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Jess Robinson > DBIx-Class-0.07001 > DBIx::Class::ResultSet



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DBIx::Class::ResultSet - Responsible for fetching and creating resultset.


  my $rs   = $schema->resultset('User')->search(registered => 1);
  my @rows = $schema->resultset('CD')->search(year => 2005);


The resultset is also known as an iterator. It is responsible for handling queries that may return an arbitrary number of rows, e.g. via "search" or a has_many relationship.

In the examples below, the following table classes are used:

  package MyApp::Schema::Artist;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class/;
  __PACKAGE__->add_columns(qw/artistid name/);
  __PACKAGE__->has_many(cds => 'MyApp::Schema::CD');

  package MyApp::Schema::CD;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class/;
  __PACKAGE__->add_columns(qw/cdid artist title year/);
  __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(artist => 'MyApp::Schema::Artist');



Arguments: $source, \%$attrs
Return Value: $rs

The resultset constructor. Takes a source object (usually a DBIx::Class::ResultSourceProxy::Table) and an attribute hash (see "ATTRIBUTES" below). Does not perform any queries -- these are executed as needed by the other methods.

Generally you won't need to construct a resultset manually. You'll automatically get one from e.g. a "search" called in scalar context:

  my $rs = $schema->resultset('CD')->search({ title => '100th Window' });

IMPORTANT: If called on an object, proxies to new_result instead so

  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->new({ title => 'Spoon' });

will return a CD object, not a ResultSet.


Arguments: $cond, \%attrs?
Return Value: $resultset (scalar context), @row_objs (list context)
  my @cds    = $cd_rs->search({ year => 2001 }); # "... WHERE year = 2001"
  my $new_rs = $cd_rs->search({ year => 2005 });

  my $new_rs = $cd_rs->search([ { year => 2005 }, { year => 2004 } ]);
                 # year = 2005 OR year = 2004

If you need to pass in additional attributes but no additional condition, call it as search(undef, \%attrs).

  # "SELECT name, artistid FROM $artist_table"
  my @all_artists = $schema->resultset('Artist')->search(undef, {
    columns => [qw/name artistid/],

For a list of attributes that can be passed to search, see "ATTRIBUTES". For more examples of using this function, see Searching.


Arguments: $cond, \%attrs?
Return Value: $resultset

This method does the same exact thing as search() except it will always return a resultset, even in list context.


Arguments: $sql_fragment, @bind_values
Return Value: $resultset (scalar context), @row_objs (list context)
  my @cds   = $cd_rs->search_literal('year = ? AND title = ?', qw/2001 Reload/);
  my $newrs = $artist_rs->search_literal('name = ?', 'Metallica');

Pass a literal chunk of SQL to be added to the conditional part of the resultset query.


Arguments: @values | \%cols, \%attrs?
Return Value: $row_object

Finds a row based on its primary key or unique constraint. For example, to find a row by its primary key:

  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->find(5);

You can also find a row by a specific unique constraint using the key attribute. For example:

  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->find('Massive Attack', 'Mezzanine', {
    key => 'cd_artist_title'

Additionally, you can specify the columns explicitly by name:

  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->find(
      artist => 'Massive Attack',
      title  => 'Mezzanine',
    { key => 'cd_artist_title' }

If the key is specified as primary, it searches only on the primary key.

If no key is specified, it searches on all unique constraints defined on the source, including the primary key.

If your table does not have a primary key, you must provide a value for the key attribute matching one of the unique constraints on the source.

See also "find_or_create" and "update_or_create". For information on how to declare unique constraints, see "add_unique_constraint" in DBIx::Class::ResultSource.


Arguments: $rel, $cond, \%attrs?
Return Value: $new_resultset
  $new_rs = $cd_rs->search_related('artist', {
    name => 'Emo-R-Us',

Searches the specified relationship, optionally specifying a condition and attributes for matching records. See "ATTRIBUTES" for more information.


