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Module Version: 1.009   Source   Latest Release: Class-MakeMethods-1.01


Class::MakeMethods - Generate common types of methods


  # Generates methods for your object when you "use" it.
  package MyObject;
  use Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Hash (
    'new'       => 'new',
    'scalar'    => 'foo',
    'scalar'    => 'bar',
  # The generated methods can be called just like normal ones
  my $obj = MyObject->new( foo => "Foozle", bar => "Bozzle" );
  print $obj->foo();


The Class::MakeMethods framework allows Perl class developers to quickly define common types of methods. When a module uses Class::MakeMethods or one of its subclasses, it can select from a variety of supported method types, and specify a name for each method desired. The methods are dynamically generated and installed in the calling package.

Construction of the individual methods is handled by subclasses. This delegation approach allows for a wide variety of method-generation techniques to be supported, each by a different subclass. Subclasses can also be added to provide support for new types of methods.

Over a dozen subclasses are available, including implementations of a variety of different method-generation techniques. Each subclass generates several types of methods, with some supporting their own open-eneded extension syntax, for hundreds of possible combinations of method types.



  "Make easy things easier."

This module addresses a problem encountered in object-oriented development wherein numerous methods are defined which differ only slightly from each other.

A common example is accessor methods for hash-based object attributes, which allow you to get and set the value $self->{'foo'} by calling a method $self->foo().

These methods are generally quite simple, requiring only a couple of lines of Perl, but in sufficient bulk, they can cut down on the maintainability of large classes.

Class::MakeMethods allows you to simply declare those methods to be of a predefined type, and it generates and installs the necessary methods in your package at compile-time.

A Contrived Example

Object-oriented Perl code is widespread -- you've probably seen code like the below a million times:

  my $obj = MyStruct->new( foo=>"Foozle", bar=>"Bozzle" );
  if ( $obj->foo() =~ /foo/i ) {
  print $obj->summary();

(If this doesn't look familiar, take a moment to read perlboot and you'll soon learn more than's good for you.)

Typically, this involves creating numerous subroutines that follow a handful of common patterns, like constructor methods and accessor methods. The classic example is accessor methods for hash-based object attributes, which allow you to get and set the value self->{foo} by calling a method self->foo(). These methods are generally quite simple, requiring only a couple of lines of Perl, but in sufficient bulk, they can cut down on the maintainability of large classes.

Here's a possible implementation for the class whose interface is shown above:

  package MyStruct;
  sub new {
    my $callee = shift;
    my $self = bless { @_ }, (ref $callee || $callee);
    return $self;

  sub foo {
    my $self = shift;
    if ( scalar @_ ) {
      $self->{'foo'} = shift();
    } else {

  sub bar {
    my $self = shift;
    if ( scalar @_ ) {
      $self->{'bar'} = shift();
    } else {

  sub summary {
    my $self = shift;
    join(', ', map { "\u$_: " . $self->$_() } qw( foo bar ) )

Note in particular that the foo and bar methods are almost identical, and that the new method could be used for almost any class; this is precisely the type of redundancy Class::MakeMethods addresses.

Class::MakeMethods allows you to simply declare those methods to be of a predefined type, and it generates and installs the necessary methods in your package at compile-time.

Here's the equivalent declaration for that same basic class:

  package MyStruct;
  use Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Hash (
    'new'       => 'new',
    'scalar'    => 'foo',
    'scalar'    => 'bar',
  sub summary {
    my $self = shift;
    join(', ', map { "\u$_: " . $self->$_() } qw( foo bar ) )

This is the basic purpose of Class::MakeMethods: The "boring" pieces of code have been replaced by succinct declarations, placing the focus on the "unique" or "custom" pieces.

Finding the Method Types You Need

Once you've grasped the basic idea -- simplifying repetitive code by generating and installing methods on demand -- the remaining complexity basically boils down to figuring out which arguments to pass to generate the specific methods you want.

Unfortunately, this is not a trivial task, as there are dozens of different types of methods that can be generated, each with a variety of options, and several alternative ways to write each method declaration. You may prefer to start by just finding a few examples that you can modify to accomplish your immediate needs, and defer investigating all of the extras until you're ready to take a closer look.

Other Documentation

The remainder of this document focuses on points of usage that are common across all subclasses, and describes how to create your own subclasses.

