Ilya Martynov > HTTP-WebTest-2.04 > HTTP::WebTest

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Module Version: 2.04   Source  

NAME ^

HTTP::WebTest - Testing static and dynamic web content

SYNOPSIS ^

    use HTTP::WebTest;

    my $webtest = new HTTP::WebTest;

    # run test from file
    $webtest->run_wtscript('script.wt');

    # or (to pass test parameters as method arguments)
    $webtest->run_tests($tests);

DESCRIPTION ^

Introduction

This module runs tests on remote URLs containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. and generates a detailed test report. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. This module comes with a set of default plugins but can be easily extended with third party plugins.

The wt script is provided for running HTTP::WebTest from the command line.

The test specifications can be read from a parameter file in wtscript format or input as method arguments. The test results can be displayed on the terminal, directed to a file, stored in a scalar variable. The test results can also be emailed. The report can be modified and extended using report plugins.

Each URL/web file is tested by fetching it from the web server using a local instance of an HTTP user agent. The basic test is simply whether or not the fetch was successful. You may also test using literal strings or regular expressions that are either required to exist or forbidden to exist in the fetched page. You may also specify tests for the minimum and maximum number of bytes in the returned page. You may also specify tests for the minimum and maximum web server response time.

Data flow for HTTP::WebTest:

          --------------              -------------
          |            |              |           |
          | Input      |------------->|  WebTest  |
          | parameters |              |           |
          |            |              -------------
          --------------                  |   ^
                                          |   |
                                          V   |
          -------------               ------------
          |           |    request    |          |
          | Remote    |<--------------|   HTTP   |
          | webserver |-------------->|   user   |
          |           |    response   |   agent  |
          -------------               |          |
                                      ------------

Getting started

This module has complex functionality, but using it to run simple tests is simple. Create a file of test parameters in the wtscript format and use the wt program to process the file using the command wt filename. The only required parameters are test_name and url.

This document describes:

See "perldoc wt" for documentation on the wt program.

Other useful documentation is:

TEST SPECIFICATION ^

The test specifications can be read from a parameter file (in the wtscript format described below) or passed as method arguments as an array of hashes.

Running HTTP::WebTest using a parameter file

HTTP::WebTest can read test specification from file in format called as wtscript.

Tests defined by wtscript file can be run either using Perl API of HTTP::WebTest

    use HTTP::WebTest;

    my $webtest = new HTTP::WebTest;
    $webtest->run_wtscript('script.wt');

or by using program wt supplied with this module.

If you are running dozens of tests, you may want to divide them into several parameter files. This will organize the tests and reduce the size of the output and e-mail messages. However, cookies passed to or received from the web server(s) are not shared between tests in different parameter files.

File format

The wtscript file is a text file containing global parameters and test blocks containing test block parameters. A test block begins with a test_name parameter and ends with an end_test directive. The order of the parameters and test blocks is arbitrary.

Test block parameters MUST occur between a test_name parameter and an end_test directive. (Test block parameters affect only an individual test.) Global parameters must NOT occur between a test_name parameter and an end_test directive. (This requirement does not apply to certain parameters that are both global and test block parameters.)

The following lines are ignored:

Parameters are either scalar (single-valued) or lists (single-valued, multi-valued or nested).

You can specify scalar parameters using forms such as:

    name=value
    name =
           value
    name = 'value'

You can specify list parameters using forms such as:

    name = ( first value
             second value )
    name=( first value => second value
           third value => fourth value
         )
    name = ( first value => second value )
    name = (
             'first value'
             'second value' )
    name= (
             first value
             second value
             third value => 'fourth value'
          )
    name =
           ( first value
             'second value' )
    name = (
             'first value'
             'second value'
           )

Lists can be nested. For example:

    name = ( ( first value
               second value ) )

    name = ( 'third value'
             ( fourth value => fifth value ) )

    name = (
             ( first value
               second value )
             third value
             ( fourth value => fifth value )
           )

You can specify a null (placeholder) value using '' or "". Within single or double quotes, the usual Perl string quoting rules apply. Thus, single quotes mean that all enclosed characters are interpreted literally: '\n' is backslash-n rather than a newline character. Double quotes mean that Perl metasymbols are interpreted: "\n\t" is a newline and a tab. Double quoted strings can also contain Perl variables that will be evaluated by Perl. For example, if the variable $myvar contains the string 'foobar', "$myvar" will be replaced by foobar at runtime. Perl variables can be defined by plugin modules or in code sections in the parameter file as described below.

