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NAME ^

IUP::Canvas - [GUI element] 2D canvas with many drawing and text functions

DESCRIPTION ^

Creates an interface element that is a canvas - a working area for your application.

GTK Motif
Windows Classic Windows XP Style

USAGE ^

CREATION - new() method

 my $canvas = IUP::Canvas->new( BORDER=>"YES", BGCOLOR=>"220 0 0" );

Returns: the identifier of the created element, or undef if an error occurs.

NOTE: You can pass to new() other ATTRIBUTE=>'value' or CALLBACKNAME=>\&func pairs relevant to this element - see IUP::Manual::02_Elements.

ATTRIBUTES

For more info about concept of attributes (setting/getting values etc.) see IUP::Manual::03_Attributes. Attributes specific to this element:

BACKINGSTORE

[Motif Only]

Controls the canvas backing store flag. The default value is "YES".

BGCOLOR

Background color. The background is painted only if the ACTION callback is not defined. If the callback is defined the application must draw all the canvas contents. In GTK or Motif if you set the ACTION callback after map then you should also set BGCOLOR to any value just after setting the callback or the first redraw will be lost. Default: "255 255 255".

BORDER

(creation only)

Shows a border around the canvas. Default: "YES".

CANFOCUS

(creation only, non inheritable)

enables the focus traversal of the control. In Windows the canvas will respect CANFOCUS in opposite to the other controls. Default: YES.

CLIPRECT

[Windows and GTK Only] (only during ACTION)

Specifies a rectangle that has its region invalidated for painting, it could be used for clipping. Format: "%d %d %d %d"="x1 y1 x2 y2".

CURSOR

(non inheritable)

Defines a cursor for the canvas.

EXPAND

(non inheritable)

The default value is "YES". The natural size is the size of 1 character.

DRAGDROP

[Windows and GTK Only] (non inheritable)

Enable or disable the drag&drop of files. Default: NO, but if DROPFILES_CB is defined when the element is mapped then it will be automatically enabled.

DRAWSIZE

(non inheritable)

The size of the drawing area in pixels. This size is also used in the RESIZE_CB callback.

Notice that the drawing area size is not the same as RASTERSIZE. The SCROLLBAR and BORDER attributes affect the size of the drawing area.

HDC_WMPAINT

[Windows Only] (non inheritable)

Contains the HDC created with the BeginPaint inside the WM_PAINT message. Valid only during the ACTION callback.

HWND

[Windows Only] (non inheritable, read-only)

Returns the Windows Window handle. Available in the Windows driver or in the GTK driver in Windows.

SCROLLBAR

(creation only)

Associates a horizontal and/or vertical scrollbar to the canvas. Default: "NO". The secondary attributes are all non inheritable.

DX

Size of the thumb in the horizontal scrollbar. Also the horizontal page size. Default: "0.1".

DY

Size of the thumb in the vertical scrollbar. Also the vertical page size. Default: "0.1".

POSX

Position of the thumb in the horizontal scrollbar. Default: "0.0".

POSY

Position of the thumb in the vertical scrollbar. Default: "0.0".

XMIN

Minimum value of the horizontal scrollbar. Default: "0.0".

XMAX

Maximum value of the horizontal scrollbar. Default: "1.0".

YMIN

Minimum value of the vertical scrollbar. Default: "0.0".

YMAX

Maximum value of the vertical scrollbar. Default: "1.0".

LINEX

The amount the thumb moves when an horizontal step is performed. Default: 1/10th of DX.

LINEY

The amount the thumb moves when a vertical step is performed. Default: 1/10th of DY.

XAUTOHIDE

When enabled, if DX >= XMAX-XMIN then the horizontal scrollbar is hidden. Default: "YES".

YAUTOHIDE

When enabled, if DY >= YMAX-YMIN then the vertical scrollbar is hidden. Default: "YES".

TOUCH

[Windows 7 Only]

enable the multi-touch events processing. (Since iup-3.3)

XDISPLAY

[UNIX Only](non inheritable, read-only)

Returns the X-Windows Display. Available in the Motif driver or in the GTK driver in UNIX.

XWINDOW

[UNIX Only](non inheritable, read-only)

Returns the X-Windows Window (Drawable). Available in the Motif driver or in the GTK driver in UNIX.

The following common attributes are also accepted:

CALLBACKS

For more info about concept of callbacks (setting callback handlers etc.) see IUP::Manual::04_Callbacks. Callbacks specific to this element:

ACTION

Action generated when the canvas needs to be redrawn.

Callback handler prototype:

 sub action_handler {
   my ($self, $posx, $posy) = @_;
   #...
 }

$self: identifier of the element that activated the event.

$posx: thumb position in the horizontal scrollbar. The POSX attribute value.

$posy: thumb position in the vertical scrollbar. The POSY attribute value.

BUTTON_CB

Action generated when any mouse button is pressed or released.

DROPFILES_CB

[Windows and GTK Only]

Action generated when one or more files are dropped in the element.

FOCUS_CB

Called when the canvas gets or looses the focus. It is called after the common callbacks GETFOCUS_CB and KILL_FOCUS_CB.

  sub focus_cb_handler {
   my ($self, $focus) = @_;
   #...
 }

$self: identifier of the element that activated the event.

$focus: is non zero if the canvas is getting the focus, is zero if it is loosing the focus.

MOTION_CB

Action generated when the mouse is moved.

KEYPRESS_CB

Action generated when a key is pressed or released. It is called after the common callback K_ANY.

When the canvas has the focus, pressing the arrow keys may change the focus to another control in some systems. If your callback process the arrow keys, we recommend you to return IUP_IGNORE so it will not lose its focus.

RESIZE_CB

Action generated when the canvas size is changed.

SCROLL_CB

Called when the scrollbar is manipulated. (GTK 2.8) Also the POSX and POSY values will not be correctly updated for older GTK versions.

