Gordon Child > Selenium-Remote-Driver-0.11 > Selenium::Remote::Driver

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Module Version: 0.11   Source   Latest Release: Selenium-Remote-Driver-0.2202

NAME ^

Selenium::Remote::Driver - Perl Client for Selenium Remote Driver

SYNOPSIS ^

    use Selenium::Remote::Driver;

    my $driver = new Selenium::Remote::Driver;
    $driver->get('http://www.google.com');
    print $driver->get_title();
    $driver->quit();

DESCRIPTION ^

Selenium is a test tool that allows you to write automated web application UI tests in any programming language against any HTTP website using any mainstream JavaScript-enabled browser. This module is an implementation of the client for the Remote driver that Selenium provides. You can find bindings for other languages at this location:

http://code.google.com/p/selenium/

This module sends commands directly to the Server using HTTP. Using this module together with the Selenium Server, you can automatically control any supported browser. To use this module, you need to have already downloaded and started the Selenium Server (Selenium Server is a Java application).

USAGE (read this first) ^

Remote Driver Response

Selenium::Remote::Driver uses the JsonWireProtocol to communicate with the Selenium Server. If an error occurs while executing the command then the server sends back an HTTP error code with a JSON encoded reponse that indicates the precise Response Error Code. The module will then croak with the error message associated with this code. If no error occurred, then the subroutine called will return the value sent back from the server (if a return value was sent).

So a rule of thumb while invoking methods on the driver is if the method did not croak when called, then you can safely assume the command was successful even if nothing was returned by the method.

WebElement

Selenium Webdriver represents all the HTML elements as WebElement, which is in turn represented by Selenium::Remote::WebElement module. So any method that deals with WebElements will return and/or expect WebElement object. The POD for that module describes all the methods that perform various actions on the WebElements like click, submit etc.

To interact with any WebElement you have to first "find" it, read the POD for find_element or find_elements for further info. Once you find the required element then you can perform various actions. If you don't call find_* method first, all your further actions will fail for that element. Finally, just remember that you don't have to instantiate WebElement objects at all - they will be automatically created when you use the find_* methods.

FUNCTIONS ^

new

 Description:
    Constructor for Driver. It'll instantiate the object if it can communicate
    with the Selenium RC server.

 Input: 7 (all optional)
    desired_capabilities - HASH - Following options are accepted:
      Optional:
        'remote_server_addr' - <string> - IP or FQDN of the RC server machine
        'browser_name' - <string> - desired browser string:
                      {iphone|firefox|internet explorer|htmlunit|iphone|chrome}
        'version' - <string> - desired browser version number
        'platform' - <string> - desired platform:
                                {WINDOWS|XP|VISTA|MAC|LINUX|UNIX|ANY}
        'javascript' - <boolean> - whether javascript should be supported
        'auto_close' - <boolean> - whether driver should end session on remote
                                   server on close.
        'extra_capabilities' - HASH of extra capabilities

        If no values are provided, then these defaults will be assumed:
            'remote_server_addr' => 'localhost'
            'port'         => '4444'
            'browser_name' => 'firefox'
            'version'      => ''
            'platform'     => 'ANY'
            'javascript'   => 1
            'auto_close'   => 1

 Output:
    Remote Driver object

 Usage:
    my $driver = new Selenium::Remote::Driver;
    or
    my $driver = new Selenium::Remote::Driver('browser_name' => 'firefox',
                                              'platform' => 'MAC');
    or
    my $driver = new Selenium::Remote::Driver('remote_server_addr' => '10.10.1.1',
                                              'port' => '2222',
                                              auto_close => 0
                                              );
    or
    my $driver = new Selenium::Remote::Driver('browser_name'       => 'chrome',
                                              'platform'           => 'VISTA',
                                              'extra_capabilities' => {'chrome.switches' => ["--user-data-dir=$ENV{LOCALAPPDATA}\\Google\\Chrome\\User Data"],},
                                              );

status

  Description:
    Query the server's current status. All server implementations
    should return two basic objects describing the server's current
    platform and when the server was built.

  Output:
    Hash ref

  Usage:
    print Dumper $driver->status;

get_alert_text

 Description:
    Gets the text of the currently displayed JavaScript alert(), confirm()
    or prompt() dialog.

 Example
    my $string = $driver->get_alert_text;

send_keys_to_alert

Synonymous with send_keys_to_prompt

send_keys_to_prompt

 Description:
    Sends keystrokes to a JavaScript prompt() dialog.

 Input:
    {string} keys to send

 Example:
    $driver->send_keys_to_prompt('hello world');
  or
    ok($driver->get_alert_text eq 'Please Input your name','prompt appears');
    $driver->send_keys_to_alert("Larry Wall");
    $driver->accept_alert;

accept_alert

 Description:
    Accepts the currently displayed alert dialog.  Usually, this is
    equivalent to clicking the 'OK' button in the dialog.

