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NAME ^

perltoc - perl documentation table of contents

DESCRIPTION ^

This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped through to locate the proper section you're looking for.

BASIC DOCUMENTATION ^

perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Many usability enhancements, Simplified grammar, Lexical scoping, Arbitrarily nested data structures, Modularity and reusability, Object-oriented programming, Embeddable and Extensible, POSIX compliant, Package constructors and destructors, Multiple simultaneous DBM implementations, Subroutine definitions may now be autoloaded, Regular expression enhancements, Innumerable Unbundled Modules, Compilability

ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR
FILES
SEE ALSO
DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS
NOTES

perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 1998/07/20 23:12:17 $)

DESCRIPTION

perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ, perlfaq1: General Questions About Perl, perlfaq2: Obtaining and Learning about Perl, perlfaq3: Programming Tools, perlfaq4: Data Manipulation, perlfaq5: Files and Formats, perlfaq6: Regexps, perlfaq7: General Perl Language Issues, perlfaq8: System Interaction, perlfaq9: Networking

Where to get this document
How to contribute to this document
What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the authors
Credits
Author and Copyright Information
Bundled Distributions
Disclaimer
Changes

24/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version, Initial Release: 11/March/97

perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.14 $, $Date: 1998/06/14 22:15:25 $)

DESCRIPTION
What is Perl?
Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
Which version of Perl should I use?
What are perl4 and perl5?
How stable is Perl?
Is Perl difficult to learn?
How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX, Scheme, or Tcl?
Can I do [task] in Perl?
When shouldn't I program in Perl?
What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
What is a JAPH?
Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version (5/5.004/Perl instead of some other language)?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.24 $, $Date: 1998/07/20 23:40:28 $)

DESCRIPTION
What machines support Perl? Where do I get it?
How can I get a binary version of Perl?
I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl?
I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts don't work.
I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN? What does CPAN/src/... mean?
Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
Where can I get information on Perl?
What are the Perl newsgroups on USENET? Where do I post questions?
Where should I post source code?
Perl Books

References, Tutorials *Learning Perl [2nd edition] by Randal L. Schwartz and Tom Christiansen, Task-Oriented, Special Topics

Perl in Magazines
Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
What mailing lists are there for perl?

MacPerl, Perl5-Porters, NTPerl, Perl-Packrats

Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?
Where do I send bug reports?
What is perl.com? perl.org? The Perl Institute?
How do I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.28 $, $Date: 1998/07/16 22:08:49 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I do (anything)?
How can I use Perl interactively?
Is there a Perl shell?
How do I debug my Perl programs?
How do I profile my Perl programs?
How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
Is there a ctags for Perl?
Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
How can I use curses with Perl?
How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk?
What is undump?
How can I make my Perl program run faster?
How can I make my Perl program take less memory?
Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data?
How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
How can I get #!perl to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
Can I write useful perl programs on the command line?
Why don't perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp]
I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in my C program, what am I doing wrong?
When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean?
What's MakeMaker?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.25 $, $Date: 1998/07/16 22:49:55 $)

DESCRIPTION
Data: Numbers
Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
Does perl have a round function? What about ceil() and floor()? Trig functions?
How do I convert bits into ints?
How do I multiply matrices?
How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
How can I output Roman numerals?
Why aren't my random numbers random?
Data: Dates
How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year?
How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
How can I find the Julian Day?
Does Perl have a year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
Data: Strings
How do I validate input?
How do I unescape a string?
How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
How do I expand function calls in a string?
How do I find matching/nesting anything?
How do I reverse a string?
How do I expand tabs in a string?
How do I reformat a paragraph?
How can I access/change the first N letters of a string?
How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a string?
How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside [character]? (Comma-separated files)
How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
How do I extract selected columns from a string?
How do I find the soundex value of a string?
How can I expand variables in text strings?
What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
Why don't my <<HERE documents work?

1. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of the tag

Data: Arrays
What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
How can I extract just the unique elements of an array?

a) If @in is sorted, and you want @out to be sorted:(this assumes all true values in the array), b) If you don't know whether @in is sorted:, c) Like (b), but @in contains only small integers:, d) A way to do (b) without any loops or greps:, e) Like (d), but @in contains only small positive integers:

How can I tell whether a list or array contains a certain element?
How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the intersection of two arrays?
How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
How do I handle linked lists?
How do I handle circular lists?
How do I shuffle an array randomly?
How do I process/modify each element of an array?
How do I select a random element from an array?
How do I permute N elements of a list?
How do I sort an array by (anything)?
How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
How do I process an entire hash?
What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over it?
How do I look up a hash element by value?
How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
How can I always keep my hash sorted?
What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create it?
How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays?
How can I use a reference as a hash key?
Data: Misc
How do I handle binary data correctly?
How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
How do I define methods for every class/object?
How do I verify a credit card checksum?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.24 $, $Date: 1998/07/05 15:07:20 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
How do I count the number of lines in a file?
How do I make a temporary file name?
How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
How can I write() into a string?
How can I output my numbers with commas added?
How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks?
How can I reliably rename a file?
How can I lock a file?
What can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in the file. How can I do this?
How do I randomly update a binary file?
How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I print to more than one file at once?
How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
How can I tell if there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
How do I do a tail -f in perl?
How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
How do I close a file descriptor by number?
Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? What doesn't `C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?
Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does -i clobber protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
How do I select a random line from a file?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq6 - Regexps ($Revision: 1.22 $, $Date: 1998/07/16 14:01:07 $)

DESCRIPTION
How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible and unmaintainable code?

Comments Outside the Regexp, Comments Inside the Regexp, Different Delimiters

I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on different lines?
I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS, but preserving case on the RHS?
How can I make \w match national character sets?
How can I match a locale-smart version of /[a-zA-Z]/?
How can I quote a variable to use in a regexp?
What is /o really for?
How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a file?
Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
What does it mean that regexps are greedy? How can I get around it?
How do I process each word on each line?
How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
How can I do approximate matching?
How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
Why don't word-boundary searches with \b work for me?
Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
What good is \G in a regular expression?
Are Perl regexps DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?
How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq7 - Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.21 $, $Date: 1998/06/22 15:20:07 $)

DESCRIPTION
Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
What are all these $@%* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to use them?
Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and commas?
How do I skip some return values?
How do I temporarily block warnings?
What's an extension?
Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
How do I declare/create a structure?
How do I create a module?
How do I create a class?
How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
What's a closure?
What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method, Regexp}?

Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexps, Passing Methods

How do I create a static variable?
What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping? Between local() and my()?
How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical is in scope?
What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
Why doesn't "my($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?
How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
How do I create a switch or case statement?
How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods?
Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
How can I find out my current package?
How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.25 $, $Date: 1998/07/05 15:07:20 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
How come exec() doesn't return?
How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?

Keyboard, Screen, Mouse

How do I print something out in color?
How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?
How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?
How do I clear the screen?
How do I get the screen size?
How do I ask the user for a password?
How do I read and write the serial port?

lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input

How do I decode encrypted password files?
How do I start a process in the background?

STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies

How do I trap control characters/signals?
How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
How do I set the time and date?
How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
How can I measure time under a second?
How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?
How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
How can I call backticks without shell processing?
Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)?
How can I convert my shell script to perl?
Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
How can I write expect in Perl?
Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as "ps"?
I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my changes to be visible?

Unix

How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to complete?
How do I fork a daemon process?
How do I make my program run with sh and csh?
How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
How do I timeout a slow event?
How do I set CPU limits?
How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
How do I use an SQL database?
How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
How do I open a file without blocking?
How do I install a CPAN module?
What's the difference between require and use?
How do I keep my own module/library directory?
How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library search path?
How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.20 $, $Date: 1998/06/22 18:31:09 $)

DESCRIPTION
My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500 Server Error)
How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?
How do I remove HTML from a string?
How do I extract URLs?
How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a file on another machine?
How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?
How do I fetch an HTML file?
How do I automate an HTML form submission?
How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
How do I redirect to another page?
How do I put a password on my web pages?
How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my CGI script to do bad things?
How do I parse a mail header?
How do I decode a CGI form?
How do I check a valid mail address?
How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
How do I return the user's mail address?
How do I send mail?
How do I read mail?
How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?
How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
How can I do RPC in Perl?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perldelta - what's new for perl5.005

DESCRIPTION
About the new versioning system
Incompatible Changes
WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
Default installation structure has changed
Perl Source Compatibility
C Source Compatibility

Core sources now require ANSI C compiler, All Perl global variables must now be referenced with an explicit prefix, Enabling threads has source compatibility issues

Binary Compatibility
Security fixes may affect compatibility
Relaxed new mandatory warnings introduced in 5.004
Licensing
Core Changes
Threads
Compiler
Regular Expressions

Many new and improved optimizations, Many bug fixes, New regular expression constructs, New operator for precompiled regular expressions, Other improvements, Incompatible changes