It is also possible to specify a Perl expression in place of a scalar value, one of a list parameter's values or an entire list. Curly brackets are used to denote Perl code inside wtscript files. HTTP::WebTest compiles this Perl code as anonymous subroutines which are called when values of corresponding test parameters are required. When these subroutines are called HTTP::WebTest object is passed to them as the first argument.

Some examples of syntax:

    # scalar value
    name = { 1 + 1 }

    # element of a list
    name = (
             'first value'
             { "second " . "value" }
           )

    # entire list (must be a reference to an array)
    name = { [ a => 'b', c => 'd' ] }

    # accessing HTTP::WebTest object
    name = { my $webtest = shift; ..... }

Examples of wtscript files

The parameters below specify tests. The tests specified by the text_forbid parameter apply to both the "MyCompany home page" and the "Yahoo home page" tests. Hence, if either returned page contains one of the case-insensitive strings in text_forbid, the test fails. If any test fails or the fetch of the URL fails, an e-mail will be sent to tester@mycompany.com.

    apache_exec = /usr/sbin/apache
    ignore_case = yes
    mail = errors
    mail_addresses = ( tester@mycompany.com )
    mail_server = mailhost.mycompany.com
    text_forbid = ( Premature end of script headers
                    an error occurred while processing this directive
                  )

    test_name = 'MyCompany home page (static)'
        file_path = ( raycosoft_home.html => . )
        text_require = (
            <a href="/dept/peopledev/new_employee/"><font color="#0033cc">
            <a href="https://www.raycosoft.com/"><font color=
                       )
    end_test

    test_name = Yahoo home page
        url = www.yahoo.com
        text_require = ( <a href=r/qt>Quotations</a>...<br> )
        min_bytes = 13000
        max_bytes = 99000
        min_rtime = 0.010
        max_rtime = 30.0
    end_test

Calling HTTP::WebTest from a Perl program

If you are using the Perl API of HTTP::WebTest, the test parameters can be defined as an array of hashes.

Each hash in the array defines tests for one URL. Keys in the hashes are test parameter names and values in hashes are values of test parameters. Optional global test parameters can be passed in a hash passed as the second argument.

Subroutine references can be specified instead of test parameter values. Referenced subroutines are called during test run when values of corresponding test parameters are required. These subroutines are called in an object-oriented fashion, so the HTTP::WebTest object is passed as the first argument.

Tests can be run as

    use HTTP::WebTest;

    my $webtest = new HTTP::WebTest;
    $webtest->run_tests(
                        [ # test 1
                          { param1 => value1,
                            param2 => value2 },
                          # test 2
                          { param1 => value1,
                            param2 => value2 },
                        ],
                        { global_param1 => value1,
                          global_param2 => value2 }
                       );

Example

This Perl script tests Yahoo home page and sends full test report to tester@mycompany.com.

    use HTTP::WebTest;

    my $tests = [
                 { test_name    => 'Yahoo home page',
                   url          => 'http://www.yahoo.com',
                   text_require => [ '<a href=r/qt>Quotations</a>...<br>' ],
                   min_bytes    => 13000,
                   max_bytes    => 99000,
                 }
                ];

    my $params = { mail_server    => 'mailhost.mycompany.com',
                   mail_addresses => [ 'tester@mycompany.com' ],
                   mail           => 'all',
                   ignore_case    => 'yes',
                 };

    my $webtest = new HTTP::WebTest;
    $webtest->run_tests($tests, $params);

PLUGIN MODULES ^

Core plugin modules

HTTP::WebTest is implemented in a modular structure that allows programmers to easily add modules to run additional tests or define additional simple tests without writing a module. HTTP::WebTest provides a number of core plugin modules which are loaded by default:

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::ContentSizeTest

This plugin checks the size of the fetched web page.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Cookies

This plugin controls sending and receiving cookies.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::DefaultReport

This plugin manages the test report.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Loader

This plugin supports adding external plugin modules.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::ResponseTimeTest

This plugin tests the response times of the web server.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::SetRequest

This plugin initializes the HTTP requests.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::StatusTest

This plugin checks the status of the HTTP responses.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::TextMatchTest

This plugin tests whether the content of the HTTP response matches or doesn't match selected text or regular expressions.