TOUCH_CB

[Windows 7 Only]

Action generated when a touch event occurred. Multiple touch events will trigger several calls. Must set TOUCH=Yes to receive this event. (Since iup-3.3)

Callback handler prototype:

 sub touch_cb_handler {
   my ($self, $id, $x, $y, $state) = @_;
   #...
 }

$self: identifies the element that activated the event.

$id: identifies the touch point.

$x, $y: position in pixels, relative to the top-left corner of the canvas.

$state: the touch point state. Can be: DOWN, MOVE or UP. If the point is a "primary" point then "-PRIMARY" is appended to the string.

Returns: IUP_CLOSE will be processed.

MULTITOUCH_CB

[Windows 7 Only]

Action generated when multiple touch events occurred. Must set TOUCH=Yes to receive this event. (Since iup-3.3)

Callback handler prototype:

 sub multitouch_cb_handler {
   my ($self, $count, $pid, $px, $py, $pstate) = @_;
   #...
 }
 #ZZZ-test-this

$self: identifier of the element that activated the event.

$count: Number of touch points in the array (should correspond to the sizes of $pid, $px, $py, $pstate).

$pid: Reference to array of touch point ids.

$px: Reference to array of touch point x coordinates in pixels, relative to the top-left corner of the canvas.

$py: Reference to array of touch point y coordinates in pixels, relative to the top-left corner of the canvas.

$pstate: Reference to array of touch point states. Can be 'D' (DOWN), 'U' (UP) or 'M' (MOVE).

Returns: IUP_CLOSE will be processed.

WHEEL_CB

Action generated when the mouse wheel is rotated.

WOM_CB

[Windows Only]

Action generated when an audio device receives an event.

The following common callbacks are also accepted:

NOTES:

Canvas Related Constants

 use IUP::Constants ':cd';

See more info about import tag cd: in IUP::Constants.

Methods - Basic Canvas Control

cdClear()

 $canvas->cdClear();

Cleans the active canvas using the current background color. This action is interpreted very differently by each driver. Many drivers simply draw a rectangle with the current background color. It is NOT necessary to call cdClear when the canvas has just been created, as at this moment it is already clean. Most file-based drivers do not implement this function.

cdFlush()

 $canvas->cdFlush();

Has a different meaning for each driver. It is useful to send information to buffered devices and to move to a new page or layer. In all cases, the current canvas attributes are preserved.

cdSaveState()

 $state = $canvas->cdSaveState();
 #NOTE: $state is a reference to 'internal-state' object

Saves the state of attributes of the active canvas. It does not save cdPlay callbacks, polygon creation states (begin/vertex/vertex/...), the palette, complex clipping regions and driver internal attributes.

cdRestoreState()

 $state = $canvas1->cdSaveState();
 #NOTE: $state param has to be a reference to 'internal-state'
 $canvas2->cdRestoreState($state);

Restores the attribute state of the active canvas. It can be used between canvases of different contexts. It can be used several times for the same state.

cdReleaseState()

 $state = $canvas->cdSaveState();
 #NOTE: $state param has to be a reference to 'internal-state'
 IUP:Canvas->cdReleaseState($state);

Releases the memory allocated by the cdSaveState function. If this function is not called in Lua, the garbage collector will call it.

cdSetAttribute()

 $canvas->cdSetAttribute($name, $data);
 #or
 $canvas->cdSetAttribute( $name1=>$data1, $name2=>$data2, $name3=>$data3 );

Modifies a custom attribute directly in the driver of the active canvas. If the driver does not have this attribute, the call is ignored.

cdGetAttribute()

 $data = $canvas->cdGetAttribute($name);
 #or
 @data = $canvas->cdGetAttribute(@names);

Returns a custom attribute from the driver of the active canvas. If the driver does not have this attribute, it returns undef.

cdForeground()

 $color = IUP::Canvas->cdEncodeColor($r, $g, $b);
 
 $old_color = $canvas->cdForeground($color);
 #or just
 $canvas->cdSetForeground($color);

Configures a new current foreground color and returns the previous one. This color is used in all primitives (lines, areas, marks and text). Default value: CD_BLACK. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

Notice that CD_QUERY conflicts with color RGBA=(255,255,255,0) (full transparent white). Use cdSetForeground to avoid the conflict. See also Color Coding.

cdBackground()

 $old_color = $canvas->cdBackground($color);
 $canvas->cdSetBackground($color);

Configures the new current background color and returns the previous one. However, it does not automatically change the background of a canvas. For such, it is necessary to call the cdClear function. The background color only makes sense for cdClear and for primitives affected by the background opacity attribute. Default value: CD_WHITE. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

Notice that CD_QUERY conflicts with color RGBA=(255,255,255,0) (full transparent white). Use cdSetBackground to avoid the conflict. See also Color Coding.

cdWriteMode()

 $old_mode = $canvas->cdWriteMode($mode);

Defines the writing type for all drawing primitives. Values: CD_REPLACE, CD_XOR or CD_NOT_XOR. Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_REPLACE. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

Note: operation XOR is very useful, because, using white as the foreground color and drawing the same image twice, you can go back to the original color, before the drawing. This is commonly used for mouse selection feedback.

Methods - Color Coding

The library's color system is RGB. In order to simplify some functions, a compact representation was created for the 3 values. To make a conversion from this representation to the 3 separate values and vice-versa, use functions cdDecodeColor and cdEncodeColor.

When the canvas used does not support more than 8 bpp of color resolution, you can use function Palette to give the driver an idea of which colors to prioritize. Palette's behavior is driver dependent.