Improved malloc()
Quicksort is internally implemented
Reliable signals
Reliable stack pointers
More generous treatment of carriage returns
Memory leaks
Better support for multiple interpreters
Behavior of local() on array and hash elements is now well-defined
%! is transparently tied to the Errno module
Pseudo-hashes are supported
EXPR foreach EXPR is supported
Keywords can be globally overridden
$^E is meaningful on Win32
foreach (1..1000000) optimized
Foo:: can be used as implicitly quoted package name
exists $Foo::{Bar::} tests existence of a package
Better locale support
Experimental support for 64-bit platforms
prototype() returns useful results on builtins
Extended support for exception handling
Re-blessing in DESTROY() supported for chaining DESTROY() methods
All printf format conversions are handled internally
New INIT keyword
New lock keyword
New qr// operator
our is now a reserved word
Tied arrays are now fully supported
Tied handles support is better
4th argument to substr
Negative LENGTH argument to splice
Magic lvalues are now more magical
<> now reads in records
Supported Platforms
New Platforms
Changes in existing support
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules

B, Data::Dumper, Errno, File::Spec, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Packlist, Fatal, IPC::SysV, Test, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Thread, attrs, fields, re

Changes in existing modules

CGI, POSIX, DB_File, MakeMaker, CPAN, Cwd, Benchmark

Utility Changes
Documentation Changes
New Diagnostics

Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &, Bad index while coercing array into hash, Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package, Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value, Can't coerce array into hash, Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string, Can't localize pseudo-hash element, Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available, Cannot find an opnumber for "%s", Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions, %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression, %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval', %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time, Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main), Illegal hex digit ignored, No such array field, No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s, Out of memory during ridiculously large request, Range iterator outside integer range, Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' in package '%s', Reference found where even-sized list expected, Undefined value assigned to typeglob, Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated, perl: warning: Setting locale failed

Obsolete Diagnostics

Can't mktemp(), Can't write to temp file for -e: %s, Cannot open temporary file

BUGS
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perldata - Perl data types

DESCRIPTION
Variable names
Context
Scalar values
Scalar value constructors
List value constructors
Typeglobs and Filehandles

perlsyn - Perl syntax

DESCRIPTION
Declarations
Simple statements
Compound statements
Loop Control
For Loops
Foreach Loops
Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
Goto
PODs: Embedded Documentation
Plain Old Comments (Not!)

perlop - Perl operators and precedence

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
The Arrow Operator
Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
Exponentiation
Symbolic Unary Operators
Binding Operators
Multiplicative Operators
Additive Operators
Shift Operators
Named Unary Operators
Relational Operators
Equality Operators
Bitwise And
Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
C-style Logical And
C-style Logical Or
Range Operators
Conditional Operator
Assignment Operators
Comma Operator
List Operators (Rightward)
Logical Not
Logical And
Logical or and Exclusive Or
C Operators Missing From Perl

unary &, unary *, (TYPE)

Quote and Quote-like Operators
Regexp Quote-Like Operators

?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, 'STRING', qq/STRING/, "STRING", qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/, s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds

Gory details of parsing quoted constructs

Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation, <<'EOF', m'', s''', tr///, y///, '', q//, "", ``, qq//, qx//, <file*glob>, ?RE?, /RE/, m/RE/, s/RE/foo/,, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of regular expressions

I/O Operators
Constant Folding
Bitwise String Operators
Integer Arithmetic
Floating-point Arithmetic
Bigger Numbers

perlre - Perl regular expressions

DESCRIPTION

i, m, s, x

Regular Expressions

(?#text), (?:pattern), (?imsx-imsx:pattern), (?=pattern), (?!pattern), (?<=pattern), (?<!pattern), (?{ code }), (?>pattern), (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern), (?(condition)yes-pattern), (?imsx-imsx)

Backtracking
Version 8 Regular Expressions
WARNING on \1 vs $1
Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
Creating custom RE engines
SEE ALSO

perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
#! and quoting on non-Unix systems

OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh

Location of Perl
Switches

-0[digits], -a, -c, -d, -d:foo, -Dletters, -Dnumber, -e commandline, -Fpattern, -h, -i[extension], -Idirectory, -l[octnum], -m[-]module, -M[-]module, -M[-]'module ...', -[mM][-]module=arg[,arg]..., -n, -p, -P, -s, -S, -T, -u, -U, -v, -V, -V:name, -w, -x directory

ENVIRONMENT

HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL (specific to WIN32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL

perlfunc - Perl builtin functions

DESCRIPTION
Perl Functions by Category

Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching, Numeric functions, Functions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data, Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output functions, Functions for fixed length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories, Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess communication functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network info, Time-related functions, Functions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted in perl5

Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

-X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, abs VALUE, abs, accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME, binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME, bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE, chomp LIST, chomp, chop VARIABLE, chop LIST, chop, chown LIST, chr NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, defined EXPR, defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUBROUTINE(LIST), do EXPR, dump LABEL, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval BLOCK, exec LIST, exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE, getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill LIST, last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc, lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, log EXPR, log, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MODE, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, my EXPR, next LABEL, next, no Module LIST, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord EXPR, ord, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package, package NAMESPACE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST, q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR, quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR, readlink, readpipe EXPR, recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LEN,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo, ref EXPR, ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require EXPR, require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR, return, reverse LIST, rewinddir DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME, rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILEHANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY, shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep EXPR, sleep, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub BLOCK, sub NAME, sub NAME BLOCK, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LEN,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LEN, substr EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR, ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module LIST, use Module, use Module VERSION LIST, use VERSION, utime LIST, values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y///

perlvar - Perl predefined variables

DESCRIPTION
Predefined Names

$ARG, $_, $<digits>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $', $LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*, input_line_number HANDLE EXPR, $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $, input_record_separator HANDLE EXPR, $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/, autoflush HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|, output_field_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,, output_record_separator HANDLE EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#, format_page_number HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%, format_lines_per_page HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=, format_lines_left HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, format_name HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_NAME, $~, format_top_name HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^, format_line_break_characters HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, format_formfeed HANDLE EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $PERL_VERSION, $], $DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, $^R, $^S, $BASETIME, $^T, $WARNING, $^W, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, $ARGV, @ARGV, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV $ENV{expr}, %SIG $SIG{expr}

Error Indicators

perlsub - Perl subroutines

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Private Variables via my()
Persistent Private Variables
Temporary Values via local()
Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
When to Still Use local()

1. You need to give a global variable a temporary value, especially $_, 2. You need to create a local file or directory handle or a local function, 3. You want to temporarily change just one element of an array or hash

Pass by Reference
Prototypes
Constant Functions
Overriding Builtin Functions
Autoloading
SEE ALSO

perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)

DESCRIPTION
Packages
Symbol Tables
Package Constructors and Destructors
Perl Classes
Perl Modules
SEE ALSO

perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

DESCRIPTION
THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
Pragmatic Modules

use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), blib, diagnostics, integer, less, lib, locale, ops, overload, re, sigtrap, strict, subs, vmsish, vars

Standard Modules

AnyDBM_File, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, Benchmark, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp, Class::Struct, Config, Cwd, DB_File, Devel::SelfStubber, DirHandle, DynaLoader, English, Env, Exporter, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::Find, File::Path, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, FindBin, GDBM_File, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, I18N::Collate, IO, IO::File, IO::Handle, IO::Pipe, IO::Seekable, IO::Select, IO::Socket, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, NDBM_File, Net::Ping, Net::hostent, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent, Opcode, Pod::Text, POSIX, SDBM_File, Safe, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Symbol, Sys::Hostname, Sys::Syslog, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test::Harness, Text::Abbrev, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Tie::Hash, Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, User::grent, User::pwent

Extension Modules
CPAN

Language Extensions and Documentation Tools, Development Support, Operating System Interfaces, Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication, Data Types and Data Type Utilities, Database Interfaces, User Interfaces, Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages, File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles), String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching, Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing, Internationalization and Locale, Authentication, Security, and Encryption, World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME, Server and Daemon Utilities, Archiving and Compression, Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing, Mail and Usenet News, Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc), File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities, Miscellaneous Modules, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, South America

Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
Guidelines for Module Creation

Do similar modules already exist in some form?, Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse, Some simple style guidelines, Select what to export, Select a name for the module, Have you got it right?, README and other Additional Files, A description of the module/package/extension etc, A copyright notice - see below, Prerequisites - what else you may need to have, How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc, How to install it, Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibilities, Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future, Adding a Copyright Notice, Give the module a version/issue/release number, How to release and distribute a module, Take care when changing a released module

Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules

There is no requirement to convert anything, Consider the implications, Make the most of the opportunity, The pl2pm utility will get you started, Adds the standard Module prologue lines, Converts package specifiers from ' to ::, Converts die(...) to croak(...), Several other minor changes

Guidelines for Reusing Application Code

Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library, Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused, Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files, Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces, In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small

NOTE

perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

DESCRIPTION
PREAMBLE

DECOMPRESS the file, UNPACK the file into a directory, BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary), INSTALL the module

HEY
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

perlform - Perl formats

DESCRIPTION
Format Variables
NOTES
Footers
Accessing Formatting Internals
WARNINGS

perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization)

DESCRIPTION
PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
USING LOCALES
The use locale pragma
The setlocale function
Finding locales
LOCALE PROBLEMS
Temporarily fixing locale problems
Permanently fixing locale problems
Permanently fixing your locale configuration
Permanently fixing system locale configuration
The localeconv function
LOCALE CATEGORIES
Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
LC_TIME
Other categories
SECURITY