Arguments: none
Return Value: $cursor

Returns a storage-driven cursor to the given resultset. See DBIx::Class::Cursor for more information.


Arguments: $cond?
Return Value: $row_object?
  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->single({ year => 2001 });

Inflates the first result without creating a cursor if the resultset has any records in it; if not returns nothing. Used by "find" as an optimisation.

Can optionally take an additional condition *only* - this is a fast-code-path method; if you need to add extra joins or similar call ->search and then ->single without a condition on the $rs returned from that.


Arguments: $cond?
Return Value: $resultsetcolumn
  my $max_length = $rs->get_column('length')->max;

Returns a DBIx::Class::ResultSetColumn instance for a column of the ResultSet.


Arguments: $cond, \%attrs?
Return Value: $resultset (scalar context), @row_objs (list context)
  # WHERE title LIKE '%blue%'
  $cd_rs = $rs->search_like({ title => '%blue%'});

Performs a search, but uses LIKE instead of = as the condition. Note that this is simply a convenience method. You most likely want to use "search" with specific operators.

For more information, see DBIx::Class::Manual::Cookbook.


Arguments: $first, $last
Return Value: $resultset (scalar context), @row_objs (list context)

Returns a resultset or object list representing a subset of elements from the resultset slice is called on. Indexes are from 0, i.e., to get the first three records, call:

  my ($one, $two, $three) = $rs->slice(0, 2);


Arguments: none
Return Value: $result?

Returns the next element in the resultset (undef is there is none).

Can be used to efficiently iterate over records in the resultset:

  my $rs = $schema->resultset('CD')->search;
  while (my $cd = $rs->next) {
    print $cd->title;

Note that you need to store the resultset object, and call next on it. Calling resultset('Table')->next repeatedly will always return the first record from the resultset.


Arguments: $result_source?
Return Value: $result_source

An accessor for the primary ResultSource object from which this ResultSet is derived.


Arguments: $result_class?
Return Value: $result_class

An accessor for the class to use when creating row objects. Defaults to result_source->result_class - which in most cases is the name of the "table" class.


Arguments: $cond, \%attrs??
Return Value: $count

Performs an SQL COUNT with the same query as the resultset was built with to find the number of elements. If passed arguments, does a search on the resultset and counts the results of that.

Note: When using count with group_by, DBIX::Class emulates GROUP BY using COUNT( DISTINCT( columns ) ). Some databases (notably SQLite) do not support DISTINCT with multiple columns. If you are using such a database, you should only use columns from the main table in your group_by clause.


Arguments: $sql_fragment, @bind_values
Return Value: $count

Counts the results in a literal query. Equivalent to calling "search_literal" with the passed arguments, then "count".


Arguments: none
Return Value: @objects

Returns all elements in the resultset. Called implicitly if the resultset is returned in list context.


Arguments: none
Return Value: $self

Resets the resultset's cursor, so you can iterate through the elements again.


Arguments: none
Return Value: $object?

Resets the resultset and returns an object for the first result (if the resultset returns anything).


Arguments: \%values
Return Value: $storage_rv

Sets the specified columns in the resultset to the supplied values in a single query. Return value will be true if the update succeeded or false if no records were updated; exact type of success value is storage-dependent.


Arguments: \%values
Return Value: 1

Fetches all objects and updates them one at a time. Note that update_all will run DBIC cascade triggers, while "update" will not.


Arguments: none
Return Value: 1

Deletes the contents of the resultset from its result source. Note that this will not run DBIC cascade triggers. See "delete_all" if you need triggers to run. See also "delete" in DBIx::Class::Row.


Arguments: none
Return Value: 1

Fetches all objects and deletes them one at a time. Note that delete_all will run DBIC cascade triggers, while "delete" will not.


Arguments: none
Return Value: $pager

Return Value a Data::Page object for the current resultset. Only makes sense for queries with a page attribute.


Arguments: $page_number
Return Value: $rs

Returns a resultset for the $page_number page of the resultset on which page is called, where each page contains a number of rows equal to the 'rows' attribute set on the resultset (10 by default).


