山科 氷魚 (YAMASHINA Hio) > Unicode-Japanese-0.46 > Unicode::Japanese

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Module Version: 0.46   Source   Latest Release: Unicode-Japanese-0.49

NAME ^

Unicode::Japanese - Convert encoding of japanese text

SYNOPSIS ^

 use Unicode::Japanese;
 use Unicode::Japanese qw(unijp);
 
 # convert utf8 -> sjis
 
 print Unicode::Japanese->new($str)->sjis;
 print unijp($str)->sjis; # same as above.
 
 # convert sjis -> utf8
 
 print Unicode::Japanese->new($str,'sjis')->get;
 
 # convert sjis (imode_EMOJI) -> utf8
 
 print Unicode::Japanese->new($str,'sjis-imode')->get;
 
 # convert zenkaku (utf8) -> hankaku (utf8)
 
 print Unicode::Japanese->new($str)->z2h->get;

DESCRIPTION ^

The Unicode::Japanese module converts encoding of japanese text from one encoding to another.

FEATURES

REQUIREMENT ^

No other modules are required at run time.

METHODS ^

$s = Unicode::Japanese->new($str [, $icode [, $encode]])

Create a new instance of Unicode::Japanese.

Any given parameters will be internally passed to the method "set"().

$s = unijp($str [, $icode [, $encode]])

Same as Unicode::Jananese->new(...).

$s->set($str [, $icode [, $encode]])
$str: string
$icode: optional character encoding (default: 'utf8')
$encode: optional binary encoding (default: no binary encodings are assumed)

Store a string into the instance.

Possible character encodings are:

 auto
 utf8 ucs2 ucs4
 utf16-be utf16-le utf16
 utf32-be utf32-le utf32
 sjis cp932 euc euc-jp jis
 sjis-imode sjis-imode1 sjis-imode2
 utf8-imode utf8-imode1 utf8-imode2
 sjis-doti sjis-doti1
 sjis-jsky sjis-jsky1 sjis-jsky2
 jis-jsky  jis-jsky1  jis-jsky2
 utf8-jsky utf8-jsky1 utf8-jsky2
 sjis-au sjis-au1 sjis-au2
 jis-au  jis-au1  jis-au2
 sjis-icon-au sjis-icon-au1 sjis-icon-au2
 euc-icon-au  euc-icon-au1  euc-icon-au2
 jis-icon-au  jis-icon-au1  jis-icon-au2
 utf8-icon-au utf8-icon-au1 utf8-icon-au2
 ascii binary

(see also "SUPPORTED ENCODINGS".)

If you want the Unicode::Japanese detect the character encoding of string, you must explicitly specify 'auto' as the second argument. In that case, the given string will be passed to the method getcode() to guess the encoding.

For binary encodings, only 'base64' is currently supported. If you specify 'base64' as the third argument, the given string will be decoded using Base64 decoder.

Specify 'binary' as the second argument if you want your string to be stored without modification.

When you specify 'sjis-imode' or 'sjis-doti' as the character encoding, any occurences of '&#dddd;' (decimal character reference) in the string will be interpreted and decoded as code point of emoji, just like emoji implanted into the string in binary form.

Since encoded forms of strings in various encodings are not clearly distinctive to each other, it is not always certainly possible to detect what encoding is used for a given string.

When a given string is possibly interpreted as both Shift_JIS and UTF-8 string, this module considers such a string to be encoded in Shift_JIS. And if the encoding is not distinguishable between 'sjis-au' and 'sjis-doti', this module considers it 'sjis-au'.

$str = $s->get
$str: string (UTF-8)

Get the internal string in UTF-8.

This method currently returns a byte string (whose UTF-8 flag is turned off), but this behavior may be changed in the future.

If you absolutely want a byte string, you should use the method utf8() instead. And if you want a character string (whose UTF-8 flag is turned on), you have to use the method getu().

$str = $s->getu
$str: string (UTF-8)

Get the internal string in UTF-8.

On perl-5.8.0 or later, this method returns a character string with its UTF-8 flag turned on.

$code = $s->getcode($str)
$str: string
$code: name of character encoding

Detect the character encoding of given string.

Note that this method, exceptionaly, doesn't deal with the internal string of an instance.