There are some predefined colors - see IUP::Constants:

 CD_RED          = (255,  0,  0)
 CD_DARK_RED     = (128,  0,  0)
 CD_GREEN        = (0  ,255,  0)
 CD_DARK_GREEN   = (  0,128,  0)
 CD_BLUE         = (  0,  0,255)
 CD_DARK_BLUE    = (  0,  0,128)
 CD_YELLOW       = (255,255,  0)
 CD_DARK_YELLOW  = (128,128,  0)
 CD_MAGENTA      = (255,  0,255)
 CD_DARK_MAGENTA = (128,  0,128)
 CD_CYAN         = (  0,255,255)
 CD_DARK_CYAN    = (  0,128,128)
 CD_WHITE        = (255,255,255)
 CD_BLACK        = (  0,  0 , 0)
 CD_DARK_GRAY    = (128,128,128)
 CD_GRAY         = (192,192,192)

cdEncodeColor()

 $color = $canvas->cdEncodeColor($r, $g, $b);
 #or
 $color = IUP::Canvas->cdEncodeColor($r, $g, $b);

Returns a codified triple (r,g,b) in a long integer such as 0x00RRGGBB, where RR are the red components, GG are the green ones and BB are the blue ones. The code is used in the CD library to define colors. It can be used without an active canvas.

cdDecodeColor()

 ($r, $g, $b) = $canvas->cdDecodeColor($color);
 #or
 ($r, $g, $b) = IUP::Canvas->cdDecodeColor($color);

Returns the red, green and blue components of a color in the CD library. Can be used without an active canvas.

cdEncodeAlpha()

 $color = $canvas->cdEncodeAlpha($color, $alpha);
 #or
 $color = IUP::Canvas->cdEncodeAlpha($color, $alpha);

Returns the given color coded with the alpha information.

ATENTION: At the moment only the Cairo, GDI+, XRender and IMAGERGB (= IUP::Canvas::FileBitmap) drivers support alpha components in color coding. The internal representation of the component is inverted, because the default value must be 0 and opaque for backward compatibility, so you should use the cdDecodeAlpha function or the cdAlpha macro to retrieve the alpha component. 0 is transparent, 255 is opaque.

cdDecodeAlpha()

 $alpha = $canvas->cdDecodeAlpha($color);
 #or
 $alpha = IUP->Canvas->cdDecodeAlpha($color);

Returns the alpha component of a color in the CD library. Can be used without an active canvas. 0 is transparent, 255 is opaque.

cdAlpha()

 $alpha = $canvas->cdAlpha($color);
 #or
 $alpha = IUP::Canvas->cdAlpha($color);

Macro that returns the alpha component of a color in the CD library. Can be used without an active canvas.

cdRed()

 $red = $canvas->cdRed($color);
 #or
 $red = IUP::Canvas->cdRed($color);

Macro that returns the red component of a color in the CD library. Can be used without an active canvas.

cdGreen()

 $green = $canvas->cdGreen($color);
 #or
 $green = IUP::Canvas->cdGreen($color);

Macro that returns the green component of a color in the CD library. Can be used without an active canvas.

cdBlue()

 $blue = $canvas->cdBlue($color);
 #or
 $blue = IUP::Canvas->cdBlue($color);

Macro that returns the blue component of a color in the CD library. Can be used without an active canvas.

cdGetColorPlanes()

 $bpp = $canvas->cdGetColorPlanes();

Returns a given number, for instance p, which defines the number of colors supported by the current device as 2p, representing the number of bits by pixel.

cdPalette()

 $palette = IUP::Canvas::Palette->new( [$col0, $col1, $col2, ...] );
 $canvas->cdPalette($palette, $mode);

In systems limited to 256 palette colors, this function aims at adding colors to the system's palette. In such systems, the colors demanded forward or backward which are not in the palette are approximated to the closest available color. The type can be CD_FORCE or CD_POLITE. CD_FORCE ignores the system colors and interface elements, since the menus and dialogues may be in illegible colors, but there will be more colors available. CD_POLITE is the recommended type. It must always be used before drawing. It cannot be queried. See also IUP::Canvas::Palette.

cdCreatePalette()

 $palete = $canvas=>cdCreatePalette($size);
 #or
 $palete = IUP::Canvas=>cdCreatePalette($size);

Creates a palette. See also IUP::Canvas::Palette.

cdKillPalette()

 $canvas->cdKillPalette($palette);
 #or
 IUP::Canvas->cdKillPalette($palette);

Destroys the created palette and liberates allocated memory.

Palette Data Access

Data access in Lua is done directly using the array access operators. The colors can have their values checked or changed directly as if they were Lua tables:

 $palette->[$index] = IUP::Canvas->cdEncodeColor($r, $g, $b);
 #...
 $color = $palette->[$index];
 ($r, $g, $b) = IUP::Canvas->cdDecodeColor($color);

Notice that the type of value returned or received by palette[index] is a lightuserdata, the same type used with functions cdEncodeColor, cdDecodeColor, cdPixel, cdForeground and cdBackground.

Methods - Coordinate System

cdGetSize()

 ($width, $height, $mm_width, $mm_height) = $canvas->cdGetSize();

Returns the canvas size in pixels and in millimeters. You can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

cdYAxisMode()

 $old_invert = $canvas->cdYAxisMode($invert);

Controls the orientation of the Y axis. Internally in some drivers the native axis orientation is top-bottom, so the CD primitives must invert the Y axis since the CD orientation is bottom-top. Using CD_QUERY will return the current Y axis mode, if needs to be invert or not. Using 1 or 0 you can control if the Y axis should be inverted or not independent from the native orientation, with that you can in fact invert the orientation of the CD primitives.

cdInvertYAxis()

 $yr = $canvas->cdInvertYAxis($yc);

cdUpdateYAxis()

 $yr = $canvas->cdUpdateYAxis($yc);

Converts the coordinate system of the CD library into the internal system of the active canvas driver, and the other way round, if they are invert, or else do nothing. This is just "y = height-1 - y". It returns the changed value. The "Invert" will always invert the given value, the "Update" function will invert only if the canvas has the Y axis inverted.

cdMM2Pixel()

 ($dx, $dy) = $canvas->cdMM2Pixel($mm_dx, $mm_dy);
 ($dx, $dy) = $canvas->cdfMM2Pixel($mm_dx, $mm_dy);

Converts sizes in millimeters into pixels (canvas coordinates). You can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

cdPixel2MM()

