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Jess Robinson > DBIx-Class-Tutorial-0.0001 > DBIx::Class::Tutorial::Part2


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This is part two of the tutorial. See DBIx::Class::Tutorial::Part1 if you haven't already.

In which we discuss more about resultsets and rows, and do some funky related data dealing.



In case you didn't catch this in Part1.

Relationships definitions are what DBIx::Class uses to JOIN tables in the SQL queries it produces.

You can define relationships in your Result classes. Even relationships that your database does not know about.

To access a relationship from both ends, you need to define it twice, once at each Result class end.


An accessor is a method for getting/setting some data on an object.

DBIx::Class defines accessors for all of the columns defined in your Result classes. It also defines an accessor for each relationship you define.

In fact, it creates two accessors for has_many relationships.

  __PACKAGE__->has_many('names', 'Breadcrumbs::Schema::Name', 'PathID');

Here, the names accessor will return a list of Row objects in list context, and a "ResultSet" in scalar context.

Another accessor named names_rs is added, which will always return a ResultSet, no matter which context it is called in. This is useful for templating with Template::Toolkit.

When doing complex searches and naming fake-columns such as a COUNT(*) column, no accessor is created. This is intentional, as it may override methods you have written yourself. Examples of this later.

Unique constraints

If your database has unique indexes defined that are not the primary key, then DBIx::Class::Schema::Loader should export them into your Result classes for you.

You can create your own, independent of the database indexes, for DBIx::Class to use, just add a add_unique_constraint call to your Result class.

  Breadcrumbs::Schema::Path->add_unique_constraint('pathconst' => [qw/path/]);

This is the name of the constraint, followed by a list of columns that are unique.

More about ResultSets ^

A Hint:

Set DBIC_TRACE=1 in your environment, or call $schema->storage->debug(1); to make DBIx::Class dump all the SQL it is producing to STDERR.

Creating ResultSets

The simplest resultset just represents a query that would return an entire table full of data.

  ## ResultSet for the Breadcrumbs::Schema::Name class
  my $name_rs = $schema->resultset('Name')

Every search in scalar context also returns a resultset. I also snuck in an ordering example here.

  ## Just the names beginning with a:
  my $anames_rs = $schema->resultset('Name')->search(
    { '' => { 'like' => 'a%' } },      ## WHERE 
    { order_by  => [ '' ] }            ## ORDER BY

We can add to the query conditions of an existing resultset:

  ## Names beginning with a, in path '/support':
  my $anames_short_rs = $anames_rs->search(
    { 'path.path' => { like => '/support/%' } }, ## WHERE
    { join        => [ 'path' ] },               ## JOIN

When this query runs it will produce SQL something like:

SELECT, FROM Name me JOIN Path path ON path.ID = me.PathID WHERE LIKE 'a%' AND path.path LIKE '/support/%' ORDER BY

If we already have a row object, then we can easily fetch resultsets of data related to it, via the "Relationships". For example starting at a Path object, fetching a resultset of all the related names can be done by calling the accessor names.

  ## Get Path object for '/support':
  my $support = $schema->resultset('Path')->find({ path => '/support' });

  ## Resultset of all the names for this path:
  my $supportnames_rs = $support->names;

The resultset returned from the relationship accessor contains the query conditions for only fetching the Name rows for the Path object we started out with, the SQL will look something like:

SELECT, FROM Name WHERE me.PathID = 10;

Fetching data from ResultSets

Calling any of these methods will cause DBIx::Class to actually run the query represented by the resultset. All the searching above did not run any queries.

As we saw in Part1, we can fetch a single Row using find. This is just for fetching a row based on a known unique value, often the primary key.

  ## Name row with PK 1:
  my $name1 = $schema->resultset('Name')->find({ id => 1 });

If "Unique constraints" have been defined, we can also find a Row based on those, we can force find to use a unique constraint instead of the primary key, which is set up internally as a constraint named primary.

  ## Find path '/support', use pathconst index:
  my $supppath = $schema->resultset('Path')->find(
    { path => '/support' },
    { key => 'pathconst' }

To fetch multiple rows from a resultset, we can simply turn it into an array of Row objects. If your resultset is large, this may take a while and use some memory.

  ## All results in an array:
  my @anames = $anames_rs->all;

  foreach my $name (@anames)
     print $name->id;

To fetch the rows one at a time, we can treat the resultset like an iterator. This only uses memory for one object at a time.

  ## One at a time.
  while (my $aname = $anames_rs->next)
     print $name->id;

If we only ever wanted the first result of a search, we can also call first to get the first row in the result. This is probably only useful if we searched using ordering to sort the results.

  ## First A-name:
  my $aname = $aname_rs->first;
  print $aname->id;

We can also get columns of data from a resultset, rather than rows. This is a handy way to fetch all the IDs of a search.