If this is your first exposure to Class::MakeMethods, you may want to skim over the rest of this document, then take a look at the examples and one or two of the method-generating subclasses to get a more concrete sense of typical usage, before returning to the details presented below.


Because there are so many common types of methods one might wish to generate, the Class::MakeMethods framework provides an extensible system based on subclasses.

When your code requests a method, the MakeMethods base class performs some standard argument parsing, delegates the construction of the actual method to the appropriate subclass, and then installs whatever method the subclass returns.

The MakeMethods Base Class

The Class::MakeMethods package defines a superclass for method-generating modules, and provides a calling convention, on-the-fly subclass loading, and subroutine installation that will be shared by all subclasses.

The superclass also lets you generate several different types of methods in a single call, and will automatically load named subclasses the first time they're used.

The Method Generator Subclasses

The type of method that gets created is controlled by the specific subclass and generator function you request. For example, Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Hash has a generator function scalar(), which is responsible for generating simple scalar-accessor methods for blessed-hash objects.

Each generator function specified is passed the arguments specifying the method the caller wants, and produces a closure or eval-able sequence of Perl statements representing the ready-to-install function.

Included Subclasses

Because each subclass defines its own set of method types and customization options, a key step is to find your way to the appropriate subclasses.

Standard (See Class::MakeMethods::Standard.)

Generally you will want to begin with the Standard::Hash subclass, to create constructor and accessor methods for working with blessed-hash objects (or you might choose the Standard::Array subclass instead). The Standard::Global subclass provides methods for class data shared by all objects in a class.

Each Standard method declaration can optionally include a hash of associated parameters, which allows you to tweak some of the characteristics of the methods. Subroutines are bound as closures to a hash of each method's name and parameters. Standard::Hash and Standard::Array provide object constructor and accessors. The Standard::Global provides for static data shared by all instances and subclasses, while the data for Standard::Inheritable methods trace the inheritance tree to find values, and can be overriden for any subclass or instance.

Composite (See Class::MakeMethods::Composite.)

For additional customization options, check out the Composite subclasses, which allow you to select from a more varied set of implementations and which allow you to adjust any specific method by adding your own code-refs to be run before or after it.

Subroutines are bound as closures to a hash of each method's name and optional additional data, and to one or more subroutine references which make up the composite behavior of the method. Composite::Hash and Composite::Array provide object constructor and accessors. The Composite::Global provides for static data shared by all instances and subclasses, while the data for Composite::Inheritable methods can be overriden for any subclass or instance.

Template (See Class::MakeMethods::Template.)

The Template subclasses provide an open-ended structure for objects that assemble Perl code on the fly into cachable closure-generating subroutines; if the method you need isn't included, you can extend existing methods by re-defining just the snippet of code that's different.

Class::MakeMethods::Template extends MakeMethods with a text templating system that can assemble Perl code fragments into a desired subroutine. The code for generated methods is eval'd once for each type, and then repeatedly bound as closures to method-specific data for better performance.

Templates for dozens of types of constructor, accessor, and mutator methods are included, ranging from from the mundane (constructors and value accessors for hash and array slots) to the esoteric (inheritable class data and "inside-out" accessors with external indexes).

Basic (See Class::MakeMethods::Basic.)

The Basic subclasses provide stripped down method generators with no configurable options, for minimal functionality (and minimum overhead).

Subroutines are bound as closures to the name of each method. Basic::Hash and Basic::Array provide simple object constructors and accessors. Basic::Global provides basic global-data accessors.

Emulators (See Class::MakeMethods::Emulator.)

In several cases, Class::MakeMethods provides functionality closely equivalent to that of an existing module, and it is simple to map the existing module's interface to that of Class::MakeMethods.

Emulators are included for Class::MethodMaker, Class::Accessor::Fast, Class::Data::Inheritable, Class::Singleton, and Class::Struct, each of which passes the original module's test suite, usually requiring only that the name of the module be changed.


Class::MakeMethods can be extended by creating subclasses that define additional method-generation functions. Callers can then specify the name of your subclass and generator function in their use Call::MakeMethods ... statements and your function will be invoked to produce the required closures. See "EXTENDING" for more information.

Naming Convention for Generated Method Types

Method generation functions in this document are often referred to using the 'MakerClass:MethodType' or 'MakerGroup::MakerSubclass:MethodType' naming conventions. As you will see, these are simply the names of Perl packages and the names of functions that are contained in those packages.

