Daisuke Maki > Data-Localize-0.00022 > Data::Localize

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Module Version: 0.00022   Source   Latest Release: Data-Localize-0.00026

NAME ^

Data::Localize - Alternate Data Localization API

SYNOPSIS ^

    use Data::Localize;

    my $loc = Data::Localize->new();
    $loc->add_localizer(
        class      => "Namespace", # Locale::Maketext-style .pm files
        namespaces => [ "MyApp::I18N" ]
    );

    $loc->add_localizer( 
        class => "Gettext",
        path  => "/path/to/localization/data/*.po"
    );

    $loc->set_languages();
    # or explicitly set one
    # $loc->set_languages('en', 'ja' );

    # looks under $self->languages, and checks if there are any
    # localizers that can handle the job
    $loc->localize( 'Hellow, [_1]!', 'John Doe' );

    # You can enable "auto", which will be your last resort fallback.
    # The key you give to the localize method will be used as the lexicon
    $self->auto(1);

DESCRIPTION ^

Data::Localize is an object oriented approach to localization, aimed to be an alternate choice for Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::Lexicon, and Locale::Maketext::Simple.

RATIONALE ^

Functionality-wise, Locale::Maketext does what it advertises to do. Here's a few reasons why you might or might not choose Data::Localize over Locale::Maketext-based localizers:

Object-Oriented

Data::Localize is completely object-oriented. YMMV.

Faster

On some my benchmarks, Data::Localize is faster than Locale::Maketext by 50~80%. (But see PERFORMANCE)

Scalable For Large Amount Of Lexicons

Whereas Locale::Maketext generally stores the lexicons in memory, Data::Localize allows you to store this data in alternate storage. By default Data::Localize comes with a BerkeleyDB backend.

BASIC WORKING ^

STRUCTURE

Data::Localize is a wrapper around various Data::Localize::Localizer implementers (localizers). So if you don't specify any localizers, Data::Localize will do... nothing (unless you specify auto).

Localizers are the objects that do the actual localization. Localizers must register themselves to the Data::Localize parent, noting which languages it can handle (which usually is determined by the presence of data files like en.po, ja.po, etc). A special language ID of '*' is used to accept fallback cases. Localizers registered to handle '*' will be tried after all other language possibilities have been exhausted.

If the particular localizer cannot deal with the requested string, then it simply returns nothing.

AUTO-GENERATING LEXICONS

Locale::Maketext allows you to supply an "_AUTO" key in the lexicon hash, which allows you to pass a non-existing key to the localize() method, and use it as the actual lexicon, if no other applicable lexicons exists.

Locale::Maketext attaches this to the lexicon hash itself, but Data::Localizer differs in that it attaches to the Data::Localizer object itself, so you don't have to place _AUTO everywhere.

    # here, we're deliberately not setting any localizers
    my $loc = Data::Localize->new(auto => 1);

    # previous auto => 1 will force Data::Localize to fallback to
    # using the key ('Hello, [_1]') as the localization token.
    print $loc->localize('Hello, [_1]', 'John Doe'), "\n";

UTF8 ^

All data is expected to be in decoded utf8. You must "use utf8" or decode them to Perl's internal representation for all values passed to Data::Localizer. We won't try to be smart for you. USE UTF8!

Using Explicit decode()
    use Encode q(decode decode_utf8);
    use Data::Localizer;

    my $loc = Data::Localize->new(...);

    $loc->localize( $key, decode( 'iso-2022-jp', $value ) );

    # if $value is encoded utf8...
    # $loc->localize( $key, decode_utf8( $value ) );
Using utf8

"use utf8" is simpler, but do note that it will affect ALL your literal strings in the current scope

    use utf8;

    $loc->localize( $key, "some-utf8-key-here" );

USING ALTERNATE STORAGE ^

By default all lexicons are stored on memory, but if you're building an app with thousands and thousands of long messages, this might not be the ideal solution. In such cases, you can change where the lexicons get stored

    my $loc = Data::Localize->new();
    $loc->add_localizer(
        class         => 'Gettext',
        path          => '/path/to/data/*.po'
        storage_class => 'BerkeleyDB',
        storage_args  => {
            dir => '/path/to/really/fast/device'
        }
    );

This would cause Data::Localize to put all the lexicon data in several BerkeleyDB files under /path/to/really/fast/device

Note that this approach would buy you no gain if you use Data::Localize::Namespace, as that approach by default expects everything to be in memory.

DEBUGGING ^

DEBUG

To enable debug tracing, either set DATA_LOCALIZE_DEBUG environment variable,

    DATA_LOCALIZE_DEBUG=1 ./yourscript.pl

or explicitly define a function before loading Data::Localize:

    BEGIN {
        *Data::Localize::DEBUG = sub () { 1 };
    }
    use Data::Localize;

METHODS ^

add_localizer

Adds a new localizer. You may either pass a localizer object, or arguments to your localizer's constructor:

    $loc->add_localizer( YourLocalizer->new );

    $loc->add_localizer(
        class => "Namespace",
        namespaces => [ 'Blah' ]
    );

localize

Localize the given string ID, using provided variables.

    $localized_string = $loc->localize( $id, @args );

detect_languages

Detects the current set of languages to use. If used in an CGI environment, will attempt to detect the language of choice from headers. See I18N::LanguageTags::Detect for details.

detect_languages_from_header

Detects the language from the given header value, or from HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGES environment variable

localizers

Return a arrayref of localizers

add_localizer_map

Used internally.

set_localizer_map

Used internally.

find_localizers

Finds a localizer by its attribute. Currently only supports isa

    my @locs = $loc->find_localizers(isa => 'Data::Localize::Gettext');

set_languages

If used without any arguments, calls detect_languages() and sets the current language set to the result of detect_languages().

languages

Gets the current list of languages

add_fallback_languages

fallback_languages

count_localizers()

Return the number of localizers available

get_localizer_from_lang($lang)

Get appropriate localizer for language $lang

grep_localizers(\&sub)

Filter localizers

PERFORMANCE ^

tl;dr: Use one that fits your needs

Using explicit get_handle for every request

This benchmark assumes that you're fetching the lexicon anew for every request.

Benchmark run with Mac OS X (10.5.8) perl 5.8.9 (MacPorts)

  Running benchmarks with
    Locale::Maketext: 1.19
    Data::Localize:   0.00021
                       Rate D::L(Namespace)   L::M D::L(Gettext+BDB) D::L(Gettext)
  D::L(Namespace)    6818/s              --   -41%              -75%          -75%
  L::M              11494/s             69%     --              -57%          -57%
  D::L(Gettext+BDB) 27027/s            296%   135%                --            0%
  D::L(Gettext)     27027/s            296%   135%                0%            --

Using cached lexicon objects for all

This benchmark assumes that you're fetching the lexicon once for a particular language, and you keep it in memory for reuse

  Running benchmarks with
    Locale::Maketext: 1.19
    Data::Localize:   0.00021
                       Rate D::L(Namespace) D::L(Gettext+BDB) D::L(Gettext)   L::M
  D::L(Namespace)    3636/s              --              -68%          -74%   -95%
  D::L(Gettext+BDB) 11538/s            217%                --          -16%   -84%
  D::L(Gettext)     13761/s            278%               19%            --   -81%
  L::M              71429/s           1864%              519%          419%     --

TODO ^

Gettext style localization files -- Make it possible to decode them

CONTRIBUTORS ^

Dave Rolsky

AUTHOR ^

Daisuke Maki <daisuke@endeworks.jp>

COPYRIGHT ^

The "MIT" License

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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