Comparison operators (lt, le, ge, gt and cmp):, Case-mapping interpolation (with \l, \L, \u or \U), Matching operator (m//):, Substitution operator (s///):, In-memory formatting function (sprintf()):, Output formatting functions (printf() and write()):, Case-mapping functions (lc(), lcfirst(), uc(), ucfirst()):, POSIX locale-dependent functions (localeconv(), strcoll(),strftime(), strxfrm()):, POSIX character class tests (isalnum(), isalpha(), isdigit(),isgraph(), islower(), isprint(), ispunct(), isspace(), isupper(), isxdigit()):

ENVIRONMENT

PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG

NOTES
Backward compatibility
I18N:Collate obsolete
Sort speed and memory use impacts
write() and LC_NUMERIC
Freely available locale definitions
I18n and l10n
An imperfect standard
BUGS
Broken systems
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perlref - Perl references and nested data structures

DESCRIPTION
Making References
Using References
Symbolic references
Not-so-symbolic references
Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
Function Templates
WARNING
SEE ALSO

perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook

DESCRIPTION

arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes, more elaborate constructs

REFERENCES
COMMON MISTAKES
CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS use strict
DEBUGGING
CODE EXAMPLES
LISTS OF LISTS
Declaration of a LIST OF LISTS
Generation of a LIST OF LISTS
Access and Printing of a LIST OF LISTS
HASHES OF LISTS
Declaration of a HASH OF LISTS
Generation of a HASH OF LISTS
Access and Printing of a HASH OF LISTS
LISTS OF HASHES
Declaration of a LIST OF HASHES
Generation of a LIST OF HASHES
Access and Printing of a LIST OF HASHES
HASHES OF HASHES
Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
Database Ties
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perllol, perlLoL - Manipulating Lists of Lists in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Declaration and Access of Lists of Lists
Growing Your Own
Access and Printing
Slices
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl

DESCRIPTION
Creating a Class
Object Representation
Class Interface
Constructors and Instance Methods
Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
Destructors
Other Object Methods
Class Data
Accessing Class Data
Debugging Methods
Class Destructors
Documenting the Interface
Aggregation
Inheritance
Overridden Methods
Multiple Inheritance
UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
Alternate Object Representations
Arrays as Objects
Closures as Objects
AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
Autoloaded Data Methods
Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
Metaclassical Tools
Class::Struct
Data Members as Variables
NOTES
Object Terminology
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
COPYRIGHT
Acknowledgments

perlobj - Perl objects

DESCRIPTION
An Object is Simply a Reference
A Class is Simply a Package
A Method is Simply a Subroutine
Method Invocation
Default UNIVERSAL methods

isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )

Destructors
WARNING
Summary
Two-Phased Garbage Collection
SEE ALSO

perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Tying Scalars

TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this

Tying Arrays

TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value, DESTROY this

Tying Hashes

USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, DESTROY this

Tying FileHandles

TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, DESTROY this

The untie Gotcha
SEE ALSO
BUGS
AUTHOR

perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)

DESCRIPTION
OO SCALING TIPS
INSTANCE VARIABLES
SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
THINKING OF CODE REUSE
CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
DELEGATION

perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)

DESCRIPTION
Signals
Named Pipes
WARNING
Using open() for IPC
Filehandles
Background Processes
Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
Safe Pipe Opens
Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
Sockets: Client/Server Communication
Internet Line Terminators
Internet TCP Clients and Servers
Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
TCP Clients with IO::Socket
A Simple Client

Proto, PeerAddr, PeerPort

A Webget Client
Interactive Client with IO::Socket
TCP Servers with IO::Socket

Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse

UDP: Message Passing
SysV IPC
NOTES
BUGS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perldebug - Perl debugging

DESCRIPTION
The Perl Debugger
Debugger Commands

h [command], p expr, x expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], T, s [expr], n [expr], <CR>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname, -, w [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L, S [[!]pattern], t, t expr, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname [condition], b load filename, b compile subname, d [line], D, a [line] command, A, W [expr], W, O [opt[=val]] [opt"val"] [opt?].., recallCommand, ShellBang, pager, tkRunning, signalLevel, warnLevel, dieLevel, AutoTrace, LineInfo, inhibit_exit, PrintRet, ornaments, frame, maxTraceLen, arrayDepth, hashDepth, compactDump, veryCompact, globPrint, DumpDBFiles, DumpPackages, DumpReused, quote, HighBit, undefPrint, UsageOnly, TTY, noTTY, ReadLine, NonStop, < [ command ], << command, > command, >> command, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! -number, ! pattern, !! cmd, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m expr, m package

Debugger input/output

Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Listing, Frame listing

Debugging compile-time statements
Debugger Customization
Readline Support
Editor Support for Debugging
The Perl Profiler
Debugger support in perl
Debugger Internals
Other resources
BUGS
Debugging Perl memory usage
Using $ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}

buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX), Free/Used, Total sbrk(): SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS, pad: 0, heads: 2192, chain: 0, tail: 6144

Example of using -DL switch

717, 002, 054, 602, 702, 704

-DL details

!!!, !!, !

Limitations of -DL statistic
Debugging regular expressions
Compile-time output

anchored STRING at POS, floating STRING at POS1..POS2, matching floating/anchored, minlen, stclass TYPE, noscan, isall, GPOS, plus, implicit, with eval, anchored(TYPE)

Types of nodes
Run-time output

perldiag - various Perl diagnostics

DESCRIPTION

perlsec - Perl security

DESCRIPTION
Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
Switches On the "#!" Line
Cleaning Up Your Path
Security Bugs
Protecting Your Programs
SEE ALSO

perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary

DESCRIPTION
Awk Traps
C Traps
Sed Traps
Shell Traps
Perl Traps
Perl4 to Perl5 Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts, Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc, Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance

Parsing Traps

Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing

Numerical Traps

Numerical, Numerical, Numerical

General data type traps

(Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String), (Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide)

Context Traps - scalar, list contexts

(list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin)

Precedence Traps

Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence

General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.

Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression

Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps

(Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle

OS Traps

(SysV), (SysV)

Interpolation Traps

Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation

DBM Traps

DBM, DBM

Unclassified Traps

require/do trap using returned value, split on empty string with LIMIT specified

perlport - Writing portable Perl

DESCRIPTION

Not all Perl programs have to be portable, The vast majority of Perl is portable

ISSUES
Newlines
File Paths
System Interaction
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
External Subroutines (XS)
Standard Modules
Time and Date
System Resources
Security
Style
CPAN TESTERS

Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results: http://www.connect.net/gbarr/cpan-test/

PLATFORMS
Unix
DOS and Derivatives

The djgpp environment for DOS, http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/, The EMX environment for DOS, OS/2, etc. emx@iaehv.nl,http://www.leo.org/pub/comp/os/os2/leo/gnu/emx+gcc/index.html, ftp://hobbes.nmsu.edu/pub/os2/dev/emx. Build instructions for Win32, perlwin32, The ActiveState Pages, http://www.activestate.com/

MacPerl

The MacPerl Pages, http://www.ptf.com/macperl/, The MacPerl mailing list, mac-perl-request@iis.ee.ethz.ch

VMS

perlvms.pod, vmsperl list, vmsperl-request@newman.upenn.edu, vmsperl on the web, http://www.sidhe.org/vmsperl/index.html

EBCDIC Platforms

perl-mvs list, AS/400 Perl information at http://as400.rochester.ibm.com

Other perls

Atari, Guido Flohr's page http://stud.uni-sb.de/~gufl0000/, HP 300 MPE/iX http://www.cccd.edu/~markb/perlix.html, Novell Netware

FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

-X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, binmode FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST, chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec LIST, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, kill LIST, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, readlink EXPR, readlink, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, system LIST, times, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask EXPR, umask, utime LIST, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
VERSION

perlstyle - Perl style guide

DESCRIPTION

perlpod - plain old documentation

DESCRIPTION
Verbatim Paragraph
Command Paragraph
Ordinary Block of Text
The Intent
Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
Common Pod Pitfalls
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlbook - Perl book information

DESCRIPTION

perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program

DESCRIPTION
PREAMBLE

Use C from Perl?, Use a Unix program from Perl?, Use Perl from Perl?, Use C from C?, Use Perl from C?