 Example:
    $driver->accept_alert;

dismiss_alert

 Description:
    Dismisses the currently displayed alert dialog. For comfirm()
    and prompt() dialogs, this is equivalent to clicking the
    'Cancel' button. For alert() dialogs, this is equivalent to
    clicking the 'OK' button.

 Example:
    $driver->dismiss_alert;

mouse_move_to_location

 Description:
    Move the mouse by an offset of the specificed element. If no
    element is specified, the move is relative to the current mouse
    cursor. If an element is provided but no offset, the mouse will be
    moved to the center of the element. If the element is not visible,
    it will be scrolled into view.

 Output:
    STRING - 

 Usage:
    # element - the element to move to. If not specified or is null, the offset is relative to current position of the mouse.
    # xoffset - X offset to move to, relative to the top-left corner of the element. If not specified, the mouse will move to the middle of the element.
    # yoffset - Y offset to move to, relative to the top-left corner of the element. If not specified, the mouse will move to the middle of the element.

    print $driver->mouse_move_to_location(element => e, xoffset => x, yoffset => y);

move_to

Synonymous with mouse_move_to_location

get_capabilities

 Description:
    Retrieve the capabilities of the specified session.

 Output:
    HASH of all the capabilities.

 Usage:
    my $capab = $driver->get_capabilities();
    print Dumper($capab);

set_implicit_wait_timeout

 Description:
    Set the amount of time the driver should wait when searching for elements.
    When searching for a single element, the driver will poll the page until
    an element is found or the timeout expires, whichever occurs first.
    When searching for multiple elements, the driver should poll the page until
    at least one element is found or the timeout expires, at which point it
    will return an empty list. If this method is never called, the driver will
    default to an implicit wait of 0ms.
 
 Input:
    Time in milliseconds.

 Output:
    Server Response Hash with no data returned back from the server.

 Usage:
    $driver->set_implicit_wait_timeout(10);

close

 Description:
    Close the current window.

 Usage:
    $driver->close();
 or
    #close a popup window
    my $handles = $driver->get_window_handles;
    $driver->switch_to_window($handles->[1]);
    $driver->close();
    $driver->switch_to_window($handles->[0]);

quit

 Description:
    Delete the session & close open browsers.

 Usage:
    $driver->quit();

get_current_window_handle

 Description:
    Retrieve the current window handle.

 Output:
    STRING - the window handle

 Usage:
    print $driver->get_current_window_handle();

get_window_handles

 Description:
    Retrieve the list of window handles used in the session.

 Output:
    ARRAY of STRING - list of the window handles

 Usage:
    print Dumper $driver->get_window_handles;
 or
    # get popup, close, then back
    my $handles = $driver->get_window_handles;
    $driver->switch_to_window($handles->[1]);
    $driver->close;
    $driver->switch_to_window($handles->[0]);

get_current_url

 Description:
    Retrieve the url of the current page

 Output:
    STRING - url

 Usage:
    print $driver->get_current_url();

navigate

 Description:
    Navigate to a given url. This is same as get() method.
    
 Input:
    STRING - url

 Usage:
    $driver->navigate('http://www.google.com');

get

 Description:
    Navigate to a given url
    
 Input:
    STRING - url

 Usage:
    $driver->get('http://www.google.com');

get_title

 Description:
    Get the current page title

 Output:
    STRING - Page title

 Usage:
    print $driver->get_title();

go_back

 Description:
    Equivalent to hitting the back button on the browser.

 Usage:
    $driver->go_back();

go_forward

 Description:
    Equivalent to hitting the forward button on the browser.

 Usage:
    $driver->go_forward();

refresh

 Description:
    Reload the current page.

 Usage:
    $driver->refresh();

javascript

 Description:
    returns true if javascript is enabled in the driver.

 Usage:
    if ($driver->javascript) { ...; }

execute_async_script

 Description:
    Inject a snippet of JavaScript into the page for execution in the context
    of the currently selected frame. The executed script is assumed to be
    asynchronous and must signal that is done by invoking the provided
    callback, which is always provided as the final argument to the function.
    The value to this callback will be returned to the client.

    Asynchronous script commands may not span page loads. If an unload event
    is fired while waiting for a script result, an error should be returned
    to the client.

 Input: 2 (1 optional)
    Required:
        STRING - Javascript to execute on the page
    Optional:
        ARRAY - list of arguments that need to be passed to the script.

 Output:
    {*} - Varied, depending on the type of result expected back from the script.

