feed in a piddle instead of a perl list, then the dimension list is used, as in xvals etc.

  perldl> print ndcoords(2,3)
  [
   [
    [0 0]
    [1 0] 
    [2 0]
   ]
   [
    [0 1]
    [1 1]
    [2 1]
   ]
  ]

hist

Create histogram of a piddle

 $hist = hist($data,[$min,$max,$step]);
 ($xvals,$hist) = hist($data,[$min,$max,$step]);

If requested, $xvals gives the computed bin centres

A nice idiom (with PDL::Graphics::PGPLOT) is

 bin hist $data;  # Plot histogram
 perldl> p $y
 [13 10 13 10 9 13 9 12 11 10 10 13 7 6 8 10 11 7 12 9 11 11 12 6 12 7]
 perldl> $h = hist $y,0,20,1; # hist with step 1, min 0 and 20 bins
 perldl> p $h
 [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 1 3 5 4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0]

whist

Create a weighted histogram of a piddle

 $hist = whist($data, $wt, [$min,$max,$step]);
 ($xvals,$hist) = whist($data, $wt, [$min,$max,$step]);

If requested, $xvals gives the computed bin centres. $data and $wt should have the same dimensionality and extents.

A nice idiom (with PDL::Graphics::PGPLOT) is

 bin whist $data, $wt;  # Plot histogram
 perldl> p $y
 [13 10 13 10 9 13 9 12 11 10 10 13 7 6 8 10 11 7 12 9 11 11 12 6 12 7]
 perldl> $wt = grandom($y->nelem)
 perldl> $h = whist $y, $wt, 0, 20, 1 # hist with step 1, min 0 and 20 bins
 perldl> p $h                        
 [0 0 0 0 0 0 -0.49552342  1.7987439 0.39450696  4.0073722 -2.6255299 -2.5084501  2.6458365  4.1671676 0 0 0 0 0 0]

sequence

Create array filled with a sequence of values

 $a = sequence($b); $a = sequence [OPTIONAL TYPE], @dims;

etc. see zeroes.

 perldl> p sequence(10)
 [0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]
 perldl> p sequence(3,4)
 [
  [ 0  1  2]
  [ 3  4  5]
  [ 6  7  8]
  [ 9 10 11]
 ]

rvals

Fills a piddle with radial distance values from some centre.

 $r = rvals $piddle,{OPTIONS};
 $r = rvals [OPTIONAL TYPE],$nx,$ny,...{OPTIONS};
 Options:

 Centre => [$x,$y,$z...] # Specify centre
 Center => [$x,$y.$z...] # synonym.

 Squared => 1 # return distance squared (i.e., don't take the square root)
 perldl> print rvals long,7,7,{Centre=>[2,2]}
 [
  [2 2 2 2 2 3 4]
  [2 1 1 1 2 3 4]
  [2 1 0 1 2 3 4]
  [2 1 1 1 2 3 4]
  [2 2 2 2 2 3 4]
  [3 3 3 3 3 4 5]
  [4 4 4 4 4 5 5]
 ]

For a more general metric, one can define, e.g.,

 sub distance {
   my ($a,$centre,$f) = @_;
   my ($r) = $a->allaxisvals-$centre;
   $f->($r);
 }
 sub l1 { sumover(abs($_[0])); }
 sub euclid { use PDL::Math 'pow'; pow(sumover(pow($_[0],2)),0.5); }
 sub linfty { maximum(abs($_[0])); }

so now

 distance($a, $centre, \&euclid);

will emulate rvals, while \&l1 and \&linfty will generate other well-known norms.

axisvals

Fills a piddle with index values on Nth dimension

 $z = axisvals ($piddle, $nth);

This is the routine, for which xvals, yvals etc are mere shorthands. axisvals can be used to fill along any dimension.

Note the 'from specification' style (see zeroes) is not available here, for obvious reasons.

allaxisvals

Generates a piddle with index values

 $z = allaxisvals ($piddle);

allaxisvals produces an array with axis values along each dimension, adding an extra dimension at the start.

allaxisvals($piddle)->slice("($nth)") will produce the same result as axisvals($piddle,$nth) (although with extra work and not inplace).

It's useful when all the values will be required, as in the example given of a generalized rvals.

transpose

transpose rows and columns.

 $b = transpose($a); $b = ~$a;

Also bound to the ~ unary operator in PDL::Matrix.

 perldl> $a = sequence(3,2)
 perldl> p $a
 [
  [0 1 2]
  [3 4 5]
 ]                                                                               
 perldl> p transpose( $a )
 [
  [0 3]
  [1 4]
  [2 5]                                                                          
 ]
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