Information about test parameters supported by core plugins is summarized below in the section TEST PARAMETERS.

Other plugin modules bundled with HTTP::WebTest

Following plugin modules come with HTTP::WebTest but they are not loaded by default. To use such plugin module load it using global test parameter plugins.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Click

This plugin supports using names of links and buttons on HTML pages to build additional tests.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Delay

This plugin module allows the user to specify pauses in the test sequence.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::HarnessReport

This report plugin can generate test reports that are compatible with Test::Harness.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Hooks

This plugin allows the user to define callback parameters that are evaluated at runtime. This allows the user to define additional tests without writing a plugin module.

Information about test parameters supported by add-on plugin modules is summarized below in section TEST PARAMETERS.

Plugin modules released separately from HTTP::WebTest

Following additional HTTP::WebTest plugins are avialable separately from CPAN.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Apache

This plugin supports testing web files using a local instance of Apache.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::TagAttTest

This plugin allows to forbid or require tags and/or attributes in a web page.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::DateTest

Evaluate the "age" of embedded date strings in response body.

HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::XMLReport

Report plugin for HTTP::WebTest, generates output in XML format.

Writing plugin modules

See perldoc HTTP::WebTest::Plugins for information about writing HTTP::WebTest plugin modules.

ADD-ONS ^

Besides additional plugins other HTTP::WebTest add-ons are available from CPAN:

HTTP::WebTest::XMLParser

Parser of XML representation of wtscript.

TEST PARAMETERS ^

Most parameters can be used as both global and test block parameters. If you specify such parameter outside a test block, that value is the default value for all test blocks. The global value can be overriden in each test block by specifying the parameter within the test block.

Parameters marked as GLOBAL PARAMETER can be used only as global and cannot be overriden in test blocks.

Parameters marked as NON-CORE PARAMETER are defined in add-on plugin modules which must be loaded explicitly using the parameter plugins.

accept_cookies

Option to accept cookies from the web server.

These cookies exist only while the program is executing and do not affect subsequent runs. These cookies do not affect your browser or any software other than the test program. These cookies are only accessible to other tests executed during test sequence execution.

See also the <send_cookies> parameter.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

yes

auth

A list which contains two elements: userid/password pair to be used for web page access authorization.

click_button

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Click

Given name of submit button (i.e. <input type="submit"> tag or <input type="image"> inside of <form> tag) on previously requested HTML page, builds test request to the submitted page.

Note that you still need to pass all form parameters yourself using params test parameter.

Example

See example in HTTP::WebTest::Cookbook.

click_link

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Click

Given name of link (i.e. <a> tag) on previosly requested HTML page, builds test request to the linked page.

Example

See example in HTTP::WebTest::Cookbook.

cookie

Synonym to cookies.

It is deprecated parameter and may be removed in future versions of HTTP::WebTest.

cookies

This is a list parameter that specifies cookies to send to the web server:

    cookies = ( cookie1_spec
                cookie2_spec
                ...
                cookieN_spec )

Currently there are two ways to specify a cookie.

See RFC 2965 for details (ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2965.txt).

default_report

GLOBAL PARAMETER

This parameter controls whether the default report plugin is used for test report creation. Value yes means that default report plugin will be used, value no means that it will not. It can also be used to disable all output (i.e. if this parameter has value no and no other report plugins are loaded).

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

yes

delay

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Delay

Duration of pause (in seconds) before running test.

Allowed values

Any number greater that zero.

end_test

This is not really a parameter, it is part of wtscript format. It marks the end of test block.

fh_out

GLOBAL PARAMETER

A filehandle (or anything else that supports print) to use for test report output. This parameter is ignored if test parameter output_ref is specified also.

This parameter can be used only when passing the test parameters as arguments from a calling Perl script.

form_name

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Click

Give form name attribute (i.e. <form name="foo">) on previously requested HTML page, builds test request to the submitted page.

Note that you still need to pass all form parameters yourself using params test parameter.

handle_redirects

If set to yes then HTTP-WebTest automatically follows redirects. It means that you never see HTTP responses with status codes 301 and 302. This feature is disabled if this test parameter is set to no.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

yes

http_headers

A list of HTTP header/value pairs. Can be used to override default HTTP headers or to add additional HTTP headers.