 Usage:
    my $script = q{
        var arg1 = arguments[0];
        var callback = arguments[arguments.length-1];
        var elem = window.document.findElementById(arg1);
        callback(elem);
    };
    my $callback = q{return arguments[0];};
    my $elem = $driver->execute_async_script($script,'myid',$callback);
    $elem->click;

execute_script

 Description:
    Inject a snippet of JavaScript into the page and return its result.
    WebElements that should be passed to the script as an argument should be
    specified in the arguments array as WebElement object. Likewise,
    any WebElements in the script result will be returned as WebElement object.

 Input: 2 (1 optional)
    Required:
        STRING - Javascript to execute on the page
    Optional:
        ARRAY - list of arguments that need to be passed to the script.

 Output:
    {*} - Varied, depending on the type of result expected back from the script.

 Usage:
    my $script = q{
        var arg1 = arguments[0];
        var elem = window.document.findElementById(arg1);
        return elem;
    };
    my $elem = $driver->execute_script($script,'myid');
    $elem->click;

screenshot

 Description:
    Get a screenshot of the current page as a base64 encoded image.

 Output:
    STRING - base64 encoded image

 Usage:
    print $driver->screenshot();
 or
    require MIME::Base64;
    open(FH,'>','screenshot.png');
    binmode FH;
    my $png_base64 = $driver->screenshot();
    print FH MIME::Base64::decode_base64($png_base64);
    close FH;

available_engines

 Description:
    List all available engines on the machine. To use an engine, it has to be present in this list.

 Output:
    {Array.<string>} A list of available engines

 Usage:
    print Dumper $driver->available_engines;

switch_to_frame

 Description:
    Change focus to another frame on the page. If the frame ID is null, the
    server will switch to the page's default content.

 Input: 1
    Required:
        {STRING | NUMBER | NULL} - ID of the frame which can be one of the three
                                   mentioned.

 Usage:
    $driver->switch_to_frame('frame_1');

switch_to_window

 Description:
    Change focus to another window. The window to change focus to may be
    specified by its server assigned window handle, or by the value of its name
    attribute.

 Input: 1
    Required:
        STRING - Window handle or the Window name

 Usage:
    $driver->switch_to_window('MY Homepage');
 or
    # close a popup window and switch back
    my $handles = $driver->get_window_handles;
    $driver->switch_to_window($handles->[1]);
    $driver->close;
    $driver->switch_to_window($handles->[0]);

get_speed

 Description:
    Get the current user input speed. The actual input speed is still browser
    specific and not covered by the Driver.

 Output:
    STRING - One of these: SLOW, MEDIUM, FAST

 Usage:
    print $driver->get_speed();

set_speed

 Description:
    Set the user input speed.

 Input:
    STRING - One of these: SLOW, MEDIUM, FAST

 Usage:
    $driver->set_speed('MEDIUM');

 Note: This function is a no-op in WebDriver (?). See
       https://groups.google.com/d/topic/selenium-users/oX0ZnYFPuSA/discussion and
       http://code.google.com/p/selenium/source/browse/trunk/java/client/src/org/openqa/selenium/WebDriverCommandProcessor.java

get_all_cookies

 Description:
    Retrieve all cookies visible to the current page. Each cookie will be
    returned as a HASH reference with the following keys & their value types:
    
    'name' - STRING
    'value' - STRING
    'path' - STRING
    'domain' - STRING
    'secure' - BOOLEAN

 Output:
    ARRAY of HASHES - list of all the cookie hashes

 Usage:
    print Dumper($driver->get_all_cookies());

add_cookie

 Description:
    Set a cookie on the domain.

 Input: 5 (1 optional)
    Required:
        'name' - STRING
        'value' - STRING
        'path' - STRING
        'domain' - STRING
    Optional:
        'secure' - BOOLEAN - default is false.

 Usage:
    $driver->add_cookie('foo', 'bar', '/', '.google.com', 0)

delete_all_cookies

 Description:
    Delete all cookies visible to the current page.

 Usage:
    $driver->delete_all_cookies();

delete_cookie_named

 Description:
    Delete the cookie with the given name. This command will be a no-op if there
    is no such cookie visible to the current page.

 Input: 1
    Required:
        STRING - name of cookie to delete

 Usage:
    $driver->delete_cookie_named('foo');

get_page_source

 Description:
    Get the current page source.

 Output:
    STRING - The page source.

 Usage:
    print $driver->get_page_source();

find_element

 Description:
    Search for an element on the page, starting from the document root. The
    located element will be returned as a WebElement object.

 Input: 2 (1 optional)
    Required:
        STRING - The search target.
    Optional:
        STRING - Locator scheme to use to search the element, available schemes:
                 {class, class_name, css, id, link, link_text, partial_link_text,
                  tag_name, name, xpath}
                 Defaults to 'xpath'.

 Output:
    Selenium::Remote::WebElement - WebElement Object
    
 Usage:
    $driver->find_element("//input[\@name='q']");

find_elements

 Description:
    Search for multiple elements on the page, starting from the document root.
    The located elements will be returned as an array of WebElement object.