 ($mm_dx, $mm_dy) = $canvas->cdPixel2MM($dx, $dy);
 ($mm_dx, $mm_dy) = $canvas->cdfPixel2MM($dx, $dy);

Converts sizes in pixels (canvas coordinates) into millimeters. You can provide only the desired values and undef for the others. Use this function to obtain the horizontal and vertical resolution of the canvas by passing 1 as parameter in dx and dy. The resolution value is obtained using the formula res=1.0/mm.

cdOrigin()

 $canvas->cdOrigin($x, $y);
 $canvas->cdfOrigin($x, $y);

Allows translating the origin - for instance, to the center of the canvas. The function profits from the architecture of the library to simulate a translation of the origin, which in fact is never actually passed to the canvas in the respective driver. It is not related with WD nor Transformation Matrix. Default values: (0, 0)

cdGetOrigin()

 ($x, $y) = $canvas->cdGetOrigin();
 ($x, $y) = $canvas->cdfGetOrigin();

Returns the origin.

cdTransform()

 $canvas->cdTransform($matrix);

Defines a transformation matrix with 6 elements. If the matrix is undef, the transformation is reset to the identity. Default value: undef.

The matrix contains scale, rotation and translation elements as follows:

 |x'|   |sx*cos(angle)    -sin(angle)  dx|   |x|                       | $matrix->[0]  $matrix->[2]  $matrix->[4] | 
 |y'| = |   sin(angle)  sy*cos(angle)  dy| * |y|         with indices  | $matrix->[1]  $matrix->[3]  $matrix->[5] |
                                             |1|

But notice that the indices are different of the cdVectorTextTransform.

Functions that retrieve images from the canvas are not affected by the transformation matrix, such as GetImage and ScrollArea.

Transformation matrix is independent of the World Coordinate and Origin functions. And those are affected if a transformation is set, just like other regular primitives.

cdGetTransform()

 $matrix = $canvas->cdGetTransform();

Returns the transformation matrix. If the identity is set, returns undef.

cdTransformMultiply()

 $canvas->cdTransformMultiply($matrix);

Left multiply the current transformation by the given transformation.

cdTransformTranslate()

 $canvas->cdTransformTranslate($dx, $dy);

Applies a translation to the current transformation.

cdTransformScale()

 $canvas->cdTransformScale($sx, $sy);

Applies a scale to the current transformation.

cdTransformRotate()

 $canvas->cdTransformRotate($angle);

Applies a rotation to the current transformation. Angle is in degrees, oriented counter-clockwise from the horizontal axis.

cdTransformPoint()

 ($tx, $ty) = $canvas->cdTransformPoint($x, $y);  #returns integers
 ($tx, $ty) = $canvas->cdfTransformPoint($x, $y); #returns real numbers

Applies a transformation to a given point.

Methods - World Coordinates

Allows the use of a World Coordinate System. In this system you can attribute coordinates to any unit you want. After you define a window (rectangular region) in your world, each given coordinate is then mapped to canvas coordinates to draw the primitives. You can define a viewport in your canvas to change the coordinate mapping from world to canvas. The image below shows the relation between Window and Viewport.

Window x Viewport

If you want to map coordinates from one system to another, use the wdWorld2Canvas e wdCanvas2World functions.

The quality of the picture depends on the conversion from World to Canvas, so if the canvas has a small size the picture quality will be poor. To increase picture quality create a canvas with a larger size, if possible.

All World Coordinate drawing in all drivers are simulated using other CD primitives and do NOT depend or use the cdTransform transformation matrix.

IUP::Canvas funcrions use the following naming convention:

 $canvas->cdMethodName       vs.   $canvas->wdMethodName
 # canvas coordinates              # world coordinates
 # params integers (pixels)        # params real numbers (milimeters)

wdWindow()

 $canvas->wdWindow($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);

Configures a window in the world coordinate system to be used to convert world coordinates (with values in real numbers) into canvas coordinates (with values in integers). The default window is the size in millimeters of the whole canvas.

wdGetWindow

 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax) = $canvas->wdGetWindow();

Queries the current window in the world coordinate system being used to convert world coordinates into canvas coordinates (and the other way round). It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values.

wdViewport

 $canvas->wdViewport($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);

Configures a viewport in the canvas coordinate system to be used to convert world coordinates (with values in real numbers) into canvas coordinates (with values in integers). The default viewport is the whole canvas (0,w-1,0,h-1). If the canvas size is changed, the viewport will not be automatically updated.

wdGetViewport()

 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax) = $canvas->wdGetViewport();

Queries the current viewport in the world coordinate system being used to convert world coordinates into canvas coordinates (and the other way round). It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

wdWorld2Canvas()

 ($xv, $yv) = $canvas->wdWorld2Canvas($xw, $yw);

Converts world coordinates into canvas coordinates. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

wdCanvas2World()

 ($xw, $yw) = $canvas->wdCanvas2World($xv, $yv);

Converts canvas coordinates into world coordinates. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

wdSetTransform()

 $canvas->wdSetTransform($sx, $sy, $tx, $ty);

Configures the world coordinate system transformation to be used to convert world coordinates (with values in real numbers) into canvas coordinates (with values in integers). The transformation is automatically set by wdCanvasWindow and wdCanvasViewport. This has NO relation with cdTransform.

wdGetTransform()

 ($sx, $sy, $tx, $ty) = $canvas->wdGetTransform();

Queries the current transformation being used to convert world coordinates into canvas coordinates (and the other way round). It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values.

wdTranslate()

 $canvas->wdTranslate($dtx, $dty);

Translates the transformation by a delta, by adding the given values to the current tx and ty values.

wdScale()

 $canvas->wdScale($dsx, $dsy);

Scales the transformation by a delta, by multiplying the given values by the current sx and sy values.

wdCanvasHardcopy() #NOT-IMPLEMENTED

 $canvas->wdCanvasHardcopy($ctx, $data, $draw_func);

Creates a new canvas, prepares Window and Viewport according to the provided canvas, maintaining the aspect ratio and making the drawing occupy the largest possible area of the new canvas, calls the drawing function (which must use routines in WC) and, finally, removes the new canvas.