The included subclasses are grouped into several major groups, so the names used by the included subclasses and method types reflect three axes of variation, "Group::Subclass:Type":

Maker Group

Each group shares a similar style of technical implementation and level of complexity. For example, the Standard::* packages are all simple, while the Composite::* packages all support pre- and post-conditions.

(For a listing of the four main groups of included subclasses, see "Included Subclasses"" in ".)

Maker Subclass

Each subclass generates methods for a similar level of scoping or underlying object type. For example, the *::Hash packages all make methods for objects based on blessed hashes, while the *::Global packages make methods that access class-wide data that will be shared between all objects in a class.

Method Type

Each method type produces a similar type of constructor or accessor. For examples, the *:new methods are all constructors, while the ::scalar methods are all accessors that allow you to get and set a single scalar value.

Bearing that in mind, you should be able to guess the intent of many of the method types based on their names alone; when you see "Standard::Hash:scalar" you can read it as "a type of method to access a scalar value stored in a hash-based object, with a standard implementation style" and know that it's going to call the scalar() function in the Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Hash package to generate the requested method.


The supported method types, and the kinds of arguments they expect, vary from subclass to subclass; see the documentation of each subclass for details.

However, the features described below are applicable to all subclasses.


Methods are dynamically generated and installed into the calling package when you use Class::MakeMethods (...) or one of its subclasses, or if you later call Class::MakeMethods->make(...).

The arguments to use or make should be pairs of a generator type name and an associated array of method-name arguments to pass to the generator.

You may select a specific subclass of Class::MakeMethods for a single generator-type/argument pair by prefixing the type name with a subclass name and a colon.

The difference between use and make is primarily one of precedence; the use keyword acts as a BEGIN block, and is thus evaluated before make would be. (See "About Precedence" for additional discussion of this issue.)

Alternative Invocation

If you want methods to be declared at run-time when a previously-unknown method is invoked, see Class::MakeMethods::Autoload.

If you are using Perl version 5.6 or later, see Class::MakeMethods::Attribute for an additional declaration syntax for generated methods.

Mixing Method Types

A single calling class can combine generated methods from different MakeMethods subclasses. In general, the only mixing that's problematic is combinations of methods which depend on different underlying object types, like using *::Hash and *::Array methods together -- the methods will be generated, but some of them are guaranteed to fail when called, depending on whether your object happens to be a blessed hashref or arrayref.

For example, it's common to mix and match various *::Hash methods, with a scattering of Global or Inheritable methods:

  use Class::MakeMethods (
    'Basic::Hash:scalar'      => 'foo',
    'Composite::Hash:scalar'  => [ 'bar' => { post_rules => [] } ],
    'Standard::Global:scalar' => 'our_shared_baz'

Argument Normalization

The following expansion rules are applied to argument pairs to enable the use of simple strings instead of arrays of arguments.

For example, the following statements are equivalent ways of declaring a pair of Basic::Hash scalar methods named 'foo' and 'bar':

  use Class::MakeMethods::Basic::Hash ( 
    'scalar' => [ 'foo', 'bar' ], 
  use Class::MakeMethods::Basic::Hash ( 
    'scalar' => 'foo', 
    'scalar' => 'bar', 
  use Class::MakeMethods::Basic::Hash ( 
    'scalar' => 'foo bar', 
  use Class::MakeMethods::Basic::Hash ( 
    'scalar foo' => 'bar', 

(The last of these is clearly a bit peculiar and potentially misleading if used as shown, but it enables advanced subclasses to provide convenient formatting for declarations with defaults or modifiers, such as 'Template::Hash:scalar --private' => 'foo', discussed elsewhere.)

Global Parameters

Global parameters may be specified as an argument pair with a leading hyphen. (This distinguishes them from type names, which must be valid Perl subroutine names, and thus will never begin with a hyphen.)

use Class::MakeMethods::MakerClass ( '-Param' => ParamValue, 'MethodType' => [ Arguments ], ... );

Parameter settings apply to all subsequent method declarations within a single use or make call.

The below parameters allow you to control generation and installation of the requested methods. (Some subclasses may support additional parameters; see their documentation for details.)


By default, the methods are installed in the first package in the caller() stack that is not a Class::MakeMethods subclass; this is generally the package in which your use or make statement was issued. To override this you can pass -TargetClass => package as initial arguments to use or make.