To guess the encoding, the following algorithm is used:

(For pure perl implementation)

  1. If the string has an UTF-32 BOM, its encoding is 'utf32'.
  2. If it has an UTF-16 BOM, its encoding is 'utf16'.
  3. If it is valid for UTF-32BE, its encoding is 'utf32-be'.
  4. If it is valid for UTF-32LE, its encoding is 'utf32-le'.
  5. If it contains no ESC characters or bytes whose eighth bit is on, its encoding is 'ascii'. Every ASCII control characters (0x00-0x1F and 0x7F) except ESC (0x1B) are considered to be in the range of 'ascii'.
  6. If it contains escape sequences of ISO-2022-JP, its encoding is 'jis'.
  7. If it contains any emoji defined for J-PHONE, its encoding is 'sjis-jsky'.
  8. If it is valid for EUC-JP, its encoding is 'euc'.
  9. If it is valid for Shift_JIS, its encoding is 'sjis'.
  10. If it contains any emoji defined for au, and everything else is valid for Shift_JIS, its encoding is 'sjis-au'.
  11. If it contains any emoji defined for i-mode, and everything else is valid for Shift_JIS, its encoding is 'sjis-imode'.
  12. If it contains any emoji defined for dot-i, and everything else is valid for Shift_JIS, its encoding is 'sjis-doti'.
  13. If it is valid for UTF-8, its encoding is 'utf8'.
  14. If no conditions above are fulfilled, its encoding is 'unknown'.

(For XS implementation)

  1. If the string has an UTF-32 BOM, its encoding is 'utf32'.
  2. If it has an UTF-16 BOM, its encoding is 'utf16'.
  3. Find all possible encodings that might have been applied to the string from the following:

    ascii / euc / sjis / jis / utf8 / utf32-be / utf32-le / sjis-jsky / sjis-imode / sjis-au / sjis-doti

  4. If any encodings have been found possible, this module picks out one encoding having the highest priority among them. The priority order is as follows:

    utf32-be / utf32-le / ascii / jis / euc / sjis / sjis-jsky / sjis-imode / sjis-au / sjis-doti / utf8

  5. If no conditions above are fulfilled, its encoding is 'unknown'.

Pay attention to the following pitfalls in the above algorithm:

  • UTF-8 strings might be accidentally considered to be encoded in Shift_JIS.
  • UCS-2 strings (sequence of raw UCS-2 letters in big-endian; each letters has always 2 bytes) can't be detected because they look like nothing but sequences of random bytes whose length is an even number.
  • UTF-16 strings must have BOM to be detected.
  • Emoji are only be recognized if they are implanted into the string in binary form. If they are described in '&#dddd;' form, they aren't considered to be emoji.

Since the XS and pure perl implementations use different algorithms to guess encoding, they may guess differently for the same string. Especially, the pure perl implementation finds Shift_JIS strings containing ESC character (0x1B) to be actually encoded in Shift_JIS but XS implementation doesn't. This is because such strings can hardly be distinguished from 'sjis-jsky'. In addition, EUC-JP strings containing ESC character are also rejected for the same reason.

$code = $s->getcodelist($str)
$str: string
$code: name of character encodings

Detect the character encoding of given string.

Unlike the method getcode(), getcodelist() returns a list of possible encodings.

$str = $s->conv($ocode, $encode)
$ocode: character encoding (possible encodings are:)
 utf8 ucs2 ucs4 utf16
 sjis cp932 euc euc-jp jis
 sjis-imode sjis-imode1 sjis-imode2
 utf8-imode utf8-imode1 utf8-imode2
 sjis-doti sjis-doti1
 sjis-jsky sjis-jsky1 sjis-jsky2
 jis-jsky  jis-jsky1  jis-jsky2
 utf8-jsky utf8-jsky1 utf8-jsky2
 sjis-au sjis-au1 sjis-au2
 jis-au  jis-au1  jis-au2
 sjis-icon-au sjis-icon-au1 sjis-icon-au2
 euc-icon-au  euc-icon-au1  euc-icon-au2
 jis-icon-au  jis-icon-au1  jis-icon-au2
 utf8-icon-au utf8-icon-au1 utf8-icon-au2
 binary

(see also "SUPPORTED ENCODINGS".)

