Elizabeth Mattijsen > Data-Reuse-0.10 > Data::Reuse

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Module Version: 0.10   Source  

NAME ^

Data::Reuse - share constant values with Data::Alias

VERSION ^

This documentation describes version 0.10.

SYNOPSIS ^

 use Data::Reuse qw(fixate);
 fixate my @array => ( 0, 1, 2, 3 );  # initialize and fixate
 my @filled_array=  ( 0, 1, 2, 3 );
 fixate @filled_array;                # fixate existing values
 print \$array[0] == \$filled_array[0]
   ? "Share memory\n" : "Don't share memory\n";

 fixate my %hash => ( zero => 0, one => 1, two => 2, three => 3 ); 
 my %filled_hash=  ( zero => 0, one => 1, two => 2, three => 3 );
 fixate %filled_hash;
 print \$hash{zero} == \$filled_hash{zero}
   ? "Share memory\n" : "Don't share memory\n";

 use Data::Reuse qw(reuse);
 reuse my $listref= [ 0, 1, 2, 3 ];
 reuse my $hashref= { zero => 0, one => 1, two => 2, three => 3 };
 print \$listref->[0] == \$hashref->{zero}
   ? "Share memory\n" : "Don't share memory\n";

 use Data::Alias qw(alias);
 use Data::Reuse qw(reuse);
 alias my @foo= reuse ( 0, 1, 2, 3 );
 print \$foo[0] == \$hashref->{zero}
   ? "Share memory\n" : "Don't share memory\n";

 use Data::Reuse qw(spread);
 spread my %spread_hash => undef, qw(foo bar baz);
 print \$spread_hash{foo} == \$spread_hash{bar}
   ? "Share memory\n" : "Don't share memory\n";
 spread my @spread_array => 1, 0 .. 3;
 print \$spread_array[0] == \$spread_array[1]
   ? "Share memory\n" : "Don't share memory\n";

 use Data::Reuse qw(forget);
 forget();  # free memory used for tracking constant values

DESCRIPTION ^

By default, Perl doesn't share literal ( 0, 'foo' , "bar" ) values. That's because once a literal value is stored in variable (a container), the contents of that container can be changed. Even if such a container is marked "read-only" (e.g. with a module such as Scalar::ReadOnly), it will not cause the values to be shared. So each occurrence of the same literal value has its own memory location, even if it is internally marked as read-only.

In an ideal world, perl would keep a single copy of each literal value (container) and have all occurrences in memory point to the same container. Once an attempt is made to change the container would perl make a copy of the container and put the new value in there. This principle is usually referred to as Copy-On-Write (COW). Unfortunately, perl doesn't have this.

Comes in the Data::Alias module which allows you to share containers between different variables (amongst other things). But it still does not allow you to have literal values share the same memory locations.

Comes in this module, the Data::Reuse module, which allows you to easily have literal and read-only values share the same memory address. Which can save you a lot of memory when you are working with large data structures with similar values. Which is especially nice in a mod_perl environment, where memory usage of persistent processes is one of the major issues..

Of course, no memory savings will occur for literal values that only occur once. So it is important that you use the functionality of this module wisely, only on values that you expect to be duplicated at least two times.

SUBROUTINES ^

fixate

 fixate my @array => ( 0, 1, 2, 3 );

 my @filled_array= ( 0, 1, 2, 3 );
 fixate @filled_array;

 fixate my %hash => ( zero => 0, one => 1, two => 2, three => 3 );

 my %filled_hash= ( zero => 0, one => 1, two => 2, three => 3 );
 fixate %filled_hash;

The fixate function allows you to initialize an array or hash with the given values, or to reuse all values in either an existing hash or an existing array, and making that hash or list read-only. It is a frontend to reuse and is mainly made for convenience only.

reuse

 my $listref= reuse [ 1, 2, 3 ];
 my $hashref= reuse { one => 1, two => 2, three => 3 };

 my @list= ( 1, 2, 3 );
 my %hash= ( one => 1, two > 2, three => 3 );
 reuse \@list, \%hash;

The reuse function is the workhorse of this module. It will investigate the given data structures and reuse any literal values as much as possible and mark the structure as read only and return aliases to the given data structures.

spread

 spread @array => 1, ( 0, 1, 2, 3 );

 spread %hash => undef, qw(foo bar baz);