This allows you to construct or modify classes "from the outside":

  package main;
  use Class::MakeMethods::Basic::Hash( 
    -TargetClass => 'MyWidget',
    'new' => ['create'],
    'scalar' => ['foo', 'bar'],
  $o = MyWidget->new( foo => 'Foozle' );
  print $o->foo();

By default, meta-methods are looked up in the package you called use or make on.

You can override this by passing the -MakerClass flag, which allows you to switch packages for the remainder of the meta-method types and arguments.

use Class::MakeMethods ( '-MakerClass'=>'MakerClass', 'MethodType' => [ Arguments ] );

When specifying the MakerClass, you may provide either the trailing part name of a subclass inside of the Class::MakeMethods:: namespace, or a full package name prefixed by ::.

For example, the following four statements are equivalent ways of declaring a Basic::Hash scalar method named 'foo':

  use Class::MakeMethods::Basic::Hash ( 
    'scalar' => [ 'foo' ] 
  use Class::MakeMethods ( 
    'Basic::Hash:scalar' => [ 'foo' ] 
  use Class::MakeMethods ( 
    'scalar' =>  [ 'foo' ] 
  use Class::MakeMethods ( 
    'scalar' =>  [ 'foo' ] 

By default, Class::MakeMethods will not install generated methods over any pre-existing methods in the target class. To override this you can pass -ForceInstall => 1 as initial arguments to use or make.

Note that the use keyword acts as a BEGIN block, so a use at the top of a file will be executed before any subroutine declarations later in the file have been seen. (See "About Precedence" for additional discussion of this issue.)

About Precedence

Rather than passing the method declaration arguments when you use one of these packages, you may instead pass them to a subsequent call to the class method make.

The difference between use and make is primarily one of precedence; the use keyword acts as a BEGIN block, and is thus evaluated before make would be. In particular, a use at the top of a file will be executed before any subroutine declarations later in the file have been seen, whereas a make at the same point in the file will not.

By default, Class::MakeMethods will not install generated methods over any pre-existing methods in the target class. To override this you can pass -ForceInstall => 1 as initial arguments to use or make.

If the same method is declared multiple times, earlier calls to use or make() win over later ones, but within each call, later declarations superceed earlier ones.

Here are some examples of the results of these precedence rules:

# 1 - use, before use Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Hash ( 'scalar'=>['baz'] # baz() not seen yet, so we generate, install ); sub baz { 1 } # Subsequent declaration overwrites it, with warning

  # 2 - use, after
  sub foo { 1 }
  use Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Hash (
    'scalar'=>['foo'] # foo() is already declared, so has no effect
  # 3 - use, after, Force
  sub bar { 1 }
  use Class::MakeMethods::Standard::Hash ( 
      -ForceInstall => 1, # Set flag for following methods...
    'scalar' => ['bar']   # ... now overwrites pre-existing bar()
  # 4 - make, before
    'scalar'=>['blip'] # blip() is already declared, so has no effect
  sub blip { 1 } # Although lower than make(), this "happens" first
  # 5 - make, after, Force
  sub ping { 1 } 
      -ForceInstall => 1, # Set flag for following methods...
    'scalar' => ['ping']  # ... now overwrites pre-existing ping()

Diagnostic Messages

The following warnings and errors may be produced when using Class::MakeMethods to generate methods. (Note that this list does not include run-time messages produced by calling the generated methods.)

These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of desperation):

    (Q) A debugging message, only shown if $CONTEXT{Debug} is true
    (W) A warning.
    (D) A deprecation.
    (F) A fatal error in caller's use of the module.
    (I) An internal problem with the module or subclasses.

Portions of the message which may vary are denoted with a %s.

Can't interpret meta-method template: argument is empty or undefined


Can't interpret meta-method template: unknown template name '%s'


Can't interpret meta-method template: unsupported template type '%s'


Can't make method %s(): template specifies unknown behavior '%s'


Can't parse meta-method declaration: argument is empty or undefined

(F) You passed an undefined value or an empty string in the list of meta-method declarations to use or make.

Can't parse meta-method declaration: missing name attribute.

(F) You included an hash-ref-style meta-method declaration that did not include the required name attribute. You may have meant this to be an attributes hash for a previously specified name, but if so we were unable to locate it.

Can't parse meta-method declaration: unknown template name '%s'

(F) You included a template specifier of the form '-template_name' in a the list of meta-method declaration, but that template is not available.