It is usually used for "hard copies" of drawings (print equivalent copy). The most common used contexts are Printer, PS and PDF.

Methods - Primitives / Marks

A mark is a punctual representation. It can have different sizes and types. All types are affected only by mark attributes and by the foreground color.

All marks in all drivers are simulated using other CD primitives, except cdPixel.

cdPixel()

 $canvas->cdPixel($x, $y, $color);
 $canvas->wdPixel($x, $y, $color);

Configures the pixel (x,y) with the color defined by color. It is the smallest element of the canvas. It depends only on global attributes of the canvas. It can be very slow on some drivers. Sometimes it is implemented as a rectangle with size 1x1.

cdMark()

 $canvas->cdMark($x, $y);
 $canvas->wdMark($x, $y);

Draws a mark in (x,y) using the current foreground color. It is not possible to use this function between a call to functions cdBegin and cdEnd if the type of mark is set to CD_DIAMOND. If the active driver does not include this primitive, it will be simulated using other primitives from the library, such as cdLine.

If you will call this function several times in a sequence, then it is recommended that the application changes the filling and line attributes to those used by this function:

 $canvas->cdInteriorStyle(CD_SOLID);
 $canvas->cdLineStyle(CD_CONTINUOUS);
 $canvas->cdLineWidth(1);

This will greatly increase this function's performance. Also in this case, if the mark is very small, we suggest using the cdPixel function so that the application itself draws the mark. In many cases, this also increases this function's performance.

cdMarkType()

 $canvas->cdMarkType($type);

Configures the current mark type for: CD_PLUS, CD_STAR, CD_CIRCLE, CD_X, CD_BOX, CD_DIAMOND, CD_HOLLOW_CIRCLE, CD_HOLLOW_BOX or CD_HOLLOW_DIAMOND. Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_STAR. Value CD_QUERYsimply returns the current value.

Mark Types:

cdMarkSize()

 $old_size = $canvas->cdMarkSize($number);
 $old_size = $canvas->wMarkSize($number);

Configures the mark size in pixels. Returns the previous value. Default value: 10. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value. Valid width interval: >= 1.

In WC, it configures the current line width in millimeters.

Methods - Primitives / Lines

Line are segments that connects 2 or more points. The cdLine function includes the 2 given points and draws the line using the foreground color. Line thickness is controlled by the cdLineWidth function. By using function cdLineStyle you can draw dashed lines with some variations. Lines with a style other than continuous are affected by the back opacity attribute and by the background color.

cdLine()

 $canvas->cdLine($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2);
 $canvas->cdfLine($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2);
 $canvas->dwLine($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2);

Draws a line from (x1,y1) to (x2,y2) using the current foreground color and line width and style. Both points are included in the line.

Open polygons can be created using:

 $canvas->cdBegin(CD_OPEN_LINES);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x,$y);
 #...
 $canvas->cdEnd();

Closed polygons use the same number of vertices but the last point is automatically connected to the first point. Closed polygons can be created using:

 $canvas->cdBegin(CD_CLOSED_LINES);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x,$y);
 #...
 $canvas->cdEnd();

Bezier lines can be created using:

 $canvas->cdBegin(CD_BEZIER);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x,$y);
 #...
 $canvas->cdEnd()

At least 4 vertices must be defined. The two vertices of the middle are the control vertices. A sequence of bezier lines can be defined using more 3 vertices, two control points and an end point, the last point of the previous bezier will be used as the start point.

See the documentation polygon section cdBegin cdVertex cdEnd

cdRect()

 $canvas->cdRect($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);  #params are integers
 $canvas->cdfRect($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax); #params are floating numbers
 $canvas->wdRect($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);  #params are floating numbers

Draws a rectangle with no filling. All points in the limits of interval xmin <= x <= xmax, y_min <= y <= ymax will be painted. It is affected by line attributes and the foreground color. If the active driver does not include this primitive, it will be simulated using the cdLine primitive.

cdArc()

 $canvas->cdArc($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);
 $canvas->cdfArc($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);
 $canvas->wdArc($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);

Draws the arc of an ellipse aligned with the axis, using the current foreground color and line width and style.

The coordinate (xc,yc) defines the center of the ellipse. Dimensions w and h define the elliptic axes X and Y, respectively.

Angles angle1 and angle2 are in degrees and oriented counter-clockwise. They define the arc start and end, but they are not the angle relative to the center, except when w==h and the ellipse is reduced to a circle. The arc starts at the point (xc+(w/2)*cos(angle1), yc+(h/2)*sin(angle1)) and ends at (xc+(w/2)*cos(angle2), yc+(h/2)*sin(angle2)). A complete ellipse can be drawn using 0 and 360 as the angles. If angle2 is less than angle1 it will be increased by 360 until it is greater than angle1.

The angles are specified so if the size of the ellipse (w x h) is changed, its shape is preserved. So the angles relative to the center are dependent from the ellipse size. The actual angle can be obtained using rangle = atan2((h/2)*sin(angle), (w/2)*cos(angle)).

To specify the angle in radians, you can use the definition CD_RAD2DEG to multiply the value in radians before passing the angle to CD.

Arc Parameters:

cdLineStyle()

 $old_style = $canvas->cdLineStyle($style);

Configures the current line style for: CD_CONTINUOUS, CD_DASHED, CD_DOTTED, CD_DASH_DOT, CD_DASH_DOT_DOT, or CD_CUSTOM. Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_CONTINUOUS. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value. When CD_CUSTOM is used the cdLineStyleDahes function must be called before to initialize the custom dashes. The spaces are drawn with the background color, except when back opacity is transparent then the background is left unchanged. See BackOpacity.