Arguments: \%vals
Return Value: $object

Creates an object in the resultset's result class and returns it.


Arguments: \%vals, \%attrs?
Return Value: $object

Find an existing record from this resultset. If none exists, instantiate a new result object and return it. The object will not be saved into your storage until you call "insert" in DBIx::Class::Row on it.

If you want objects to be saved immediately, use "find_or_create" instead.


Arguments: \%vals
Return Value: $object

Inserts a record into the resultset and returns the object representing it.

Effectively a shortcut for ->new_result(\%vals)->insert.


Arguments: \%vals, \%attrs?
Return Value: $object
  $class->find_or_create({ key => $val, ... });

Tries to find a record based on its primary key or unique constraint; if none is found, creates one and returns that instead.

  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->find_or_create({
    cdid   => 5,
    artist => 'Massive Attack',
    title  => 'Mezzanine',
    year   => 2005,

Also takes an optional key attribute, to search by a specific key or unique constraint. For example:

  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->find_or_create(
      artist => 'Massive Attack',
      title  => 'Mezzanine',
    { key => 'cd_artist_title' }

See also "find" and "update_or_create". For information on how to declare unique constraints, see "add_unique_constraint" in DBIx::Class::ResultSource.


Arguments: \%col_values, { key => $unique_constraint }?
Return Value: $object
  $class->update_or_create({ col => $val, ... });

First, searches for an existing row matching one of the unique constraints (including the primary key) on the source of this resultset. If a row is found, updates it with the other given column values. Otherwise, creates a new row.

Takes an optional key attribute to search on a specific unique constraint. For example:

  # In your application
  my $cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->update_or_create(
      artist => 'Massive Attack',
      title  => 'Mezzanine',
      year   => 1998,
    { key => 'cd_artist_title' }

If no key is specified, it searches on all unique constraints defined on the source, including the primary key.

If the key is specified as primary, it searches only on the primary key.

See also "find" and "find_or_create". For information on how to declare unique constraints, see "add_unique_constraint" in DBIx::Class::ResultSource.


Arguments: none
Return Value: \@cache_objects?

Gets the contents of the cache for the resultset, if the cache is set.


Arguments: \@cache_objects
Return Value: \@cache_objects

Sets the contents of the cache for the resultset. Expects an arrayref of objects of the same class as those produced by the resultset. Note that if the cache is set the resultset will return the cached objects rather than re-querying the database even if the cache attr is not set.


Arguments: none
Return Value: []

Clears the cache for the resultset.


Arguments: $relationship_name
Return Value: $resultset

Returns a related resultset for the supplied relationship name.

  $artist_rs = $schema->resultset('CD')->related_resultset('Artist');


See "throw_exception" in DBIx::Class::Schema for details.


The resultset takes various attributes that modify its behavior. Here's an overview of them:


Value: ($order_by | \@order_by)

Which column(s) to order the results by. This is currently passed through directly to SQL, so you can give e.g. year DESC for a descending order on the column `year'.

Please note that if you have quoting enabled (see "quote_char" in DBIx::Class::Storage) you will need to do \'year DESC' to specify an order. (The scalar ref causes it to be passed as raw sql to the DB, so you will need to manually quote things as appropriate.)


Value: \@columns

Shortcut to request a particular set of columns to be retrieved. Adds me. onto the start of any column without a . in it and sets select from that, then auto-populates as from select as normal. (You may also use the cols attribute, as in earlier versions of DBIC.)


Value: \@columns

Shortcut to include additional columns in the returned results - for example

  $schema->resultset('CD')->search(undef, {
    include_columns => [''],
    join => ['artist']

would return all CDs and include a 'name' column to the information passed to object inflation


Value: \@select_columns

Indicates which columns should be selected from the storage. You can use column names, or in the case of RDBMS back ends, function or stored procedure names:

  $rs = $schema->resultset('Employee')->search(undef, {
    select => [
      { count => 'employeeid' },
      { sum => 'salary' }

When you use function/stored procedure names and do not supply an as attribute, the column names returned are storage-dependent. E.g. MySQL would return a column named count(employeeid) in the above example.