Some encodings for mobile phones have a trailing digit like 'sjis-au2'. Those digits represent the version number of encodings. Such encodings have a variant with no trailing digits, like 'sjis-au', which is the same as the latest version among its variants.

$encode: optional binary encoding
$str: string

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it using a given character encoding method.

If you want the resulting string to be encoded in Base64, specify 'base64' as the second argument.

On perl-5.8.0 or later, the UTF-8 flag of resulting string is turned off even if you specify 'utf8' to the first argument.

$s->tag2bin

Interpret decimal character references (&#dddd;) in the instance, and replaces them with single characters they represent.

$s->z2h

Replace zenkaku (full-width) letters in the instance with hankaku (half-width) letters.

$s->h2z

Replace hankaku (half-width) letters in the instance with zenkaku (full-width) letters.

$s->hira2kata

Replace any hiragana in the instance with katakana.

$s->kata2hira

Replace any katakana in the instance with hiragana.

$str = $s->jis

$str: byte string in ISO-2022-JP

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in ISO-2022-JP.

$str = $s->euc

$str: byte string in EUC-JP

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in EUC-JP.

$str = $s->utf8

$str: byte string in UTF-8

Get the internal UTF-8 string of instance.

On perl-5.8.0 or later, the UTF-8 flag of resulting string is turned off.

$str = $s->ucs2

$str: byte string in UCS-2

Get the internal string of instance as a sequence of raw UCS-2 letters in big-endian. Note that this is different from UTF-16BE as raw UCS-2 sequence has no concept of surrogate pair.

$str = $s->ucs4

$str: byte string in UCS-4

Get the internal string of instance as a sequence of raw UCS-4 letters in big-endian. This is practically the same as UTF-32BE.

$str = $s->utf16

$str: byte string in UTF-16

Get the insternal string of instance with encoding it in UTF-16 in big-endian with no BOM prepended.

$str = $s->sjis

$str: byte string in Shift_JIS

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in Shift_JIS (MS-SJIS / MS-CP932).

$str = $s->sjis_imode

$str: byte string in 'sjis-imode'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-imode'.

$str = $s->sjis_imode1

$str: byte string in 'sjis-imode1'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-imode1'.

$str = $s->sjis_imode2

$str: byte string in 'sjis-imode2'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-imode2'.

$str = $s->sjis_doti

$str: byte string in 'sjis-doti'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-doti'.

$str = $s->sjis_jsky

$str: byte string in 'sjis-jsky'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-jsky'.

$str = $s->sjis_jsky1

$str: byte string in 'sjis-jsky1'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-jsky1'.

$str = $s->sjis_jsky

$str: byte string in 'sjis-jsky'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-jsky'.

$str = $s->sjis_icon_au

$str: byte string in 'sjis-icon-au'

Get the internal string of instance with encoding it in 'sjis-icon-au'.

$str_arrayref = $s->strcut($len)
$len: maximum length of each chunks (in number of full-width characters)
$str_arrayref: reference to array of strings

Split the internal string of instance into chunks of a given length.

On perl-5.8.0 or later, UTF-8 flags of each chunks are turned on.

$len = $s->strlen

$len: character width of the internal string

Calculate the character width of the internal string. Half-width characters have width of one unit, and full-width characters have width of two units.

$s->join_csv(@values);

@values: array of strings

Build a line of CSV from the arguments, and store it into the instance. The resulting line has a trailing line break ("\n").

@values = $s->split_csv;

@values: array of strings

Parse a line of CSV in the instance and return each columns. The line will be chomp()ed before getting parsed.

If the internal string was decoded from 'binary' encoding (see methods new() and set()), the UTF-8 flags of the resulting array of strings are turned off. Otherwise the flags are turned on.