Example

    http_headers = ( Accept => text/plain, text/html )

ignore_case

Option to do case-insensitive string matching for text_forbid, text_require, regex_forbid and regex_require test parameters.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

no

mail

GLOBAL PARAMETER

Option to e-mail output to one or more addresses specified by mail_addresses test parameter.

mail_addresses

GLOBAL PARAMETER

A list of e-mail addresses where report will be send (if sending report is enabled with mail test parameter).

Default value

no

mail_failure_subject

GLOBAL PARAMETER

Sets Subject header for test report e-mails when some tests fail. In this string some character sequences have special meaning:

%f

the number of failed tests

%s

the number of successful tests

%t

the total number of tests

%%

replaced with single %

Default Value

WEB TESTS FAILED! FOUND %f ERROR(S)

mail_from

GLOBAL PARAMETER

Sets From: header for test report e-mails.

Default Value

Name of user under which test script runs.

mail_server

GLOBAL PARAMETER

Fully-qualified name of of the mail server (e.g., mailhost.mycompany.com).

Default value

localhost

mail_success_subject

GLOBAL PARAMETER

Sets Subject header for test report e-mails when all tests are passed successfully. In this string some character sequences have special meaning (see mail_failure_subject parameter for their description).

Default Value

Web tests succeeded

max_bytes

Maximum number of bytes expected in returned page.

Allowed values

Any integer greater that zero and greater than min_bytes (if min_bytes is specified).

max_rtime

Maximum web server response time (seconds) expected.

Allowed values

Any number greater that zero and greater than min_rtime (if min_rtime is specified).

method

HTTP request method.

See RFC 2616 (HTTP/1.1 protocol).

Allowed values

GET, POST

Default value

GET

min_bytes

Minimum number of bytes expected in returned page.

Allowed values

Any integer less than max_bytes (if max_bytes is specified).

min_rtime

Minimum web server response time (seconds) expected.

Allowed values

Any number less than max_rtime (if max_rtime is specified).

on_finish

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Hooks

The value of this test parameter is ignored. However, it is evaluted before the test sequence is run, so it can be used to run finalization code when the test sequence is finished.

Example

See example in HTTP::WebTest::Cookbook.

on_request

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Hooks

The value of this test parameter is ignored. However, it is evaluted before the HTTP request is done, so it can be used to do initalization before the request.

on_response

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Hooks

This is a list parameter which is treated as test result. It is evaluted when the HTTP response for the test request is received.

It can be used to define custom tests without writing new plugins. It can also be used to run some code when the HTTP response for the test request is received.

Allowed values

    ( YESNO1, COMMENT1
      YESNO2, COMMENT2
      ....
      YESNON, COMMENTN )

Here YESNO, COMMENT is a test result. YESNO is either yes if test is successful or no if it is not. COMMENT is a comment associated with this test.

Example

See example in HTTP::WebTest::Cookbook.

on_start

NON-CORE PARAMETER from HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Hooks

The value of this test parameter is ignored. However, it is evaluted before the test sequence is run, so it can be used to do initalization before the test sequence run.

Example

See example in HTTP::WebTest::Cookbook.

output_ref

GLOBAL PARAMETER

A reference to a scalar that accumulates text of test report. If this test parameter is specified then value of test parameter fh_out is ignore.

This parameter can be used only when passing the test parameters as arguments from a calling Perl script.

params

A list of name/value pairs to be passed as parameters to the URL. (This element is used to test pages that process input from forms.)

If the method key is set to GET, these pairs are URI-escaped and appended to the requested URL.

Example (wtscript file):

    url = http://www.hotmail.com/cgi-bin/hmhome
    params = ( curmbox
               F001 A005
               from
               HotMail )

generates the HTTP request with URI:

    http://www.hotmail.com/cgi-bin/hmhome?curmbox=F001%20A005&from=HotMail

If the method key is set to POST, as long as all values are scalars they are URI-escaped and put into content of the HTTP request. application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type is set for such HTTP request.

