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Gwybodaeth - a set of classes and scripts to RDF-ize data


    #This will load all the distributed Gwybodaeth modules:
    use Gwybodaeth;

    # Script inteface:
    gwybodaeth --src=data --map=map.N3 --in=input_data_type


The gwybodaeth collection of classes and scripts are aimed to help in the RDFizing of data. The modules provide an object orientated API and are designed to be easily extended and customized.

Gwybodaeth's main features are:


The most important classes are in the Gwybodaeth::Parsers and Gwybodaeth::Write namespaces. These are the classes which parse the input format and write out the data in RDF according to the mapping.


A class which provides escaping functionality for RDF/XML output.


A class which extracts and managed namespace information.


Classes for parsing input data into data structures for use by the rest of gwybodaeth based programs.


A class for slurping data from either local files or over http.


A class for tokenizing data on white space.


A class which takes care of gwybodaeth's triples data structure.


A class meant for subclassing to create bespoke map appliers for custom inputs. It contains most of the map application logic.


Classes subclassed from Gwybodaeth::Write or eachother which offer map application and writing to different input types.



Applying a local map to a publically available CSV source:

gwybodaeth --src= --map=my_data_map.N3 --in=csv

Applying a local map to XML data from GeoNames:

gwybodaeth --source= --map=my_geo_map.N3 --in=geonames


Maps are written in a dialect of N3 ( The maps generally correspond to the maps in use by RDF123 (


This is an example of a simple mapping for a CSV file:

    @prefix rdf:     <> .
    @prefix rdfs:    <> .
    @prefix :        <#> .

    [] a rdf:Description ;
       rdfs:seeAlso "Ex:$1" . 

For every row of the CSV file it will create a triple:

    rdf:Description => rdfs:seeAlso => Ex:$1

where Ex:$1 will be replaced by the content of the first column of the row.


This is an example of a simple mapping for a XML file:

    @prefix rdf:     <> .
    @prefix rdfs:    <> .
    @prefix :        <#> .

    [] a rdf:Description ;
       rdfs:seeAlso "Ex:$entity" .

For every block of data in the XML file it will create a triple:

    rdf:description => rdfs:seeAlso => Ex:$entity

where Ex:$entity will be replaced by the content of the tag with the entity $entity.


Gwybodaeth supports the following syntax in the mapping files:

"Ex:$var" The value of the data described by var is placed here as the object.

<Ex:$var> This is a function. On its own line it defines the following block as the contents of the function with rdf:ID or rdf:about. As an object it references the defined function with rdf:resource.

[ a ... ] . Define an inline function.

+ Allows for concatinanion within the field.

@Split(field,"delimiter") Splits up field on the delimiter so that one field can be RDFized into many predicate->object pairs.

@If(condition,true,false) Evaluates condition and returns true if the condition is true, otherwise it returns false.


In its mapping files Gwybodaeth uses a concept of precedence to ease cross referencing within an RDF document.

If you have data such as:

    Socrates,Socratic Method,Plato

We would like to create an RDF of this data, where by the philosophers are the main blocks of data. We'd also like to link any person listed in the Disciple column to any block of information created by their presence in the Philosopher column. If they only exist in the Disciple column (such as Aristotle in the above example) then a short information stub should be created for them.

To do this a map needs to be created which firstly goes through each row of the data setting up a Person data block with a reference to a person in for the disciple element. After this is done the data should be parsed with another mapping funcion of lesser precedense than they first which gives a stub RDF block for any person referenced who was not listed as a Philosopher.

The following example map uses a fictional phil ontology for philosophers.

    @prefix phil:   <> .
    @prefix :       <#> .

        a   phil:Person ;
        phil:name       "Ex:$1" ;
        phil:school     "Ex:$2" ;
        phil:disciple   <Ex:$3> .

        a phil:Person ;
        phil:name       "Ex:$3" .

After the ontologies are defined in the @prefix lines the first block describes each row of the data, and notes that there is a block of data with the name given by Ex:$1 i.e. 'Socrates' for the first row. Following this it will run through the data applying the second mapping block to the data. It however will only create a new block with the name given by Ex:$3 if the same name hasn't appeared already to describe a block in the RDF.

The above data and map produce the following RDF/XML:

    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <rdf:RDF xmlns:phil="">
    <phil:Person rdf:about="#Socrates">
        <phil:school>Socratic Method</phil:school>
        <phil:disciple rdf:resource="#Plato"/>
    <phil:Person rdf:about="#Plato">
        <phil:disciple rdf:resource="#Aristotle"/>
    <phil:Person rdf:about="#Aristotle">

Here we see two full data blocks describing Socrates and Plato as expected and just a stub block describing Aristotle.


Iestyn Pryce, <>


I'd like to thank the Ensemble project ( for funding me to work on this project in the summer of 2009.


Copyright (C) 2009 Iestyn Pryce <>

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the BSD license.

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