Line Styles:

cdLineStyleDashes()

 $canvas->cdLineStyleDashes(\@dashes);

Defines the custom line style dashes. The first value is the length of the first dash, the second value is the length of the first space, and so on. For example: @dashes = (10 2 5 2) means dash size 10, space size 2, dash size 5, space size 2, and repeats the pattern. Sizes are in pixels.

cdLineWidth()

 $old_width = $canvas->cdLineWidth($width);
 $old_width = $canvas->wdLineWidth($width_mm);

Configures the width of the current line (in pixels). Returns the previous value. Default value: 1. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value. Valid width interval: >= 1.

In WC, it configures the current line width in millimeters.

cdLineJoin()

 $old_style = $canvas->cdLineJoin($style);

Configures the current line style for: CD_MITER, CD_BEVEL or CD_ROUND. Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_MITER. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

Line Joins:

cdLineCap()

 $old_style = $canvas->cdLineCap($style);

Configures the current line style for: CD_CAPFLAT, CD_CAPSQUARE or CD_CAPROUND. Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_CAPFLAT. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

Line Caps:

Methods - Primitives / Polygons

The functions cdBegin, cdVertex and cdEnd are use for many situations. cdBegin is called once, cdVertex can be called many times, and cdEnd is called once to actually do something. If you call cdBegin again before cdEnd the process is restarted, except for cdBegin(CD_REGION) that can contains one or more polygons inside.

cdBegin()

 $canvas->cdBegin($mode);

Starts defining a polygon to be drawn (or filled) according to the mode: CD_CLOSED_LINES, CD_OPEN_LINES, CD_FILL, CD_CLIP, CD_REGION or CD_BEZIER. Do not create embedded polygons, that is, do not call function cdBegin twice without a call to cdEnd in between.

Open, Closed and Filled Polygons:

Bezier Lines:

cdVertex()

 $canvas->cdVertex($x, $y);
 $canvas->wdVertex($x, $y);

Adds a vertex to the polygon definition.

cdEnd()

 $canvas->cdEnd();

Ends the polygon's definition and draws it.

cdPathSet()

 $canvas->cdPathSet($action);

Configures the action between sequences of cdCanvasVertex. action can be:

So the normal path creation to draw a line will do:

 $canvas->cdBegin(CD_PATH);
 $canvas->cdPathSet(CD_PATH_MOVETO);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x1, $y1);
 $canvas->cdPathSet(CD_PATH_LINETO);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x2, $y2);
 $canvas->cdPathSet(CD_PATH_CURVETO);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x3, $y3);  # control point for start point
 $canvas->cdVertex($x4, $y4);  # control point for end point
 $canvas->cdVertex($x5, $y5);  # end point
 $canvas->cdPathSet(CD_PATH_ARC);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x6, $y6);  # center
 $canvas->cdVertex($x7, $y7);  # width, height
 $canvas->cdVertex($x8, $y8);  # start angle, end angle (degrees / 1000)
 $canvas->cdPathSet(CD_PATH_STROKE);
 $canvas->cdEnd();

Methods - Primitives / Filled Areas

It is an area filled with the foreground color, but it depends on the current interior style. The SOLID style depends only on the foreground color. The HATCH and STIPPLE style depend on the foreground color, background color and on the back opacity attribute. The hatch lines drawn with this style do not depend on the other line attributes. The PATTERN style depends only on global canvas attributes.

The filled area includes the line at the edge of the area. So if you draw a filled rectangle, sector or polygon on top of a non filled one using the same coordinates, no style and 1 pixel width, the non filled primitive should be obscured by the filled primitive. But depending on the driver implementation some pixels at the edges may be not included. IMPORTANT: In the Postscript and PDF drivers the line at the edge is not included at all.

If either the background or the foreground color are modified, the hatched and monochromatic fillings must be modified again in order to be updated.

Note that when a Filling Attribute is modified, the active filling style is now that of the modified attribute (hatch, stipple or pattern). Notice that this is not true for the clipping area. When the clipping area is modified, the clipping is only affected if it is active.

Filled polygons can be created using:

 $canvas->cdBegin(CD_FILL);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x,$y);
 #...
 $canvas->cdEnd();

See the documentation of cdBegin cdVertex, cdEnd.

cdBox()

 $canvas->cdBox($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);
 $canvas->cdfBox($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);
 $canvas->wdBox($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);

Fills a rectangle according to the current interior style. All points in the interval xmin <= x <= xmax, ymin <= y <= ymax will be painted. When the interior style CD_HOLLOW is defined, the function behaves like its equivalent cdRect.

cdSector()

 $canvas->cdSector($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);
 $canvas->cdfSector($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);
 $canvas->wdSector($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);

Fills the arc of an ellipse aligned with the axis, according to the current interior style, in the shape of a pie.

The coordinate (xc,yc) defines the center of the ellipse. Dimensions w and h define the elliptic axes X and Y, respectively.

Angles angle1 and angle2 are in degrees and oriented counter-clockwise. They define the arc start and end, but they are not the angle relative to the center, except when w==h and the ellipse is reduced to a circle. The arc starts at the point (xc+(w/2)*cos(angle1), yc+(h/2)*sin(angle1)) and ends at (xc+(w/2)*cos(angle2), yc+(h/2)*sin(angle2)). A complete ellipse can be drawn using 0 and 360 as the angles. If angle2 is less than angle1 it will be increased by 360 until it is greater than angle1.

The angles are specified so if the size of the ellipse (w x h) is changed, its shape is preserved. So the angles relative to the center are dependent from the ellipse size. The actual angle can be obtained using rangle = atan2((h/2)*sin(angle), (w/2)*cos(angle)).

To specify the angle in radians, you can use the definition CD_RAD2DEG to multiply the value in radians before passing the angle to CD.

When the interior style CD_HOLLOW is defined, the function behaves like its equivalent cdArc, plus two lines connecting to the center.