Indicates additional columns to be selected from storage. Works the same as select but adds columns to the selection.


Indicates additional column names for those added via +select.


Value: \@inflation_names

Indicates column names for object inflation. This is used in conjunction with select, usually when select contains one or more function or stored procedure names:

  $rs = $schema->resultset('Employee')->search(undef, {
    select => [
      { count => 'employeeid' }
    as => ['name', 'employee_count'],

  my $employee = $rs->first(); # get the first Employee

If the object against which the search is performed already has an accessor matching a column name specified in as, the value can be retrieved using the accessor as normal:

  my $name = $employee->name();

If on the other hand an accessor does not exist in the object, you need to use get_column instead:

  my $employee_count = $employee->get_column('employee_count');

You can create your own accessors if required - see DBIx::Class::Manual::Cookbook for details.

Please note: This will NOT insert an AS employee_count into the SQL statement produced, it is used for internal access only. Thus attempting to use the accessor in an order_by clause or similar will fail miserably.

To get around this limitation, you can supply literal SQL to your select attibute that contains the AS alias text, eg:

  select => [\'myfield AS alias']


Value: ($rel_name | \@rel_names | \%rel_names)

Contains a list of relationships that should be joined for this query. For example:

  # Get CDs by Nine Inch Nails
  my $rs = $schema->resultset('CD')->search(
    { '' => 'Nine Inch Nails' },
    { join => 'artist' }

Can also contain a hash reference to refer to the other relation's relations. For example:

  package MyApp::Schema::Track;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class/;
  __PACKAGE__->add_columns(qw/trackid cd position title/);
  __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(cd => 'MyApp::Schema::CD');

  # In your application
  my $rs = $schema->resultset('Artist')->search(
    { 'track.title' => 'Teardrop' },
      join     => { cd => 'track' },
      order_by => '',

You need to use the relationship (not the table) name in conditions, because they are aliased as such. The current table is aliased as "me", so you need to use me.column_name in order to avoid ambiguity. For example:

  # Get CDs from 1984 with a 'Foo' track 
  my $rs = $schema->resultset('CD')->search(
      'me.year' => 1984,
      '' => 'Foo'
    { join => 'tracks' }

If the same join is supplied twice, it will be aliased to <rel>_2 (and similarly for a third time). For e.g.

  my $rs = $schema->resultset('Artist')->search({
    'cds.title'   => 'Down to Earth',
    'cds_2.title' => 'Popular',
  }, {
    join => [ qw/cds cds/ ],

will return a set of all artists that have both a cd with title 'Down to Earth' and a cd with title 'Popular'.

If you want to fetch related objects from other tables as well, see prefetch below.


Value: ($rel_name | \@rel_names | \%rel_names)

Contains one or more relationships that should be fetched along with the main query (when they are accessed afterwards they will have already been "prefetched"). This is useful for when you know you will need the related objects, because it saves at least one query:

  my $rs = $schema->resultset('Tag')->search(
      prefetch => {
        cd => 'artist'

The initial search results in SQL like the following:

  SELECT tag.*, cd.*, artist.* FROM tag
  JOIN cd ON = cd.cdid
  JOIN artist ON cd.artist = artist.artistid

DBIx::Class has no need to go back to the database when we access the cd or artist relationships, which saves us two SQL statements in this case.

Simple prefetches will be joined automatically, so there is no need for a join attribute in the above search. If you're prefetching to depth (e.g. { cd => { artist => 'label' } or similar), you'll need to specify the join as well.

prefetch can be used with the following relationship types: belongs_to, has_one (or if you're using add_relationship, any relationship declared with an accessor type of 'single' or 'filter').


Value: $page

Makes the resultset paged and specifies the page to retrieve. Effectively identical to creating a non-pages resultset and then calling ->page($page) on it.