ROADMAP
Compiling your C program
Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program
Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
Maintaining a persistent interpreter
Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C program
Embedding Perl under Win32
MORAL
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

PerlIO *, PerlIO_stdin(), PerlIO_stdout(), PerlIO_stderr(), PerlIO_open(path, mode), PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode), PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...), PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a), PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...), PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count), PerlIO_close(f), PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c), PerlIO_ungetc(f,c), PerlIO_getc(f), PerlIO_eof(f), PerlIO_error(f), PerlIO_fileno(f), PerlIO_clearerr(f), PerlIO_flush(f), PerlIO_tell(f), PerlIO_seek(f,o,w), PerlIO_getpos(f,p), PerlIO_setpos(f,p), PerlIO_rewind(f), PerlIO_tmpfile()

Co-existence with stdio

PerlIO_importFILE(f,flags), PerlIO_exportFILE(f,flags), PerlIO_findFILE(f), PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f), PerlIO_setlinebuf(f), PerlIO_has_cntptr(f), PerlIO_get_ptr(f), PerlIO_get_cnt(f), PerlIO_canset_cnt(f), PerlIO_fast_gets(f), PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c), PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c), PerlIO_has_base(f), PerlIO_get_base(f), PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)

perlxs - XS language reference manual

DESCRIPTION
Introduction
On The Road
The Anatomy of an XSUB
The Argument Stack
The RETVAL Variable
The MODULE Keyword
The PACKAGE Keyword
The PREFIX Keyword
The OUTPUT: Keyword
The CODE: Keyword
The INIT: Keyword
The NO_INIT Keyword
Initializing Function Parameters
Default Parameter Values
The PREINIT: Keyword
The SCOPE: Keyword
The INPUT: Keyword
Variable-length Parameter Lists
The C_ARGS: Keyword
The PPCODE: Keyword
Returning Undef And Empty Lists
The REQUIRE: Keyword
The CLEANUP: Keyword
The BOOT: Keyword
The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword
The PROTOTYPES: Keyword
The PROTOTYPE: Keyword
The ALIAS: Keyword
The INTERFACE: Keyword
The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword
The INCLUDE: Keyword
The CASE: Keyword
The & Unary Operator
Inserting Comments and C Preprocessor Directives
Using XS With C++
Interface Strategy
Perl Objects And C Structures
The Typemap
EXAMPLES
XS VERSION
AUTHOR

perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for XSUBs

DESCRIPTION
VERSION CAVEAT
DYNAMIC VERSUS STATIC
EXAMPLE 1
EXAMPLE 2
WHAT HAS GONE ON?
WRITING GOOD TEST SCRIPTS
EXAMPLE 3
WHAT'S NEW HERE?
INPUT AND OUTPUT PARAMETERS
THE XSUBPP COMPILER
THE TYPEMAP FILE
WARNING
EXAMPLE 4
WHAT HAS HAPPENED HERE?
SPECIFYING ARGUMENTS TO XSUBPP
THE ARGUMENT STACK
EXTENDING YOUR EXTENSION
DOCUMENTING YOUR EXTENSION
INSTALLING YOUR EXTENSION
SEE ALSO
Author
Last Changed

perlguts - Perl's Internal Functions

DESCRIPTION
Variables
Datatypes
What is an "IV"?
Working with SVs
What's Really Stored in an SV?
Working with AVs
Working with HVs
Hash API Extensions
References
Blessed References and Class Objects
Creating New Variables
Reference Counts and Mortality
Stashes and Globs
Double-Typed SVs
Magic Variables
Assigning Magic
Magic Virtual Tables
Finding Magic
Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays
Localizing changes

SAVEINT(int i), SAVEIV(IV i), SAVEI32(I32 i), SAVELONG(long i), SAVESPTR(s), SAVEPPTR(p), SAVEFREESV(SV *sv), SAVEFREEOP(OP *op), SAVEFREEPV(p), SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv), SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32 length), SAVEDESTRUCTOR(f,p), SAVESTACK_POS(), SV* save_scalar(GV *gv), AV* save_ary(GV *gv), HV* save_hash(GV *gv), void save_item(SV *item), void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg), SV* save_svref(SV **sptr), void save_aptr(AV **aptr), void save_hptr(HV **hptr)

Subroutines
XSUBs and the Argument Stack
Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs
Memory Allocation
PerlIO
Putting a C value on Perl stack
Scratchpads
Scratchpads and recursion
Compiled code
Code tree
Examining the tree
Compile pass 1: check routines
Compile pass 1a: constant folding
Compile pass 2: context propagation
Compile pass 3: peephole optimization
API LISTING

av_clear, av_extend, av_fetch, AvFILL, av_len, av_make, av_pop, av_push, av_shift, av_store, av_undef, av_unshift, CLASS, Copy, croak, CvSTASH, PL_DBsingle, PL_DBsub, PL_DBtrace, dMARK, dORIGMARK, PL_dowarn, dSP, dXSARGS, dXSI32, do_binmode, ENTER, EXTEND, fbm_compile, fbm_instr, FREETMPS, G_ARRAY, G_DISCARD, G_EVAL, GIMME, GIMME_V, G_NOARGS, G_SCALAR, gv_fetchmeth, gv_fetchmethod, gv_fetchmethod_autoload, G_VOID, gv_stashpv, gv_stashsv, GvSV, HEf_SVKEY, HeHASH, HeKEY, HeKLEN, HePV, HeSVKEY, HeSVKEY_force, HeSVKEY_set, HeVAL, hv_clear, hv_delayfree_ent, hv_delete, hv_delete_ent, hv_exists, hv_exists_ent, hv_fetch, hv_fetch_ent, hv_free_ent, hv_iterinit, hv_iterkey, hv_iterkeysv, hv_iternext, hv_iternextsv, hv_iterval, hv_magic, HvNAME, hv_store, hv_store_ent, hv_undef, isALNUM, isALPHA, isDIGIT, isLOWER, isSPACE, isUPPER, items, ix, LEAVE, looks_like_number, MARK, mg_clear, mg_copy, mg_find, mg_free, mg_get, mg_len, mg_magical, mg_set, Move, PL_na, New, newAV, Newc, newCONSTSUB, newHV, newRV_inc, newRV_noinc, NEWSV, newSViv, newSVnv, newSVpv, newSVpvf, newSVpvn, newSVrv, newSVsv, newXS, newXSproto, Newz, Nullav, Nullch, Nullcv, Nullhv, Nullsv, ORIGMARK, perl_alloc, perl_call_argv, perl_call_method, perl_call_pv, perl_call_sv, perl_construct, perl_destruct, perl_eval_sv, perl_eval_pv, perl_free, perl_get_av, perl_get_cv, perl_get_hv, perl_get_sv, perl_parse, perl_require_pv, perl_run, POPi, POPl, POPp, POPn, POPs, PUSHMARK, PUSHi, PUSHn, PUSHp, PUSHs, PUSHu, PUTBACK, Renew, Renewc, RETVAL, safefree, safemalloc, saferealloc, savepv, savepvn, SAVETMPS, SP, SPAGAIN, ST, strEQ, strGE, strGT, strLE, strLT, strNE, strnEQ, strnNE, sv_2mortal, sv_bless, sv_catpv, sv_catpv_mg, sv_catpvn, sv_catpvn_mg, sv_catpvf, sv_catpvf_mg, sv_catsv, sv_catsv_mg, sv_chop, sv_cmp, SvCUR, SvCUR_set, sv_dec, sv_derived_from, sv_derived_from, SvEND, sv_eq, SvGETMAGIC, SvGROW, sv_grow, sv_inc, sv_insert, SvIOK, SvIOK_off, SvIOK_on, SvIOK_only, SvIOKp, sv_isa, sv_isobject, SvIV, SvIVX, SvLEN, sv_len, sv_magic, sv_mortalcopy, sv_newmortal, SvNIOK, SvNIOK_off, SvNIOKp, PL_sv_no, SvNOK, SvNOK_off, SvNOK_on, SvNOK_only, SvNOKp, SvNV, SvNVX, SvOK, SvOOK, SvPOK, SvPOK_off, SvPOK_on, SvPOK_only, SvPOKp, SvPV, SvPV_force, SvPVX, SvREFCNT, SvREFCNT_dec, SvREFCNT_inc, SvROK, SvROK_off, SvROK_on, SvRV, SvSETMAGIC, sv_setiv, sv_setiv_mg, sv_setnv, sv_setnv_mg, sv_setpv, sv_setpv_mg, sv_setpviv, sv_setpviv_mg, sv_setpvn, sv_setpvn_mg, sv_setpvf, sv_setpvf_mg, sv_setref_iv, sv_setref_nv, sv_setref_pv, sv_setref_pvn, SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, sv_setsv, sv_setsv_mg, sv_setuv, sv_setuv_mg, SvSTASH, SvTAINT, SvTAINTED, SvTAINTED_off, SvTAINTED_on, SVt_IV, SVt_PV, SVt_PVAV, SVt_PVCV, SVt_PVHV, SVt_PVMG, SVt_NV, SvTRUE, SvTYPE, svtype, PL_sv_undef, sv_unref, SvUPGRADE, sv_upgrade, sv_usepvn, sv_usepvn_mg, sv_vcatpvfn(sv, pat, patlen, args, svargs, svmax, used_locale), sv_vsetpvfn(sv, pat, patlen, args, svargs, svmax, used_locale), SvUV, SvUVX, PL_sv_yes, THIS, toLOWER, toUPPER, warn, XPUSHi, XPUSHn, XPUSHp, XPUSHs, XPUSHu, XS, XSRETURN, XSRETURN_EMPTY, XSRETURN_IV, XSRETURN_NO, XSRETURN_NV, XSRETURN_PV, XSRETURN_UNDEF, XSRETURN_YES, XST_mIV, XST_mNV, XST_mNO, XST_mPV, XST_mUNDEF, XST_mYES, XS_VERSION, XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK, Zero

AUTHORS

perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C

DESCRIPTION

An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program

THE PERL_CALL FUNCTIONS

perl_call_sv, perl_call_pv, perl_call_method, perl_call_argv

FLAG VALUES
G_VOID
G_SCALAR
G_ARRAY
G_DISCARD
G_NOARGS
G_EVAL
G_KEEPERR
Determining the Context
KNOWN PROBLEMS
EXAMPLES
No Parameters, Nothing returned
Passing Parameters
Returning a Scalar
Returning a list of values
Returning a list in a scalar context
Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list
Using G_EVAL
Using G_KEEPERR
Using perl_call_sv
Using perl_call_argv
Using perl_call_method
Using GIMME_V
Using Perl to dispose of temporaries
Strategies for storing Callback Context Information

1. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl callback

Alternate Stack Manipulation
Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
DATE

perlhist - the Perl history records

DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION
THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN
PUMPKIN?
THE RECORDS
SELECTED RELEASE SIZES
SELECTED PATCH SIZES
THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS

PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION ^

attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

method, locked

re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
WARNING
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

base - Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO

blib - Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUGS
AUTHOR

constant - Perl pragma to declare constants

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTES
TECHNICAL NOTE
BUGS
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

diagnostics - Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
The diagnostics Pragma
The splain Program
EXAMPLES
INTERNALS
BUGS
AUTHOR

fields - compile-time class fields

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO

integer - Perl pragma to compute arithmetic in integer instead of double

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

less - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

lib - manipulate @INC at compile time

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
ADDING DIRECTORIES TO @INC
DELETING DIRECTORIES FROM @INC
RESTORING ORIGINAL @INC
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

overload - Package for overloading perl operations

SYNOPSIS
CAVEAT SCRIPTOR
DESCRIPTION
Declaration of overloaded functions
Calling Conventions for Binary Operations

FALSE, TRUE, undef

Calling Conventions for Unary Operations
Overloadable Operations

Arithmetic operations, Comparison operations, Bit operations, Increment and decrement, Transcendental functions, Boolean, string and numeric conversion, Special

Inheritance and overloading

Strings as values of use overload directive, Overloading of an operation is inherited by derived classes

SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR use overload
Last Resort
Fallback

undef, TRUE, defined, but FALSE

Copy Constructor

Example

MAGIC AUTOGENERATION

Assignment forms of arithmetic operations, Conversion operations, Increment and decrement, abs($a), Unary minus, Negation, Concatenation, Comparison operations, Copy operator

WARNING
Run-time Overloading
Public functions

overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op)

Overloading constants

integer, float, binary, q, qr

IMPLEMENTATION
AUTHOR
DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS

sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
SIGNAL HANDLERS

stack-trace, die, handler your-handler

SIGNAL LISTS

normal-signals, error-signals, old-interface-signals

OTHER

untrapped, any, signal, number

EXAMPLES

strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

strict refs, strict vars, strict subs

subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

vars - Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

MODULE DOCUMENTATION ^

AnyDBM_File - provide framework for multiple DBMs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
DBM Comparisons

[0], [1], [2], [3]

SEE ALSO

AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Subroutine Stubs
Using AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine
Overriding AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine
Package Lexicals
AutoLoader vs. SelfLoader
CAVEATS
SEE ALSO

AutoSplit - split a package for autoloading

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

$keep, $check, $modtime

Multiple packages
DIAGNOSTICS

B - The Perl Compiler

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OVERVIEW OF CLASSES
SV-RELATED CLASSES
B::SV METHODS

REFCNT, FLAGS

B::IV METHODS

IV, IVX, needs64bits, packiv

B::NV METHODS

NV, NVX

B::RV METHODS

RV

B::PV METHODS

PV

B::PVMG METHODS

MAGIC, SvSTASH

B::MAGIC METHODS

MOREMAGIC, PRIVATE, TYPE, FLAGS, OBJ, PTR

B::PVLV METHODS

TARGOFF, TARGLEN, TYPE, TARG

B::BM METHODS

USEFUL, PREVIOUS, RARE, TABLE

B::GV METHODS

NAME, STASH, SV, IO, FORM, AV, HV, EGV, CV, CVGEN, LINE, FILEGV, GvREFCNT, FLAGS

B::IO METHODS

LINES, PAGE, PAGE_LEN, LINES_LEFT, TOP_NAME, TOP_GV, FMT_NAME, FMT_GV, BOTTOM_NAME, BOTTOM_GV, SUBPROCESS, IoTYPE, IoFLAGS

B::AV METHODS

FILL, MAX, OFF, ARRAY, AvFLAGS

B::CV METHODS

STASH, START, ROOT, GV, FILEGV, DEPTH, PADLIST, OUTSIDE, XSUB, XSUBANY

B::HV METHODS

FILL, MAX, KEYS, RITER, NAME, PMROOT, ARRAY

OP-RELATED CLASSES
B::OP METHODS

next, sibling, ppaddr, desc, targ, type, seq, flags, private

B::UNOP METHOD

first

B::BINOP METHOD

last

B::LOGOP METHOD

other

B::CONDOP METHODS

true, false

B::LISTOP METHOD

children

B::PMOP METHODS

pmreplroot, pmreplstart, pmnext, pmregexp, pmflags, pmpermflags, precomp

B::SVOP METHOD

sv

B::GVOP METHOD

gv

B::PVOP METHOD

pv

B::LOOP METHODS

redoop, nextop, lastop

B::COP METHODS

label, stash, filegv, cop_seq, arybase, line

FUNCTIONS EXPORTED BY B

main_cv, main_root, main_start, comppadlist, sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no, walkoptree(OP, METHOD), walkoptree_debug(DEBUG), walksymtable(SYMREF, METHOD, RECURSE), svref_2object(SV), ppname(OPNUM), hash(STR), cast_I32(I), minus_c, cstring(STR), class(OBJ), threadsv_names, byteload_fh(FILEHANDLE)

AUTHOR

B::Asmdata - Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Assembler - Assemble Perl bytecode

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Bytecode - Perl compiler's bytecode backend

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS

-ofilename, --, -f, -fcompress-nullops, -fomit-sequence-numbers, -fbypass-nullops, -fstrip-syntax-tree, -On, -D, -Do, -Db, -Da, -DC, -S, -m

BUGS
AUTHOR

B::C - Perl compiler's C backend

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS

-ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -D, -Do, -Dc, -DA, -DC, -DM, -f, -fcog, -fno-cog, -On

EXAMPLES
BUGS
AUTHOR

B::CC - Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS

-ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -mModulename, -D, -Dr, -DO, -Ds, -Dp, -Dq, -Dl, -Dt, -f, -ffreetmps-each-bblock, -ffreetmps-each-loop, -fomit-taint, -On

EXAMPLES
BUGS
DIFFERENCES
Loops
Context of ".."
Arithmetic
Deprecated features
AUTHOR

B::Debug - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Deparse - Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS

-p, -uPACKAGE, -l, -sLETTERS, C

BUGS
AUTHOR

B::Disassembler - Disassemble Perl bytecode

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Lint - Perl lint

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS AND LINT CHECKS

context, implicit-read and implicit-write, dollar-underscore, private-names, undefined-subs, regexp-variables, all, none

NON LINT-CHECK OPTIONS

-u Package

BUGS
AUTHOR

B::O, O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONVENTIONS
IMPLEMENTATION
AUTHOR

B::Showlex - Show lexical variables used in functions or files

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Stackobj - Helper module for CC backend

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Terse - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

B::Xref - Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS

-oFILENAME, -r, -D[tO]

BUGS
AUTHOR

Benchmark - benchmark running times of code

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Methods

new, debug

Standard Exports

timeit(COUNT, CODE), timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE ]] ), timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), timediff ( T1, T2 ), timestr ( TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ] ] )

Optional Exports

clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( )

NOTES
INHERITANCE
CAVEATS
AUTHORS
MODIFICATION HISTORY

CGI - Simple Common Gateway Interface Class

SYNOPSIS
ABSTRACT
DESCRIPTION
PROGRAMMING STYLE
CALLING CGI.PM ROUTINES

1. Use another name for the argument, if one is available. Forexample, -value is an alias for -values, 2. Change the capitalization, e.g. -Values, 3. Put quotes around the argument name, e.g. '-values'

CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT (OBJECT-ORIENTED STYLE):
CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE
FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY:
FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT:
FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER:
SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER:
APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER:
IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE:
DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY:
DELETING ALL PARAMETERS:
DIRECT ACCESS TO THE PARAMETER LIST:
SAVING THE STATE OF THE SCRIPT TO A FILE:
USING THE FUNCTION-ORIENTED INTERFACE

:cgi, :form, :html2, :html3, :netscape, :html, :standard, :all

PRAGMAS

-any, -compile, -nph, -autoload, -no_debug, -private_tempfiles

GENERATING DYNAMIC DOCUMENTS
CREATING A STANDARD HTTP HEADER:
GENERATING A REDIRECTION HEADER
CREATING THE HTML DOCUMENT HEADER

Parameters:, 4, 5, 6..

ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT:
CREATING A SELF-REFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION:
OBTAINING THE SCRIPT'S URL

-absolute, -relative, -full, -path (-path_info), -query (-query_string)

CREATING STANDARD HTML ELEMENTS:
PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS
THE DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY OF HTML SHORTCUTS
HTML SHORTCUTS AND LIST INTERPOLATION
NON-STANDARD HTML SHORTCUTS
CREATING FILL-OUT FORMS:
CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG
STARTING AND ENDING A FORM

application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data

CREATING A TEXT FIELD

Parameters

CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD
CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD
CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD

Parameters

CREATING A POPUP MENU
CREATING A SCROLLING LIST

Parameters:

CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES

Parameters:

CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX

Parameters:

CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP

Parameters:

CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON

Parameters:

CREATING A RESET BUTTON
CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON
CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD

Parameters:

CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON

Parameters:, 3.The third option (-align, optional) is an alignment type, and may be TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE

CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON
NETSCAPE COOKIES

1. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a "secure" flag, -name, -value, -path, -domain, -expires, -secure

WORKING WITH NETSCAPE FRAMES

1. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the document in the HTTP header, 3. Specify the destination for the document in the <FORM> tag

LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS
DEBUGGING
DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS
FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

accept(), raw_cookie(), user_agent(), path_info(), path_translated(), remote_host(), script_name()Return the script name as a partial URL, for self-refering scripts, referer(), auth_type (), server_name (), virtual_host (), server_software (), remote_user (), user_name (), request_method()

USING NPH SCRIPTS

In the use statement, By calling the nph() method:, By using -nph parameters in the header() and redirect() statements:

Server Push

multipart_init() multipart_init(-boundary=>$boundary);, multipart_start(), multipart_end()

Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks

$CGI::POST_MAX, $CGI::DISABLE_UPLOADS, 1. On a script-by-script basis, 2. Globally for all scripts

COMPATIBILITY WITH CGI-LIB.PL
AUTHOR INFORMATION
CREDITS

Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor (james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <sanguish@digifix.com>, Mike Jewell (mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg (jh@axis.se), Laurent Delfosse (delfosse@csgrad1.cs.wvu.edu), Richard Resnick (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig (k@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@fulcrum.com.au), Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu), Stephen Dahmen (joyfire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net), David Alan Pisoni (david@cnation.com), Doug MacEachern (dougm@opengroup.org), Robin Houston (robin@oneworld.org), ...and many many more..

A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORM-BASED SCRIPT
BUGS
SEE ALSO

CGI::Apache - Make things work with CGI.pm against Perl-Apache API

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE 1
NOTE 2
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

CGI::Carp, CGI::Carp - CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES
MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW
Changing the default message
CHANGE LOG
AUTHORS
SEE ALSO

CGI::Cookie - Interface to Netscape Cookies

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
USING CGI::Cookie

1. expiration date, 2. domain, 3. path, 4. secure flag

Creating New Cookies
Sending the Cookie to the Browser
Recovering Previous Cookies
Manipulating Cookies

name(), value(), domain(), path(), expires()

AUTHOR INFORMATION
BUGS
SEE ALSO

CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE
WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS
INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS
USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS
CAVEATS
AUTHOR INFORMATION
BUGS
SEE ALSO

CGI::Push - Simple Interface to Server Push

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
USING CGI::Push

-next_page, -last_page, -type, -delay, -cookie, -target, -expires

Heterogeneous Pages
Changing the Page Delay on the Fly
INSTALLING CGI::Push SCRIPTS
CAVEATS
AUTHOR INFORMATION
BUGS
SEE ALSO

CGI::Switch - Try more than one constructors and return the first object available

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Interactive Mode

Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules, make, test, install, clean modules or distributions, readme, look module or distribution, Signals

CPAN::Shell
autobundle
recompile
The four CPAN::* Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution
Programmer's interface

expand($type,@things), Programming Examples

Methods in the four
Cache Manager
Bundles
Prerequisites
Finding packages and VERSION
Debugging
Floppy, Zip, and all that Jazz
CONFIGURATION

o conf <scalar option>, o conf <scalar option> <value>, o conf <list option>, o conf <list option> [shift|pop], o conf <list option> [unshift|push|splice] <list>

CD-ROM support
SECURITY
EXPORT
BUGS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

CPAN::FirstTime - Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

CPANox, CPAN::Nox - Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO

Carp, carp - warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Forcing a Stack Trace

Class::Struct - declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
The struct() function
Element Types and Accessor Methods

Scalar ('$' or '*$'), Array ('@' or '*@'), Hash ('%' or '*%'), Class ('Class_Name' or '*Class_Name')

EXAMPLES

Example 1, Example 2

Author and Modification History

Cwd, getcwd - get pathname of current working directory

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

DB_HASH, DB_BTREE, DB_RECNO

Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2
Interface to Berkeley DB
Opening a Berkeley DB Database File
Default Parameters
In Memory Databases
DB_HASH
A Simple Example
DB_BTREE
Changing the BTREE sort order
Handling Duplicate Keys
The get_dup() Method
Matching Partial Keys
DB_RECNO
The 'bval' Option
A Simple Example
Extra Methods

$X->push(list) ;, $value = $X->pop ;, $X->shift, $X->unshift(list) ;, $X->length

Another Example
THE API INTERFACE

$status = $X->get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->del($key [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->fd ;, $status = $X->seq($key, $value, $flags) ;, $status = $X->sync([$flags]) ;

HINTS AND TIPS
Locking Databases
Sharing Databases With C Applications
The untie() Gotcha
COMMON QUESTIONS
Why is there Perl source in my database?
How do I store complex data structures with DB_File?
What does "Invalid Argument" mean?
What does "Bareword 'DB_File' not allowed" mean?
HISTORY
BUGS
AVAILABILITY
COPYRIGHT
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

Data::Dumper - stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and eval

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Methods

PACKAGE->new(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Dump or PACKAGE->Dump(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Dumpxs or PACKAGE->Dumpxs(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Seen([HASHREF]), $OBJ->Values([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Names([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Reset

Functions

Dumper(LIST), DumperX(LIST)

Configuration Variables or Methods

$Data::Dumper::Indent or $OBJ->Indent([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Purity or $OBJ->Purity([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Pad or $OBJ->Pad([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Varname or $OBJ->Varname([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Useqq or $OBJ->Useqq([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Terse or $OBJ->Terse([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Freezer or $OBJ->Freezer([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Toaster or $OBJ->Toaster([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Deepcopy or $OBJ->Deepcopy([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Quotekeys or $OBJ->Quotekeys([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Bless or $OBJ->Bless([NEWVAL])

Exports

Dumper

EXAMPLES
BUGS
AUTHOR
VERSION
SEE ALSO

Devel::SelfStubber - generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

DirHandle - supply object methods for directory handles

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

English - use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Env - perl module that imports environment variables

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

Exporter - Implements default import method for modules

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Selecting What To Export
Specialised Import Lists
Exporting without using Export's import method
Module Version Checking
Managing Unknown Symbols
Tag Handling Utility Functions

ExtUtils::Command - utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

cat, eqtime src dst, rm_f files..., rm_f files..., touch files .., mv source... destination, cp source... destination, chmod mode files.., mkpath directory.., test_f file

BUGS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Embed - Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
@EXPORT
FUNCTIONS

xsinit(), Examples, ldopts(), Examples, perl_inc(), ccflags(), ccdlflags(), ccopts(), xsi_header(), xsi_protos(@modules), xsi_body(@modules)

EXAMPLES
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Install - install files from here to there

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

ExtUtils::Installed - Inventory management of installed modules

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
USAGE
FUNCTIONS

new(), modules(), files(), directories(), directory_tree(), validate(), packlist(), version()

EXAMPLE
AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Liblist - determine libraries to use and how to use them

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

For static extensions, For dynamic extensions, For dynamic extensions

EXTRALIBS
LDLOADLIBS and LD_RUN_PATH
BSLOADLIBS
PORTABILITY
VMS implementation
Win32 implementation
SEE ALSO

ExtUtils::MM_OS2 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
METHODS
Preloaded methods

canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, rootdir, updir

SelfLoaded methods

c_o (o), cflags (o), clean (o), const_cccmd (o), const_config (o), const_loadlibs (o), constants (o), depend (o), dir_target (o), dist (o), dist_basics (o), dist_ci (o), dist_core (o), dist_dir (o), dist_test (o), dlsyms (o), dynamic (o), dynamic_bs (o), dynamic_lib (o), exescan, extliblist, file_name_is_absolute, find_perl

Methods to actually produce chunks of text for the Makefile

fixin, force (o), guess_name, has_link_code, init_dirscan, init_main, init_others, install (o), installbin (o), libscan (o), linkext (o), lsdir, macro (o), makeaperl (o), makefile (o), manifypods (o), maybe_command, maybe_command_in_dirs, needs_linking (o), nicetext, parse_version, parse_abstract, pasthru (o), path, perl_script, perldepend (o), ppd, perm_rw (o), perm_rwx (o), pm_to_blib, post_constants (o), post_initialize (o), postamble (o), prefixify, processPL (o), realclean (o), replace_manpage_separator, static (o), static_lib (o), staticmake (o), subdir_x (o), subdirs (o), test (o), test_via_harness (o), test_via_script (o), tool_autosplit (o), tools_other (o), tool_xsubpp (o), top_targets (o), writedoc, xs_c (o), xs_o (o), perl_archive, export_list

SEE ALSO

ExtUtils::MM_VMS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Methods always loaded

eliminate_macros, fixpath, catdir, catfile, wraplist, curdir (override), rootdir (override), updir (override)

SelfLoaded methods

guess_name (override), find_perl (override), path (override), maybe_command (override), maybe_command_in_dirs (override), perl_script (override), file_name_is_absolute (override), replace_manpage_separator, init_others (override), constants (override), cflags (override), const_cccmd (override), pm_to_blib (override), tool_autosplit (override), tool_sxubpp (override), xsubpp_version (override), tools_other (override), dist (override), c_o (override), xs_c (override), xs_o (override), top_targets (override), dlsyms (override), dynamic_lib (override), dynamic_bs (override), static_lib (override), manifypods (override), processPL (override), installbin (override), subdir_x (override), clean (override), realclean (override), dist_basics (override), dist_core (override), dist_dir (override), dist_test (override), install (override), perldepend (override), makefile (override), test (override), test_via_harness (override), test_via_script (override), makeaperl (override), nicetext (override)