If the method key is set to POST, some values may be defined as lists. In this case HTTP::WebTest uses multipart/form-data content type used for Form-based File Upload as specified in RFC 1867. Each parameter with list value is treated as file part specification with the following interpretation:

    ( FILE, FILENAME, HEADER => VALUE... )

where

Example (wtscript file):

    url = http://www.server.com/upload.pl
    method = post
    params = ( submit => ok
               file   => ( '/home/ilya/file.txt', 'myfile.txt' ) )

It generates HTTP request with /home/ilya/file.txt file included and reported under name myfile.txt.

pauth

A list which contains two elements: userid/password pair to be used for proxy server access authorization.

plugins

GLOBAL PARAMETER

A list of module names. Loads these modules and registers them as HTTP::WebTest plugins. If the name of the plugin starts with ::, it is prepended with HTTP::WebTest::Plugin. So

    plugins = ( ::Click )

is equal to

    plugins = ( HTTP::WebTest::Plugin::Click )

proxies

A list of service name/proxy URL pairs that specify proxy servers to use for requests.

Example

    proxies = ( http => http://http_proxy.mycompany.com
                ftp  => http://ftp_proxy.mycompany.com )

regex_forbid

List of regular expressions that are forbidden to exist in the returned page.

For more information, see perldoc perlre or see Programming Perl, 3rd edition, Chapter 5.

See also the text_forbid and ignore_case parameters.

regex_require

List of regular expressions that are required to exist in the returned page.

For more information, see perldoc perlre or see Programming Perl, 3rd edition, Chapter 5.

See also the text_require and ignore_case parameters.

relative_urls

If set to yes than HTTP-WebTest supports relative URLs. See test parameter url for more information.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

no

send_cookies

Option to send cookies to web server. This applies to cookies received from the web server or cookies specified using the cookies test parameter.

This does NOT give the web server(s) access to cookies created with a browser or any user agent software other than this program. The cookies created while this program is running are only accessible to other tests in the same test sequence.

See also the <accept_cookies> parameter.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

yes

show_cookies

Option to display any cookies sent or received.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

no

show_headers

Include request and response headers in the test report.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

no

show_html

Include content of HTTP response in the test report.

Allowed values

yes, no

Default value

no

status_code

Given numeric HTTP Status Code, tests response returned that value.

Default value

200 (OK).

terse

Option to display shorter test report.

Default value

no

test_name

Name associated with this URL in the test report and error messages.

text_forbid

List of text strings that are forbidden to exist in the returned page.

See also the regex_forbid and ignore_case parameters.

text_require

List of text strings that are required to exist in the returned page.

See also the regex_require and ignore_case parameters.

timeout

Set the timeout value in seconds.

Default value

180

url

URL to test.

If test parameter relative_urls is set to yes than URL for each test is treated as relative to the URL in the previous test. URL in the first test is treated as relative to http://localhost.

If test parameter relative_urls is set to no than each URL is treated as absolute. In this case if schema part of URL is omitted (i.e. URL doesn't start with http://, ftp://, etc) then http:// is implied.

user_agent

Set the product token that is used to identify the user agent on the network.

Default value

HTTP-WebTest/NN

where NN is version number of HTTP-WebTest.

RESTRICTIONS / BUGS ^

This module have been tested only on Unix (e.g., Solaris, Linux, AIX, etc.) but it should work on Win32 systems.

If you want to test https:// web sites you may have to install additional modules to enable SSL support in LWP. In short you may have to install Crypt::SSLeay module. For details see README.SSL file in LWP distro.

AUTHORS ^

Richard Anderson <richard@richard-anderson.org> wrote HTTP::WebTest 1.xx, using some ideas from the CPAN Monkeywrench module.

Ilya Martynov <ilya@martynov.org> implemented the plug-in concept, the extended API and completely rewrote HTTP::WebTest.

Please don't email authors directly. Use the SourceForge HTTP::WebTest mail list (see SUPPORT, next section).

SUPPORT ^

Please email bug reports, suggestions, questions, etc. to the SourceForge HTTP::WebTest maillist. You can sign up at http://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/http-webtest-general . The email address is http-webtest-general@lists.sourceforge.net.

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c) 2000-2001 Richard Anderson. All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Ilya Martynov. All rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

SEE ALSO ^

HTTP::WebTest::Cookbook

HTTP::WebTest::API

HTTP::WebTest::Plugins

wt

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