  ## IDs of all Names beginning with A:
  my @aids = $aname_rs->get_column('id')->all;

Or a sum across all the rows in our resultset.

  ## Sum of all the IDs, for no useful reason:
  my $sumids = $aname_rs->get_column('id')->sum;

Or an arbitrary function, like the lengths of all the names.

  ## Slightly less contrived:
  my @lengths = $aname_rs->get_column('name')->func('LENGTH');

For more of these see DBIx::Class::ResultSetColumn.

Related data ^

Each search starts from one main table and from it you can fetch any related rows or data.

Simple relations

Just call the relationship accessors. For example, path is the relationship from the Name table to the Path table using the PathID column in the Name table.

  ## Get Name object for 'Support' in english:
  my $support_rs = $schema->resultset('Name')->find(
    { name => 'Support',
      lang => 1,

SELECT, FROM Name WHERE name = 'Support' AND lang = 1

  ## Get the path object for a name result:
  my $supportname = $support_rs->first;
  my $supportpath = $supportname->path;

SELECT, me.path FROM Path = WHERE PathID = ?

Or use prefetch to get them both in the same query. Call the accessor on the result as above to retrieve the prefetched data.

  ## Get Name for Support and its Path:
  my $support_rs = $schema->resultset('Name')->search(
   { name => 'Support',
     lang => 1,
   { prefetch => [ 'path' ],          ## JOIN/SELECT

  my $supportpath = $support_rs->first->path;

SELECT,,, path.path FROM Name me JOIN Path path ON ( = me.PathID )

Advanced joins

The join and prefetch attributes can also be used to join across more than one level of related tables.

To join across multiple relationships from the same table, supply an array of relation names to the attribute.

  ## Prefetch both Path and Lang data from Name:
  my $support_rs = $schema->resultset('Name')->search(
   { name => 'Support',
     lang => 1,
   { prefetch => [ 'path', lang' ],          ## JOIN/SELECT

To create a join that drills down into relations of related tables, use a hashref.

  ## Fetch all names for Path '/support', plus the language object of
  ## each Name.
  my $path_rs = $schema->resultset('Path')->search(
    { path => '/support' },
    { prefetch => { names => 'lang' } }

Be aware that this cannot prefetch to multiple has_many relationships on the same level. The data fetching code cannot untangle the result into objects.

Restrict search based on related data

We can just use the related tables to join to without actually retrieving their data, for that we use the search attribute join.

  ## Find all names for path '/support':
  my $supportnames = $schema->resultset('Name')->search(
    { 'path.path' => '/support' },        ## WHERE
    { join        => [ 'path' ] }         ## JOIN

In the SQL produced, the names of the relations are used as aliases for the related tables. Thus you can use constructs like path.path in your search condition to refer to a column on the related table.

The default alias for the main table in the query is me.

Fetch extra values from related data

Instead of prefetching an entire related object, we can just add a needed column to our query.

  ## Get Name for Support and its Path:
  my $support_rs = $schema->resultset('Name')->search(
   { name => 'Support',
     lang => 1,
   {  '+select'  => [ 'path.path ' ],
      '+as'      => [ 'path' ],
      join       => [ 'path' ],

SELECT, me.path, path.path FROM Path me LEFT JOIN Name names ON ( names.PathID = )

The Result of this is an object of class Breadcrumbs::Schema::Path, but it will have an extra data item, called path. Since this is not a predefined column in the Path result class, it will not have an accessor. We can retrieve it's contents using get_column.

  my $path = $support_rs->first->get_column('path');

The +select and +as search attributes are used to include extra columns or expressions in the query. The names supplied for these using +as are just for DBIx::Class' benefit, no AS is added to the query.

Aggregate functions

We can also make up data using aggregate functions, for example, how many Name entries does each Path row have?

  ## Count names per path:
  my $namecounts_rs = $schema->resultset('Path')->search(
    { },
    { '+select'   => [ { count => '*' } ],
      '+as'       => [ 'namecount' ],
      'join'      => [ 'names' ],
      'group_by'  => [ '', 'me.path' ],

SELECT, me.path, COUNT( * ) FROM Path me LEFT JOIN Name names ON ( names.PathID = ) GROUP BY, me.path

group_by is another search attribute that adds the obvious clause to the SQL query. To get a count of names per path, we must add a grouping to force a count per group entry.

  ## Output results:
  while (my $result = $namecounts_rs->next) {
    print "Path ", $result->path, " has ", 
      $result->get_column('namecount'), " names.\n";


Now you should understand:



Part 3 of the tutorial

More about searching

Search attributes

Column objects

Search query format


Jess Robinson <>

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