ExtUtils::MM_Win32 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

catfile, constants (o), static_lib (o), dynamic_bs (o), dynamic_lib (o), canonpath, perl_script, pm_to_blib, test_via_harness (o), tool_autosplit (override), tools_other (o), xs_o (o), top_targets (o), manifypods (o), dist_ci (o), dist_core (o), pasthru (o)

ExtUtils::MakeMaker - create an extension Makefile

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
How To Write A Makefile.PL
Default Makefile Behaviour
make test
make testdb
make install
PREFIX and LIB attribute
AFS users
Static Linking of a new Perl Binary
Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations
Which architecture dependent directory?
Using Attributes and Parameters

C, CCFLAGS, CONFIG, CONFIGURE, DEFINE, DIR, DISTNAME, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, EXCLUDE_EXT, EXE_FILES, NO_VC, FIRST_MAKEFILE, FULLPERL, H, IMPORTS, INC, INCLUDE_EXT, INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLBIN, INSTALLDIRS, INSTALLMAN1DIR, INSTALLMAN3DIR, INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT, INSTALLSITELIB, INSTALLSITEARCH, INST_ARCHLIB, INST_BIN, INST_EXE, INST_LIB, INST_MAN1DIR, INST_MAN3DIR, INST_SCRIPT, LDFROM, LIBPERL_A, LIB, LIBS, LINKTYPE, MAKEAPERL, MAKEFILE, MAN1PODS, MAN3PODS, MAP_TARGET, MYEXTLIB, NAME, NEEDS_LINKING, NOECHO, NORECURS, OBJECT, OPTIMIZE, PERL, PERLMAINCC, PERL_ARCHLIB, PERL_LIB, PERL_SRC, PERM_RW, PERM_RWX, PL_FILES, PM, PMLIBDIRS, PREFIX, PREREQ_PM, SKIP, TYPEMAPS, VERSION, VERSION_FROM, XS, XSOPT, XSPROTOARG, XS_VERSION

Additional lowercase attributes

clean, depend, dist, dynamic_lib, installpm, linkext, macro, realclean, tool_autosplit

Overriding MakeMaker Methods
Hintsfile support
Distribution Support

make distcheck, make skipcheck, make distclean, make manifest, make distdir, make tardist, make dist, make uutardist, make shdist, make zipdist, make ci

Disabling an extension
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS

ExtUtils::Manifest - utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
MANIFEST.SKIP
EXPORT_OK
GLOBAL VARIABLES
DIAGNOSTICS

Not in MANIFEST: file, No such file: file, MANIFEST: $!, Added to MANIFEST: file

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap - make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

ExtUtils::Mksymlists - write linker options files for dynamic extension

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

NAME, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, FILE, FUNCLIST, DLBASE

AUTHOR
REVISION

ExtUtils::Packlist - manage .packlist files

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
USAGE
FUNCTIONS

new(), read(), write(), validate(), packlist_file()

EXAMPLE
AUTHOR

ExtUtils::testlib - add blib/* directories to @INC

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Fatal - replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

Fcntl - load the C Fcntl.h defines

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
EXPORTED SYMBOLS

File::Basename, fileparse - split a pathname into pieces

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

fileparse_set_fstype, fileparse

EXAMPLES

basename, dirname

File::CheckTree, validate - run many filetest checks on a tree

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

File::Compare - Compare files or filehandles

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
RETURN
AUTHOR

File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Special behavior if syscopy is defined (VMS and OS/2)

rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])

RETURN
AUTHOR

File::DosGlob - DOS like globbing and then some

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXPORTS (by request only)
BUGS
AUTHOR
HISTORY
SEE ALSO

File::Find, find - traverse a file tree

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUGS

File::Path - create or remove a series of directories

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHORS
REVISION

File::Spec - portably perform operations on file names

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS

File::Spec::Mac - File::Spec for MacOS

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
METHODS

canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, rootdir, updir, file_name_is_absolute, path

SEE ALSO

File::Spec::OS2 - methods for OS/2 file specs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

File::Spec::Unix - methods used by File::Spec

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
METHODS

canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, rootdir, updir, no_upwards, file_name_is_absolute, path, join, nativename

SEE ALSO

File::Spec::VMS - methods for VMS file specs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Methods always loaded

catdir, catfile, curdir (override), rootdir (override), updir (override), path (override), file_name_is_absolute (override)

File::Spec::Win32 - methods for Win32 file specs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

catfile, canonpath

File::stat - by-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
AUTHOR

FileCache - keep more files open than the system permits

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUGS

FileHandle - supply object methods for filehandles

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

$fh->print, $fh->printf, $fh->getline, $fh->getlines

SEE ALSO

FindBin - Locate directory of original perl script

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXPORTABLE VARIABLES
KNOWN BUGS
AUTHORS
COPYRIGHT
REVISION

GDBM_File - Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AVAILABILITY
BUGS
SEE ALSO

Getopt::Long, GetOptions - extended processing of command line options

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

!, +, :s, :i, :f

Linkage specification
Aliases and abbreviations
Non-option call-back routine
Option starters
Return values and Errors
COMPATIBILITY
EXAMPLES
CONFIGURATION OPTIONS

default, auto_abbrev, getopt_compat, require_order, permute, bundling (default: reset), bundling_override (default: reset), ignore_case (default: set), ignore_case_always (default: reset), pass_through (default: reset), prefix, prefix_pattern, debug (default: reset)

OTHER USEFUL VARIABLES

$Getopt::Long::VERSION, $Getopt::Long::error

AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

Getopt::Std, getopt - Process single-character switches with switch clustering

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

I18N::Collate - compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

IO - load various IO modules

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

IO::lib::IO::File, IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONSTRUCTOR

new ([ ARGS ] ), new_tmpfile

METHODS

open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] )

SEE ALSO
HISTORY

IO::lib::IO::Handle, IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONSTRUCTOR

new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE )

METHODS

$fh->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $fh->opened, $fh->getline, $fh->getlines, $fh->ungetc ( ORD ), $fh->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET }\] ), $fh->flush, $fh->error, $fh->clearerr, $fh->untaint

NOTE
SEE ALSO
BUGS
HISTORY

IO::lib::IO::Pipe, IO::pipe - supply object methods for pipes

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONSTRCUTOR

new ( [READER, WRITER] )

METHODS

reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles ()

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

IO::lib::IO::Seekable, IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

IO::lib::IO::Select, IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONSTRUCTOR

new ( [ HANDLES ] )

METHODS

add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_error ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, ERROR [, TIMEOUT ] )

EXAMPLE
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

IO::lib::IO::Socket, IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CONSTRUCTOR

new ( [ARGS] )

METHODS

accept([PKG]), timeout([VAL]), sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), sockdomain, socktype, protocol

SUB-CLASSES
IO::Socket::INET
METHODS

sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost ()

IO::Socket::UNIX
METHODS

hostpath(), peerpath()

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

IPC::Open2, open2 - open a process for both reading and writing

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
WARNING
SEE ALSO

IPC::Open3, open3 - open a process for reading, writing, and error handling

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
WARNING

IPC::SysV - SysV IPC constants

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

ftok( PATH, ID )

SEE ALSO
AUTHORS
COPYRIGHT

IPC::SysV::Msg, IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
METHODS

new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

IPC::SysV::Semaphore, IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
METHODS

new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

Math::BigFloat - Arbitrary length float math package

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

number format, Error returns 'NaN', Division is computed to

BUGS
AUTHOR

Math::BigInt - Arbitrary size integer math package

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Canonical notation, Input, Output

EXAMPLES
Autocreating constants
BUGS
AUTHOR

Math::Complex - complex numbers and associated mathematical functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPERATIONS
CREATION
STRINGIFICATION
USAGE
ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO OR LOGARITHM OF ZERO
ERRORS DUE TO INDIGESTIBLE ARGUMENTS
BUGS
AUTHORS

Math::Trig - trigonometric functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

tan

ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO
SIMPLE (REAL) ARGUMENTS, COMPLEX RESULTS
PLANE ANGLE CONVERSIONS
RADIAL COORDINATE CONVERSIONS
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
3-D ANGLE CONVERSIONS

cartesian_to_cylindrical, cartesian_to_spherical, cylindrical_to_cartesian, cylindrical_to_spherical, spherical_to_cartesian, spherical_to_cylindrical

GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES
EXAMPLES
BUGS
AUTHORS

NDBM_File - Tied access to ndbm files

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Net::Ping - check a remote host for reachability

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Functions

Net::Ping->new([$proto [, $def_timeout [, $bytes]]]);, $p->ping($host [, $timeout]);, $p->close();, pingecho($host [, $timeout]);

WARNING
NOTES

Net::hostent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLES
NOTE
AUTHOR

Net::netent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLES
NOTE
AUTHOR

Net::protoent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
AUTHOR

Net::servent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLES
NOTE
AUTHOR

ODBM_File - Tied access to odbm files

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Opcode - Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
WARNING
Operator Names and Operator Lists

an operator name (opname), an operator tag name (optag), a negated opname or optag, an operator set (opset)