Sector Parameters:

cdChord()

 $canvas->cdChord($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);
 $canvas->cdfChord($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);
 $canvas->wdChord($xc, $yc, $w, $h, $angle1, $angle2);

Fills the arc of an ellipse aligned with the axis, according to the current interior style, the start and end points of the arc are connected. The parameters are the same as the cdSector|/"cdSector".

When the interior style CD_HOLLOW is defined, the function behaves like its equivalent cdArc, plus a line connecting the arc start and end points.

Chord Parameters:

cdBackOpacity()

 $old_opacity = $canvas->cdBackOpacity($opacity);

Configures the background opacity to filling primitives based on the foreground and background colors. Note that only when InteriorStyle is CD_HATCH or CD_STIPPLE that backopacity is used. Values: CD_TRANSPARENT or CD_OPAQUE. If it is opaque the primitive will erase whatever is in the background with the background color. If it is transparent, only the foreground color is painted. It returns the previous value. Default value: CD_TRANSPARENT. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value. In some drivers is always opaque.

Back Opacity Attribute:

cdFillMode()

 $old_mode = $canvas->cdFillMode($mode);

Selects a predefined polygon fill rule (CD_EVENODD or CD_WINDING). Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_EVENODD. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

Fill Modes:

cdInteriorStyle()

 $old_style = $canvas->cdInteriorStyle($style);

Configures the current style for the area filling primitives: CD_SOLID, CD_HOLLOW, CD_HATCH, CD_STIPPLE or CD_PATTERN. Note that only CD_HATCH and CD_STIPPLE are affected by the backopacity. It returns the previous value. Default value: CD_SOLID. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

If a stipple or a pattern were not defined, when they are selected the state of the attribute is not changed.

When the style CD_HOLLOW is defined, functions cdBox and cdSector behave as their equivalent cdRect and cdArc+Lines, and the polygons with style CD_FILL behave like CD_CLOSED_LINES.

cdHatch()

 $old_style = $canvas->cdHatch($style);

Selects a predefined hatch style (CD_HORIZONTAL, CD_VERTICAL, CD_FDIAGONAL, CD_BDIAGONAL, CD_CROSS or CD_DIAGCROSS) and sets the interior style to CD_HATCH. The lines are drawn with the foreground color, and the background is drawn with the background color if back opacity is opaque. Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_HORIZONTAL. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value. The foreground and background colors must be set before setting the style. In some drivers is always opaque.

Hatch Styles

cdStipple()

 $stipple = IUP::Canvas::Stipple->new( [[1,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1], 
                                        [1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0],
                                        [1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0],
                                        [1,0,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,1]] );
 $canvas->cdStipple($stipple);

Defines a stipple (= matrix of zeros 0 and ones 1). The zeros are mapped to the background color or are transparent, according to the background opacity attribute. The ones are mapped to the foreground color. The function sets the interior style to CD_STIPPLE. The origin (0,0) is the left bottom corner of the image. It does not need to be stored by the application, as it is internally replicated by the library. In some drivers is always opaque. The foreground and background colors must be set before setting the style.

 $canvas->wdStipple($stipple, $w_mm, $h_mm);

Allows specifying the stipple in world coordinates. Another stipple will be created with the size in pixels corresponding to the specified size in millimeters. The new size in pixels will be an integer factor of the original size that is closets to the size in millimeters. The use of this function may produce very large or very small stipples.

cdGetStipple()

 $stipple = canvas->cdGetStipple();

Returns the current stipple as a reference to array of arrayrefs. Returns undef if no stipple was defined.

cdPattern()

 $color1 = $canvas->cdEncodeColor(0, 0, 220);
 $color2 = $canvas->cdEncodeColor(220, 0, 220); 
 $pattern = IUP::Canvas::Pattern->new( [[$color1, $color2, $color1], 
                                        [$color2, $color1, $color2],
                                        [$color1, $color2, $color1]] );
 $canvas->cdPattern($pattern);

Defines a new color matrix ($pattern->[$line]->[$column]) and sets the interior style to CD_PATTERN. The origin ($pattern->[0]->[0]) is the left bottom corner of the image. It does not need to be stored by the application, as it is internally replicated by the library.

 $canvas->wdPattern($pattern, $w_mm, $h_mm);

Allows specifying the pattern in world coordinates. Another pattern will be created with the size in pixels corresponding to the specified size in millimeters. The new size in pixels will be an integer factor of the original size that is closets to the size in millimeters. The use of this function may produce very large or very small patterns.

cdGetPattern()

 $pattern = $canvas->cdGetPattern();

Returns the current pattern as a reference to IUP::Canvas::Pattern object. Returns undef if no pattern was defined.

Methods - Primitives / Text

A raster text using a font with styles. The position the text is drawn depends on the text alignment attribute.

The library has at least 4 standard typefaces: "System" (which depends on the driver and platform), "Courier" (mono spaced with serif), "Times" (proportional with serif) and "Helvetica" (proportional without serif). Each typeface can have some styles: Plain, Bold, Italic and a combination of Bold and Italic. As an alternative to the standard typefaces, you can use other typefaces or native driver typefaces with the function cdNativeFont, but they may work in a reduced set of drivers.

You may retrieve the dimensions of the selected font with function cdGetFontDim. Also you may retrieve the bounding box of a specific text before drawing by using the cdGetTextSize and cdGetTextBox functions.

The text is drawn using a reference point; you can change the alignment relative to this point using the cdTextAligment function.

cdText()

 $canvas->cdText($x, $y, $text);
 $canvas->cdfText($x, $y, $text);
 $canvas->wdText($x, $y, $text);

Draws a text in the position (x,y) according to the current font and text alignment. It expects an ANSI string. Can have line breaks.

cdFont()

 $canvas->cdFont($typeface, $style, $size);
 $canvas->wdFont($typeface, $style, $size);

Selects a text font. The font type can be one of the standard type faces or other driver dependent type face. Since font face names are not a standard between drivers, a few names are specially handled to improve application portability. If you want to use names that work for all systems we recommend using: "Courier", "Times" and "Helvetica".