The spread function allows you to quickly spread a single value to a number of elements in a list (specified by indexes), or to spread a single value to the values of a hash, specified by a number of keys. It is a frontend to reuse and is mainly made because you cannot use undef in alias semantics as a value in a hash. In other words:

 alias @hash{ qw(foo bar baz) }= ();

doesn't work, instead use:

 spread %hash => undef, qw(foo bar baz);

EXAMPLE ^

inventory information in a hotel

Inventory information often consists of many similar values. In this particular example of a hotel and whether its rooms have inventory for the given period, the dates are always in the same range, the rate ID's are always the same values from a set, the prices for a particular room / rate combination will most likely be very similar, and the number of rooms available as well.

Once read from the database, they are most likely to remain constant for the remainder of the lifetime of the process. It therefore makes sense to fold the constants into the same memory locations.

 use Data::Reuse qw(reuse);

 my $sth= $dbh->prepare( <<"SQL" );
 SELECT room_id, date, rate_id, price, rooms
   FROM inventory
  WHERE date BETWEEN '$first_date' AND '$last_date'
    AND hotel_id= $hotel_id
  ORDER BY date
 SQL
 my $sth->execute;

 my ( $room_id, $date, $rate_id, $price, $rooms );
 $sth->bind_columns( \( $room_id, $date, $rate_id, $price, $rooms ) );

 my %result;
 push @{ $result{$room_id} }, reuse [ $date, $rate_id, $price, $rooms ]
   while $sth->fetch;

Suppose a hotel has, in a period of 365 days, 10 different room types (ID's) with an average of 2 different rate types, having a total of 10 different prices and 10 different number of available rooms.

Without using this module, this would take up 365 x 10 x 2 x 2 = 14400 scalar values x 24 bytes = 350400 bytes. With using this module, this would use 365 + 10 + 2 + 10 + 10 = 387 scalar values x 24 bytes = 9288 bytes. Quite a significant difference! Now multiply this by thousands of hotels, and you see that the space savings can become very significant.

THEORY OF OPERATION ^

Each scalar value reused is internally matched against a hash with all reused values. This also goes for references, which are reused recursively. For scalar values, the value itself is used as a key. For references, an md5 hash is used as the key.

All values are then aliased to the values in the hash (using Data::Alias's alias feature) and returns as aliases when needed.

The fixate and spread functions are basically frontends for the reuse subroutine.

The forget function simply resets the internal hash used for storing constant values, freeing all memory associated with it that isn't referenced anywhere else (a.k.a. usually the memory used by the keys).

CAVEATS ^

reuse lists and hashes

Unfortunately, it is not possible to directly share lists and hashes. This is because perl will make copies again after the reusing action:

 reuse my @list= ( 1, 2, 3 );

is functionally equivalent with:

 reuse ( 1, 2, 3 );
 my @list= ( 1, 2, 3 );

so, this will cause the values 1, 2 and 3 to be in the internal reused values hash, but the assignment of @list will use new copies, thus annihilating any memory savings.

Alternately:

 my @list= reuse( 1, 2, 3);

will not produce any space savings because the values are copied again by perl after having been reused. If you still want to use this type of idiom, you can with the help of the "alias" function of the Data::Alias module, which you can also import from the Data::Reuse module for your convenience:

 use Data::Reuse qw(alias reuse);
 alias my @list= reuse( 1, 2, 3);

will then generate the desired result.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ^

None so far.

TODO ^

merging key and value

Currently, each reused value is kept at least twice in memory: once as a key, and once as a value. Deep down in the inside of perl, it is possible to create a hash entry of which the key is in fact an external SV. In an ideal world, this feature should be used so that each reused value really, really only occurs once in memory. Suggestions / Patches to achieve this feature are very welcome!

If this proves to be impossible to do, then probably we need to use md5 strings for all values to reduce memory requirements (at the expense of more CPU usage).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^

The Amsterdam Perl Mongers for feedback on various aspects of this module. And of course Matthijs van Duin for making it all possible with the very nice Data::Alias module.

REQUIRED MODULES ^

 Data::Alias (1.16)

AUTHOR ^

Elizabeth Mattijsen <liz@dijkmat.nl>

Copyright (C) 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012 Elizabeth Mattijsen. All rights reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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