 Input: 2 (1 optional)
    Required:
        STRING - The search target.
    Optional:
        STRING - Locator scheme to use to search the element, available schemes:
                 {class, class_name, css, id, link, link_text, partial_link_text,
                  tag_name, name, xpath}
                 Defaults to 'xpath'.

 Output:
    ARRAY of Selenium::Remote::WebElement - Array of WebElement Objects
    
 Usage:
    $driver->find_elements("//input");

find_child_element

 Description:
    Search for an element on the page, starting from the identified element. The
    located element will be returned as a WebElement object.

 Input: 3 (1 optional)
    Required:
        Selenium::Remote::WebElement - WebElement object from where you want to
                                       start searching.
        STRING - The search target.
    Optional:
        STRING - Locator scheme to use to search the element, available schemes:
                 {class, class_name, css, id, link, link_text, partial_link_text,
                  tag_name, name, xpath}
                 Defaults to 'xpath'.

 Output:
    Selenium::Remote::WebElement - WebElement Object
    
 Usage:
    my $elem1 = $driver->find_element("//select[\@name='ned']");
    my $child = $driver->find_child_element($elem1, "//option[\@value='es_ar']");

find_child_elements

 Description:
    Search for multiple element on the page, starting from the identified
    element. The located elements will be returned as an array of WebElement
    objects.

 Input: 3 (1 optional)
    Required:
        Selenium::Remote::WebElement - WebElement object from where you want to
                                       start searching.
        STRING - The search target.
    Optional:
        STRING - Locator scheme to use to search the element, available schemes:
                 {class, class_name, css, id, link, link_text, partial_link_text,
                  tag_name, name, xpath}
                 Defaults to 'xpath'.

 Output:
    ARRAY of Selenium::Remote::WebElement - Array of WebElement Objects.
    
 Usage:
    my $elem1 = $driver->find_element("//select[\@name='ned']");
    my $child = $driver->find_child_elements($elem1, "//option");

get_active_element

 Description:
    Get the element on the page that currently has focus.. The located element
    will be returned as a WebElement object.

 Output:
    Selenium::Remote::WebElement - WebElement Object
    
 Usage:
    $driver->get_active_element();

send_modifier

 Description:
    Send an event to the active element to depress or release a modifier key.

  Input: 2
    Required:
      value - String - The modifier key event to be sent. This key must be one 'Ctrl','Shift','Alt',' or 'Command'/'Meta' as defined by the send keys command
      isdown - Boolean/String - Whether to generate a key down or key up

 Usage:
    $driver->send_modifier('Alt','down');
    $elem->send_keys('c');
    $driver->send_modifier('Alt','up');

    or

    $driver->send_modifier('Alt',1);
    $elem->send_keys('c');
    $driver->send_modifier('Alt',0);

compare_elements

 Description:
    Test if two element IDs refer to the same DOM element.

 Input: 2
    Required:
        Selenium::Remote::WebElement - WebElement Object
        Selenium::Remote::WebElement - WebElement Object

 Output:
    BOOLEAN
    
 Usage:
    $driver->compare_elements($elem_obj1, $elem_obj2);

click

 Description:
    Click any mouse button (at the coordinates set by the last moveto command).

 Input:
    button - any one of 'LEFT'/0 'MIDDLE'/1 'RIGHT'/2
             defaults to 'LEFT'

 Usage:
    $driver->click('LEFT');
    $driver->click(1); #MIDDLE
    $driver->click('RIGHT');
    $driver->click;  #Defaults to left

double_click

 Description:
    Double-clicks at the current mouse coordinates (set by moveto).

 Usage:
    $driver->double_click;

button_down

 Description:
    Click and hold the left mouse button (at the coordinates set by the
    last moveto command). Note that the next mouse-related command that
    should follow is buttondown . Any other mouse command (such as click
    or another call to buttondown) will yield undefined behaviour.

 Usage:
    $self->button_down;

button_up

 Description:
    Releases the mouse button previously held (where the mouse is
    currently at). Must be called once for every buttondown command
    issued. See the note in click and buttondown about implications of
    out-of-order commands.

 Usage:
    $self->button_up;

SEE ALSO ^

For more information about Selenium , visit the website at http://code.google.com/p/selenium/.

BUGS ^

The Selenium issue tracking system is available online at http://github.com/aivaturi/Selenium-Remote-Driver/issues.

CURRENT MAINTAINER ^

Gordon Child <gchild@gordonchild.com>

AUTHOR ^

Perl Bindings for Selenium Remote Driver by Aditya Ivaturi <ivaturi@gmail.com>

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^

The following people have contributed to this module. (Thanks!)

LICENSE ^

Copyright (c) 2010-2011 Aditya Ivaturi, Gordon Child

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

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