SUPPORTED ENCODINGS ^

 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |encoding       | in | out | guess |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |auto           : OK : --  | ----- |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |utf8           : OK : OK  | OK    |
 |ucs2           : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |ucs4           : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf16-be       : OK : --  | ----- |
 |utf16-le       : OK : --  | ----- |
 |utf16          : OK : OK  | OK(#) |
 |utf32-be       : OK : --  | OK    |
 |utf32-le       : OK : --  | OK    |
 |utf32          : OK : --  | OK(#) |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |sjis           : OK : OK  | OK    |
 |cp932          : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |euc            : OK : OK  | OK    |
 |euc-jp         : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis            : OK : OK  | OK    |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |sjis-imode     : OK : OK  | OK    |
 |sjis-imode1    : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |sjis-imode2    : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-imode     : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-imode1    : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-imode2    : OK : OK  | ----- |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |sjis-doti      : OK : OK  | OK    |
 |sjis-doti1     : OK : OK  | ----- |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |sjis-jsky      : OK : OK  | OK    |
 |sjis-jsky1     : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |sjis-jsky2     : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-jsky       : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-jsky1      : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-jsky2      : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-jsky      : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-jsky1     : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-jsky2     : OK : OK  | ----- |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |sjis-au        : OK : OK  | OK    |
 |sjis-au1       : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |sjis-au2       : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-au         : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-au1        : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-au2        : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |sjis-icon-au   : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |sjis-icon-au1  : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |sjis-icon-au2  : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |euc-icon-au    : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |euc-icon-au1   : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |euc-icon-au2   : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-icon-au    : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-icon-au1   : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |jis-icon-au2   : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-icon-au   : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-icon-au1  : OK : OK  | ----- |
 |utf8-icon-au2  : OK : OK  | ----- |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 |ascii          : OK : --  | OK    |
 |binary         : OK : OK  | ----- |
 +---------------+----+-----+-------+
 (#): guessed when it has bom.

GUESSING ORDER

 1.  utf32 (#)
 2.  utf16 (#)
 3.  utf32-be
 4.  utf32-le
 5.  ascii
 6.  jis
 7.  sjis-jsky (pp)
 8.  euc
 9.  sjis
 10. sjis-jsky (xs)
 11. sjis-au
 12. sjis-imode
 13. sjis-doti
 14. utf8
 15. unknown

DESCRIPTION OF UNICODE MAPPING ^

Transcoding between Unicode encodings and other ones is performed as below:

Shift_JIS

This module uses the mapping table of MS-CP932.

ftp://ftp.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/VENDORS/MICSFT/WINDOWS/CP932.TXT

When the module tries to convert Unicode string to Shift_JIS, it represents most letters which isn't available in Shift_JIS as decimal character reference ('&#dddd;'). There is one exception to this: every graphic characters for mobile phones are replaced with '?' mark.

For variants of Shift_JIS defined for mobile phones, every unrepresentable characters are replaced with '?' mark unlike the plain Shift_JIS.

EUC-JP/ISO-2022-JP

This module doesn't directly convert Unicode string from/to EUC-JP or ISO-2022-JP: it once converts from/to Shift_JIS and then do the rest translation. So characters which aren't available in the Shift_JIS can not be properly translated.

DoCoMo i-mode

This module maps emoji in the range of F800 - F9FF to U+0FF800 - U+0FF9FF.

ASTEL dot-i

This module maps emoji in the range of F000 - F4FF to U+0FF000 - U+0FF4FF.

J-PHONE J-SKY

The encoding method defined by J-SKY is as follows: first an escape sequence "\e\$" comes to indicate the beginning of emoji, then the first byte of an emoji comes next, then the second bytes of at least one emoji comes next, then "\x0f" comes last to indicate the end of emoji. If a string contains a series of emoji whose first bytes are identical, such sequence can be compressed by cascading second bytes of them to the single first byte.

This module considers a pair of those first and second bytes to be one letter, and map them from 4500 - 47FF to U+0FFB00 - U+0FFDFF.

When the module encodes J-SKY emoji, it performs the compression automatically.

AU

This module maps AU emoji to U+0FF500 - U+0FF6FF.

PurePerl mode ^

   use Unicode::Japanese qw(PurePerl);

If you want to explicitly take the pure perl implementation, pass 'PurePerl' to the argument of the use statement.

BUGS ^

Please report bugs and requests to bug-unicode-japanese at rt.cpan.org or http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=Unicode-Japanese. If you report them to the web interface, any progress to your report will be automatically sent back to you.

SUPPORT ^

You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

    perldoc Unicode::Japanese

You can find more information at:

CREDITS ^

Thanks very much to:

NAKAYAMA Nao

SUGIURA Tatsuki & Debian JP Project

COPYRIGHT & LICENSE ^

Copyright 2001-2008 SANO Taku (SAWATARI Mikage) and YAMASHINA Hio, all rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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