David Huggins-Daines > Speech-Recognizer-SPX-0.09 > Speech::Recognizer::SPX

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NAME ^

Speech::Recognizer::SPX - Perl extension for the PocketSphinx speech recognizer

SYNOPSIS ^

  use Speech::Recognizer::SPX qw(:fbs :uttproc)
  fbs_init([arg1 => $val, arg2 => $val, ...]);
  uttproc_begin_utt();
  uttproc_end_utt();
  fbs_end();

DESCRIPTION ^

This module provides a Perl interface to the PocketSphinx speech recognizer library.

USING THIS MODULE ^

  use Speech::Recognizer::SPX qw(:fbs :uttproc :lm);

Because most parts of the PocketSphinx library contain a lot of global internal state, it makes no sense to use an object-oriented interface at this time. However I don't want to clobber your namespace with a billion functions you may or may not use. To make things easier on your typing hands, the available functions have been grouped in to tags representing modules inside the library itself. These tags and the functions they import are listed below.

:fbs

This is somewhat of a misnomer - FBS stands for Fast Beam Search, but in actual fact this module (the fbs_main.c file in PocketSphinx) just wraps around the other modules in sphinx (one of which actually does fast beam search :-) and initializes the recognizer for you. Functions imported by this tag are:

  fbs_init
  fbs_end
:uttproc

This is the utterance processing module. You feed it data (either raw audio data or feature data - which currently means vectors of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients), and it feeds back search hypotheses based on a language model. Functions imported by this tag are:

  uttfile_open
  uttproc_begin_utt
  uttproc_rawdata
  uttproc_cepdata
  uttproc_end_utt
  uttproc_abort_utt
  uttproc_stop_utt
  uttproc_restart_utt
  uttproc_result
  uttproc_result_seg
  uttproc_partial_result
  uttproc_partial_result_seg
  uttproc_get_uttid
  uttproc_set_auto_uttid_prefix
  uttproc_set_lm
  uttproc_lmupdate
  uttproc_set_context
  uttproc_set_rawlogdir
  uttproc_set_mfclogdir
  uttproc_set_logfile
  search_get_alt
:lm

This is the language model module. It loads and unloads language models.

  lm_read
  lm_delete

STARTUP ^

  fbs_init(\@args);

The fbs_init function is the main entry point to the Sphinx library. If given no arguments, it will snarf options from the global @ARGV array (because that's what its C equivalent does). To make life easier, and to entice people to write Sphinx programs in Perl instead of C, we also give you a way around this by allowing you to also pass a reference to an array whose contents are arranged in the same way @ARGV might be, i.e. a list of option/value pairs.

To make things pretty, you can use the magical => operator, like this:

  fbs_init([samp => 16000,
            datadir => '/foo/bar/baz']);

Note that you can omit the leading dash from argument names (if you like).

Calling this function will block your process for a long time and print unbelievable amounts of debugging gunk to STDOUT and STDERR. This will get better eventually.

This function has a large number of options. Someday they will be documented. Until then, either look in the example code, or go straight to the source, namely the file include/cmdln_macro.h.

FEED ME ^

  uttproc_begin_utt() or die;
  uttproc_rawdata($buf [, $block]) or die;
  uttproc_cepdata(\@cepvecs [, $block]) or die;
  uttproc_end_utt() or die;

To actually recognize some speech data, you use the functions exported by the :uttproc tag. Before calling any of them, you must successfully call uttproc_begin_utt, or Bad Things are certain to happen (I can't speculate on exactly what things, but I'm sure they're bad).

You should call uttproc_begin_utt before each distinct utterance (to the extent that you can predict when individual utterances begin or end, of course...), and uttproc_end_utt at the end of each.

After calling uttproc_begin_utt, you can pass either raw audio data or cepstral feature vectors (see Audio::MFCC), using uttproc_rawdata or uttproc_cepdata, respectively. Due to the way feature extraction works, you cannot mix the two types of data within the same utterance.

If live mode is in effect (i.e. -livemode = TRUE> was passed to fbs_init), the optional $block parameter controls whether these functions will return immediately after processing a single frame of data, or whether they will process all pending frames of data. If you need partial results, you probably want to pass a non-zero value (FIXME: should be a true value but I don't know how to test for truth in XS code) for $block, though this may increase latency elsewhere in the system.

Unfortunately, it appears that there is no specific function to flush all unprocessed frames before getting a partial result. Calling uttproc_rawdata with an empty $buf and $block non-zero seems to have the desired effect.

GETTING RESULTS ^

  my ($frames, $hypothesis) = uttproc_result($block);
  my ($frames, $hypothesis) = uttproc_partial_result();
  my ($frames, $hypseg) = uttproc_result_seg($block);
  my ($frames, $hypseg) = uttproc_partial_result_seg();
  my $hypothesis = $hypseg->sent;
  my $segs = $hypseg->segs;
  my @nbest = search_get_alt($n); # Must call uttproc_result first!
  foreach my $nhyp (@nbest) {
    my $nsent = $nhyp->sent;
    my $nsegs = $nhyp->segs;
    print "Hypothesis: $nsent\n";
    foreach my $seg (@$nsegs) {
      printf "  Start frame %d end frame %d word %s\n",
             $seg->sf, $seg->ef, $seg->word;
    }
  }

At any point during utterance processing, you may call uttproc_partial_result to obtain the current "best guess". Note that this function does not flush unprocessed frames, so you might want to use the trick mentioned above to do so before calling it if you are operating in non-blocking mode.

By contrast, you may not call uttproc_result until after you have called uttproc_end_utt (or uttproc_abort_utt or also possibly uttproc_stop_utt). The $block flag is also optional here, but I strongly suggest you use it.

The functions uttproc_result_seg and uttproc_partial_result_seg functions work similarly except that instead of returning a string, they return a Speech::Recognizer::SPX::Hypothesis object which contains probability and word segmentation information. You can access its fields with the following accessor functions:

  sent
  senscale
  ascr
  lscr
  segs

The sent field contains the string representation of the hypothesis, and is equivalent to the string returned by uttproc_result. The senscale, ascr, and lscr fields are currently unimplemented.

The segs field contains a reference to an array of Speech::Recognizer::SPX::Segment objects. Each of these objects contains fields which can be accessed with the following accessors:

  word
  sf
  ef
  ascr
  lscr
  conf
  latden
  phone_perp
  fsg_state_to
  fsg_state_from

The word field contains the string representation of the word. The sf and ef fields contain the start and end frames for this word. The ascr and lscr fields contain the acoustic and language model scores for the word. The fsg_state_from and fsg_state_to fields indicate the finite-state grammar states in which this entry starts and terminates, if a finite-state grammar is used. The latden field contains the average lattice density for this word, while the phone_perp contains the average phoneme perplexity. The conf field contains a confidence score which is an estimated probability that this word was recognized correctly.

You can also obtain an N-best list of hypotheses using the search_get_alt function. This function returns a list of the number of hypotheses requested, or as many as can be found. Each element in this list is a Speech::Recognizer::SPX::Hypothesis object like the above, except that the acoustic/language model score is not filled in.

FIDDLY BITS ^

Changing language models, etc, etc... This documentation is under construction.

EXAMPLES ^

For now there are just some example programs in the distribution.

AUTHOR ^

David Huggins-Daines <dhuggins@cs.cmu.edu>. Support for N-best hypotheses was funded by SingleTouch Interactive, Inc (http://www.singletouch.net/).

SEE ALSO ^

perl(1), Speech::Recognizer::SPX::Server, Audio::SPX, Audio::MFCC

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