Opcode Functions

opcodes, opset (OP, ...), opset_to_ops (OPSET), opset_to_hex (OPSET), full_opset, empty_opset, invert_opset (OPSET), verify_opset (OPSET, ...), define_optag (OPTAG, OPSET), opmask_add (OPSET), opmask, opdesc (OP, ...), opdump (PAT)

Manipulating Opsets
TO DO (maybe)
Predefined Opcode Tags

:base_core, :base_mem, :base_loop, :base_io, :base_orig, :base_math, :base_thread, :default, :filesys_read, :sys_db, :browse, :filesys_open, :filesys_write, :subprocess, :ownprocess, :others, :still_to_be_decided, :dangerous

SEE ALSO
AUTHORS

Opcode::Safe, Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

a new namespace, an operator mask

WARNING
RECENT CHANGES
Methods in class Safe

permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...), deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME), reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK)

Some Safety Issues

Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes

AUTHOR

Opcode::ops, ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO

POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
CAVEATS
FUNCTIONS

_exit, abort, abs, access, acos, alarm, asctime, asin, assert, atan, atan2, atexit, atof, atoi, atol, bsearch, calloc, ceil, chdir, chmod, chown, clearerr, clock, close, closedir, cos, cosh, creat, ctermid, ctime, cuserid, difftime, div, dup, dup2, errno, execl, execle, execlp, execv, execve, execvp, exit, exp, fabs, fclose, fcntl, fdopen, feof, ferror, fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets, fileno, floor, fmod, fopen, fork, fpathconf, fprintf, fputc, fputs, fread, free, freopen, frexp, fscanf, fseek, fsetpos, fstat, ftell, fwrite, getc, getchar, getcwd, getegid, getenv, geteuid, getgid, getgrgid, getgrnam, getgroups, getlogin, getpgrp, getpid, getppid, getpwnam, getpwuid, gets, getuid, gmtime, isalnum, isalpha, isatty, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint, ispunct, isspace, isupper, isxdigit, kill, labs, ldexp, ldiv, link, localeconv, localtime, log, log10, longjmp, lseek, malloc, mblen, mbstowcs, mbtowc, memchr, memcmp, memcpy, memmove, memset, mkdir, mkfifo, mktime, modf, nice, offsetof, open, opendir, pathconf, pause, perror, pipe, pow, printf, putc, putchar, puts, qsort, raise, rand, read, readdir, realloc, remove, rename, rewind, rewinddir, rmdir, scanf, setgid, setjmp, setlocale, setpgid, setsid, setuid, sigaction, siglongjmp, sigpending, sigprocmask, sigsetjmp, sigsuspend, sin, sinh, sleep, sprintf, sqrt, srand, sscanf, stat, strcat, strchr, strcmp, strcoll, strcpy, strcspn, strerror, strftime, strlen, strncat, strncmp, strncpy, stroul, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn, strstr, strtod, strtok, strtol, strtoul, strxfrm, sysconf, system, tan, tanh, tcdrain, tcflow, tcflush, tcgetpgrp, tcsendbreak, tcsetpgrp, time, times, tmpfile, tmpnam, tolower, toupper, ttyname, tzname, tzset, umask, uname, ungetc, unlink, utime, vfprintf, vprintf, vsprintf, wait, waitpid, wcstombs, wctomb, write

CLASSES
POSIX::SigAction

new

POSIX::SigSet

new, addset, delset, emptyset, fillset, ismember

POSIX::Termios

new, getattr, getcc, getcflag, getiflag, getispeed, getlflag, getoflag, getospeed, setattr, setcc, setcflag, setiflag, setispeed, setlflag, setoflag, setospeed, Baud rate values, Terminal interface values, c_cc field values, c_cflag field values, c_iflag field values, c_lflag field values, c_oflag field values

PATHNAME CONSTANTS

Constants

POSIX CONSTANTS

Constants

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

Constants

ERRNO

Constants

FCNTL

Constants

FLOAT

Constants

LIMITS

Constants

LOCALE

Constants

MATH

Constants

SIGNAL

Constants

STAT

Constants, Macros

STDLIB

Constants

STDIO

Constants

TIME

Constants

UNISTD

Constants

WAIT

Constants, Macros

CREATION

Pod::Html - module to convert pod files to HTML

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
ARGUMENTS

help, htmlroot, infile, outfile, podroot, podpath, libpods, netscape, nonetscape, index, noindex, recurse, norecurse, title, verbose

EXAMPLE
AUTHOR
BUGS
SEE ALSO
COPYRIGHT

Pod::Text - convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR
TODO

SDBM_File - Tied access to sdbm files

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Search::Dict, look - search for key in dictionary file

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

SelectSaver - save and restore selected file handle

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

SelfLoader - load functions only on demand

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
The __DATA__ token
SelfLoader autoloading
Autoloading and package lexicals
SelfLoader and AutoLoader
__DATA__, __END__, and the FOOBAR::DATA filehandle.
Classes and inherited methods.
Multiple packages and fully qualified subroutine names

Shell - run shell commands transparently within perl

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

Socket, sockaddr_in, sockaddr_un, inet_aton, inet_ntoa - load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

inet_aton HOSTNAME, inet_ntoa IP_ADDRESS, INADDR_ANY, INADDR_BROADCAST, INADDR_LOOPBACK, INADDR_NONE, sockaddr_in PORT, ADDRESS, sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, pack_sockaddr_in PORT, IP_ADDRESS, unpack_sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, sockaddr_un PATHNAME, sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN, pack_sockaddr_un PATH, unpack_sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN

Symbol - manipulate Perl symbols and their names

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Sys::Hostname - Try every conceivable way to get hostname

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format, @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlogsock $sock_type (added in 5.004_02), closelog

EXAMPLES
DEPENDENCIES
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

Term::Cap - Perl termcap interface

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLES

Term::Complete - Perl word completion module

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

<tab>, ^D, ^U, <del>, <bs>

DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS
AUTHOR

Term::ReadLine - Perl interface to various readline packages. If no real package is found, substitutes stubs instead of basic functions.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Minimal set of supported functions

ReadLine, new, readline, addhistory, IN, $OUT, MinLine, findConsole, Attribs, Features

Additional supported functions

tkRunning, ornaments, newTTY

EXPORTS
ENVIRONMENT

Test - provides a simple framework for writing test scripts

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
TEST TYPES

NORMAL TESTS, SKIPPED TESTS, TODO TESTS

ONFAIL
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

Test::Harness - run perl standard test scripts with statistics

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
The test script output
EXPORT
DIAGNOSTICS

All tests successful.\nFiles=%d, Tests=%d, %s, FAILED tests %s\n\tFailed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay., Test returned status %d (wstat %d), Failed 1 test, %.2f%% okay. %s, Failed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay. %s

ENVIRONMENT
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS
BUGS

Text::Abbrev, abbrev - create an abbreviation table from a list

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE

Text::ParseWords - parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLES

0a simple word, 1multiple spaces are skipped because of our $delim, 2use of quotes to include a space in a word, 3use of a backslash to include a space in a word, 4use of a backslash to remove the special meaning of a double-quote, 5another simple word (note the lack of effect of the backslashed double-quote)

AUTHORS

Text::Soundex - Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLES
LIMITATIONS
AUTHOR

Text::Tabs -- expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUGS
AUTHOR

Text::Wrap - line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
BUGS
AUTHOR

Thread - multithreading

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONS

new \&start_sub, new \&start_sub, LIST, lock VARIABLE, async BLOCK;, Thread->self, Thread->list, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE

METHODS

join, eval, tid

LIMITATIONS
SEE ALSO

Thread::Queue - thread-safe queues

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONS AND METHODS

new, enqueue LIST, dequeue, dequeue_nb, pending

SEE ALSO

Thread::Semaphore - thread-safe semaphores

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
FUNCTIONS AND METHODS

new, new NUMBER, down, down NUMBER, up, up NUMBER

Thread::Signal - Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUGS

Thread::Specific - thread-specific keys

SYNOPSIS

Tie::Array - base class for tied arrays

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

TIEARRAY classname, LIST, STORE this, index, value, FETCH this, index, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, CLEAR this, DESTROY this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST

CAVEATS
AUTHOR

Tie::Handle - base class definitions for tied handles

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, scalar, length, offset, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, format, LIST, READ this, scalar, length, offset, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this

MORE INFORMATION

Tie::Hash, Tie::StdHash - base class definitions for tied hashes

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

TIEHASH classname, LIST, STORE this, key, value, FETCH this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this

CAVEATS
MORE INFORMATION

Tie::RefHash - use references as hash keys

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
AUTHOR
VERSION
SEE ALSO

Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdScalar - base class definitions for tied scalars

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this

MORE INFORMATION

Tie::SubstrHash - Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CAVEATS

Time::Local - efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

Time::gmtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
AUTHOR

Time::localtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
AUTHOR

Time::tm - internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

UNIVERSAL - base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

isa ( TYPE ), can ( METHOD ), VERSION ( [ REQUIRE ] ), UNIVERSAL::isa ( VAL, TYPE ), UNIVERSAL::can ( VAL, METHOD )

User::grent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
AUTHOR

User::pwent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTE
AUTHOR

AUXILIARY DOCUMENTATION ^

Here should be listed all the extra programs' documentation, but they don't all have manual pages yet:

a2p
s2p
find2perl
h2ph
c2ph
h2xs
xsubpp
pod2man
wrapsuid

AUTHOR ^

Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.

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