If rows attribute is not specified it defualts to 10 rows per page.


Value: $rows

Specifes the maximum number of rows for direct retrieval or the number of rows per page if the page attribute or method is used.


Value: $offset

Specifies the (zero-based) row number for the first row to be returned, or the of the first row of the first page if paging is used.


Value: \@columns

A arrayref of columns to group by. Can include columns of joined tables.

  group_by => [qw/ column1 column2 ... /]


Value: $condition

HAVING is a select statement attribute that is applied between GROUP BY and ORDER BY. It is applied to the after the grouping calculations have been done.

  having => { 'count(employee)' => { '>=', 100 } }


Value: (0 | 1)

Set to 1 to group by all columns.


Adds to the WHERE clause.

  # only return rows WHERE deleted IS NULL for all searches
  __PACKAGE__->resultset_attributes({ where => { deleted => undef } }); )

Can be overridden by passing { where = undef }> as an attribute to a resulset.


Set to 1 to cache search results. This prevents extra SQL queries if you revisit rows in your ResultSet:

  my $resultset = $schema->resultset('Artist')->search( undef, { cache => 1 } );

  while( my $artist = $resultset->next ) {
    ... do stuff ...

  $rs->first; # without cache, this would issue a query

By default, searches are not cached.

For more examples of using these attributes, see DBIx::Class::Manual::Cookbook.


Value: \@from_clause

The from attribute gives you manual control over the FROM clause of SQL statements generated by DBIx::Class, allowing you to express custom JOIN clauses.

NOTE: Use this on your own risk. This allows you to shoot off your foot!

join will usually do what you need and it is strongly recommended that you avoid using from unless you cannot achieve the desired result using join. And we really do mean "cannot", not just tried and failed. Attempting to use this because you're having problems with join is like trying to use x86 ASM because you've got a syntax error in your C. Trust us on this.

Now, if you're still really, really sure you need to use this (and if you're not 100% sure, ask the mailing list first), here's an explanation of how this works.

The syntax is as follows -

    { <alias1> => <table1> },
      { <alias2> => <table2>, -join_type => 'inner|left|right' },
      [], # nested JOIN (optional)
      { <table1.column1> => <table2.column2>, ... (more conditions) },
    # More of the above [ ] may follow for additional joins

  <table1> <alias1>
    <table2> <alias2>
    [JOIN ...]
  ON <table1.column1> = <table2.column2>
  <more joins may follow>

An easy way to follow the examples below is to remember the following:

    Anything inside "[]" is a JOIN
    Anything inside "{}" is a condition for the enclosing JOIN

The following examples utilize a "person" table in a family tree application. In order to express parent->child relationships, this table is self-joined:

    # Person->belongs_to('father' => 'Person');
    # Person->belongs_to('mother' => 'Person');

from can be used to nest joins. Here we return all children with a father, then search against all mothers of those children:

  $rs = $schema->resultset('Person')->search(
          alias => 'mother', # alias columns in accordance with "from"
          from => [
              { mother => 'person' },
                      { child => 'person' },
                          { father => 'person' },
                          { 'father.person_id' => 'child.father_id' }
                  { 'mother.person_id' => 'child.mother_id' }

  # Equivalent SQL:
  # SELECT mother.* FROM person mother
  # JOIN (
  #   person child
  #   JOIN person father
  #   ON ( father.person_id = child.father_id )
  # )
  # ON ( mother.person_id = child.mother_id )

The type of any join can be controlled manually. To search against only people with a father in the person table, we could explicitly use INNER JOIN:

    $rs = $schema->resultset('Person')->search(
            alias => 'child', # alias columns in accordance with "from"
            from => [
                { child => 'person' },
                    { father => 'person', -join_type => 'inner' },
                    { '' => 'child.father_id' }

    # Equivalent SQL:
    # SELECT child.* FROM person child
    # INNER JOIN person father ON child.father_id =
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