Can't parse meta-method declaration: unsupported declaration type '%s'

(F) You included an unsupported type of value in a list of meta-method declarations.

Compilation error: %s


Not an interpretable meta-method: '%s'


Odd number of arguments passed to %s make

(F) You specified an odd number of arguments in a call to use or make. The arguments should be key => value pairs.

Unable to compile generated method %s(): %s

(I) The install_methods subroutine attempted to compile a subroutine by calling eval on a provided string, which failed for the indicated reason, usually some type of Perl syntax error.

Unable to dynamically load $package: $%s


Unable to install code for %s() method: '%s'

(I) The install_methods subroutine was passed an unsupported value as the code to install for the named method.

Unexpected return value from compilation of %s(): '%s'

(I) The install_methods subroutine attempted to compile a subroutine by calling eval on a provided string, but the eval returned something other than than the code ref we expect.

Unexpected return value from meta-method constructor %s: %s

(I) The requested method-generator was invoked, but it returned an unacceptable value.


Class::MakeMethods can be extended by creating subclasses that define additional meta-method types. Callers then select your subclass using any of the several techniques described above.

Creating A Subclass

The begining of a typical extension might look like the below:

  package My::UpperCaseMethods;
  use strict;
  use Class::MakeMethods '-isasubclass';
  sub my_method_type { ... }

You can name your subclass anything you want; it does not need to begin with Class::MakeMethods.

The '-isasubclass' flag is a shortcut that automatically puts Class::MakeMethods into your package's @ISA array so that it will inherit the import() and make() class methods. If you omit this flag, you will need to place the superclass in your @ISA explicitly.

Typically, the subclass should not inherit from Exporter; both Class::MakeMethods and Exporter are based on inheriting an import class method, and getting a subclass to support both would require additional effort.

Naming Method Types

Each type of method that can be generated is defined in a subroutine of the same name. You can give your meta-method type any name that is a legal subroutine identifier.

(Names begining with an underscore, and the names import and make, are reserved for internal use by Class::MakeMethods.)

If you plan on distributing your extension, you may wish to follow the "Naming Convention for Generated Method Types" described above to facilitate reuse by others.

Implementation Options

Each method generation subroutine can be implemented in any one of the following ways:

Access to Parameters

Global parameter values are available through the _context() class method at the time that method generation is being performed.

  package My::Maker;
  sub my_methodtype {
    my $class = shift;
    warn "Installing in " . $class->_context('TargetClass');


Package Documentation

A collection of sample uses is available in Class::MakeMethods::Docs::Examples.

See the documentation for each family of subclasses:

A listing of available method types from each of the different subclasses is provided in Class::MakeMethods::Docs::Catalog.

Related Modules

For a brief survey of the numerous modules on CPAN which offer some type of method generation, see Class::MakeMethods::Docs::RelatedModules.

If you have used Class::MethodMaker, you will note numerous similarities. Class::MakeMethods is based on Class::MethodMaker, but has been substantially revised in order to provide a range of new features. Backward compatibility and conversion documentation is provded in Class::MakeMethods::Emulator::MethodMaker.

In several cases, Class::MakeMethods provides functionality closely equivalent to that of an existing module, and emulator modules are provided to map the existing module's interface to that of Class::MakeMethods. See Class::MakeMethods::Emulator for more information.

Perl Docs

See perlboot for a quick introduction to objects for beginners. For an extensive discussion of various approaches to class construction, see perltoot and perltootc (called perltootc in the most recent versions of Perl).

See "Making References" in perlref, point 4 for more information on closures. (FWIW, I think there's a big opportunity for a "perlfunt" podfile bundled with Perl in the tradition of "perlboot" and "perltoot", exploring the utility of function references, callbacks, closures, and continuations... There are a bunch of useful references available, but not a good overview of how they all interact in a Perlish way.)


Release Status

This module has been used in a variety of production systems and has been available on CPAN for over two years, with several other distributions dependant on it, so it would be fair to say that it is fully released.

However, while some portions are well tested, others are less so, and new bug reports do trickle in occasionally. If you do encounter any problems, please inform the author and I'll endeavor to patch them promptly.

Additional features have been outlined for future development, but the intent is support these by adding more options to the declaration interface, while maintaining backward compatibility.

Known Problems

It does not appear to be possible to assign subroutine names to closures within Perl. As a result, debugging output from Carp and similar sources will show all generated methods as "ANON()" rather than "YourClass::methodname()".

See Class::MakeMethods::Docs::ToDo for other outstanding issues and development plans.


If you have questions or feedback about this module, please feel free to contact the author at the below address. Although there is no formal support program, I do attempt to answer email promptly.

I would be particularly interested in any suggestions towards improving the documentation, correcting any Perl-version or platform dependencies, as well as general feedback and suggested additions.

Bug reports that contain a failing test case are greatly appreciated, and suggested patches will be promptly considered for inclusion in future releases.

To report bugs via the CPAN web tracking system, go to or send mail to, replacing # with @.


If you've found this module useful or have feedback about your experience with it, consider sharing your opinion with other Perl users by posting your comment to CPAN's ratings system:

For more general discussion, you may wish to post a message on PerlMonks or the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup:



This is Class::MakeMethods v1.009, intended for general use.

This module's CPAN registration should read:

  Name            DSLIP  Description
  --------------  -----  ---------------------------------------------
  ::MakeMethods   RdpOp  Generate common types of methods


In general, this module should work with Perl 5.003 or later, without requring any modules beyond the core Perl distribution.

The following optional feature may not be available on some platforms:


You should be able to install this module using the CPAN shell interface:

  perl -MCPAN -e 'install Class::MakeMethods'

Alternately, you may retrieve this package from CPAN or from the author's site:

After downloading the distribution, follow the normal procedure to unpack and install it, using the commands shown below or their local equivalents on your system:

  tar xzf Class-MakeMethods-*.tar.gz
  cd Class-MakeMethods-*
  perl Makefile.PL
  make test && sudo make install

Thanks to the kind generosity of other members of the Perl community, this distribution is also available repackaged in the FreeBSD "ports" and Linux RPM formats. This may simplify installation for some users, but be aware that these alternate distributions may lag a few versions behind the latest release on CPAN.

Tested Platforms

This release has been tested succesfully on the following platforms:

  5.6.1 on darwin

Earlier releases have also tested OK on the following platforms:

  i386-freebsd / i386-freebsd-thread-multi
  i386-netbsd / i386-netbsd-thread-multi
  i586-linux / i586-linux-thread-multi-ld
  i686-linux / i686-pld-linux-thread-multi

Some earlier versions failed to "make test" on MSWin32, although a forced installation would still work; that problem should be fixed in the most recent releases.

You may also review the current test results from CPAN-Testers:



Developed by Matthew Simon Cavalletto at Evolution Softworks. More free Perl software is available at

You may contact the author directly at or

Feedback and Suggestions

Thanks to the following people for bug reports, suggestions, and other feedback:

  Martyn J. Pearce
  Scott R. Godin
  Ron Savage
  Jay Lawrence
  Adam Spiers
  Malcolm Cook
  Terrence Brannon
  Jared Rhine
  Peter Chen
  Mike Castle

Source Material

This package was inspired by the ground-breaking original closure-generating method maker module:

  Class::MethodMaker, by Peter Seibel.

Additional inspiration, cool tricks, and blocks of useful code for this module were extracted from the following CPAN modules:

  Class::Accessor, by Michael G Schwern 
  Class::Contract, by Damian Conway
  Class::SelfMethods, by Toby Everett


Copyright 2002, 2003 Matthew Simon Cavalletto.

Portions copyright 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 Evolution Online Systems, Inc.

Based on Class::MethodMaker, originally developed by Peter Seibel. Portions Copyright 1996 Organic Online. Portions Copyright 2000 Martyn J. Pearce.

Class::MakeMethods::Emulator::accessors is based on accessors. Portions by Steve Purkis.

Class::MakeMethods::Emulator::AccessorFast is based on Class::Accessor::Fast. Portions Copyright 2000 Michael G Schwern.

Class::MakeMethods::Emulator::Inheritable is based on Class::Data::Inheritable. Portions Copyright 2000 Damian Conway and Michael G Schwern.

Class::MakeMethods::Emulator::mcoder is based on mcoder. Portions Copyright 2003 by Salvador Fandiño.

Class::MakeMethods::Emulator::Singleton is based on Class::Singleton, by Andy Wardley. Portions Copyright 1998 Canon Research Centre Europe Ltd.

Class::MakeMethods::Utility::Ref is based on Portions Copyright 1994 David Muir Sharnoff.


You may use, modify, and distribute this software under the same terms as Perl.

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