The style can be a combination of: CD_PLAIN, CD_BOLD, CD_ITALIC, CD_UNDERLINE or CD_STRIKEOUT. Only the Windows and PDF drivers support underline and strikeout. The size is provided in points (1/72 inch) or in pixels (using negative values).

Default values: "System", CD_PLAIN, 12.

You can specify partial parameters using undef, -1 and 0 for typeface, style and size. When these parameters are specified the current font parameter is used. For example: CanvasFont(undef, -1, 10) will only change the font size.

To convert between pixels and points use the function cdPixel2MM to convert from pixels to millimeters and use the formula "(value in points) = CD_MM2PT * (value in millimeters)".

In WC, the size is specified in millimeters, but is internally converted to points.

Fonts can heavily benefit from the ANTIALIAS attribute where available in the driver.

Type Faces Font Styles

cdGetFont()

 ($typeface, $style, $size) = $canvas->cdGetFont();
 ($typeface, $style, $size) = $canvas->wdGetFont();

Returns the values of the current font. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers; you can provide only the desired values.

In WC, the size is returned in millimeters.

cdNativeFont()

 $old_font = $canvas->cdNativeFont($font);

Selects a font based on a string description. The description can depend on the driver and the platform, but a common definition is available for all drivers. It does not need to be stored by the application, as it is internally replicated by the library. The string is case sensitive. It returns the previous string.

The string is parsed and the font typeface, style and size are set according to the parsed values, as if cdFont was called. The native font string is cleared when a font is set using cdFont.

The common format definition is similar to the Pango library Font Description, used by GTK+2. It is defined as having 3 parts: <font family>, <font styles> <font size>. For ex: "Times, Bold 18", or "Arial,Helvetica, Italic Underline -24". The supported styles include: Bold, Italic, Underline and Strikeout. Underline, Strikeout, and negative pixel values are not supported by the standard Pango Font Description. The Pango format include many other definitions not supported by the CD format, they are just ignored.

The IUP "FONT" attribute internal formats are also accepted in all drivers and platforms.

Using undef as a parameter, it only returns the previous string and does not change the font. The value returned is the last attributed value, which may not correspond exactly to the font selected by the driver.

Using "CD_QUERY" (string) as a parameter, it returns the current selected font in the common format definition.

cdTextAlignment()

 $old_alignment = $canvas->cdTextAlignment($alignment);

Defines the vertical and horizontal alignment of a text as:

 CD_NORTH      CD_SOUTH      CD_EAST        CD_WEST
 CD_NORTH_EAST CD_NORTH_WEST CD_SOUTH_EAST  CD_SOUTH_WEST
 CD_CENTER     CD_BASE_LEFT  CD_BASE_CENTER CD_BASE_RIGHT 

Returns the previous value. Default value: CD_BASE_LEFT. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value.

Text Alignment:

cdTextOrientation()

 $old_angle = $canvas->cdTextOrientation($angle);

Defines the text orientation, which is an angle provided in degrees relative to the horizontal line according to which the text is drawn. Returns the previous value. Value CD_QUERY simply returns the current value. The default value is 0.

cdGetFontDim()

 ($max_width, $height, $ascent, $descent) = $canvas->cdGetFontDim();
 ($max_width, $height, $ascent, $descent) = $canvas->wdGetFontDim();

Returns the maximum width of a character, the line's height, the ascent and descent of the characters of the currently selected font. The line's height is the sum of the ascent and descent of a given additional space (if this is the case). All values are given in pixels and are positive. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

Font Dimension Attributes:

cdGetTextSize()

 ($width, $heigth) = $canvas->cdGetTextSize($text);
 ($width, $heigth) = $canvas->wdGetTextSize($text);

Returns the text size independent from orientation. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

cdGetTextBounds()

 ($x0,$y0,$x1,$y1,$x2,$y2,$x3,$y3) = $canvas->cdGetTextBounds($x, $y, $text);
 ($x0,$y0,$x1,$y1,$x2,$y2,$x3,$y3) = $canvas->wdGetTextBounds($x, $y, $text);

Returns the oriented bounding rectangle occupied by a text at a given position. The rectangle has the same dimentions returned by cdGetTextSize. The rectangle corners are returned in counter-clock wise order starting with the bottom left corner, arranged [x0,y0,x1,y1,x2,y2,x3,y3].

cdGetTextBox()

 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax) = $canvas->cdGetTextBox($x, $y, $text);
 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax) = $canvas->wdGetTextBox($x, $y, $text);

Returns the horizontal bounding rectangle occupied by a text at a given position. If orientation is not 0 then its area is always larger than the area of the rectangle returned by cdGetTextBounds. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

Methods - Primitives / Vector Text

It is a text that uses a font created only with line segments. It is very useful to be scaled and very fast. You must set the text size before drawing any text. The default direction is horizontal from left to right.

Vector Text Parameters:

All vector text drawing in all drivers are simulated with other CD primitives using polygons only.

cdVectorText()

 $canvas->cdVectorText($x, $y, $text);
 $canvas->wdVectorText($x, $y, $text);

Draws a vector text in position (x,y), respecting the alignment defined by cdTextAlignment. It ignores the configuration cdBackOpacity, being always transparent. It accepts strings with multiple lines using '\n'. It is ESSENTIAL to call cdVectorTextSize or cdVectorCharSize before using this function.

The wdCanvasVectorText is the only function that actually depends on World Coordinates. The other Vector Text functions although use the "wd" prefix they do not depend on World Coordinates. They are kept with these names for backward compatibility. The correct prefix would be "cdf".

cdVectorTextDirection()

 $canvas->cdVectorTextDirection($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2);
 $canvas->wdVectorTextDirection($x1, $y1, $x2, $y2);

Defines the text direction by means of two points, (x1,y1) and (x2,y2). The default direction is horizontal from left to right. It is independent from the transformation matrix.

cdVectorTextTransform()

 $old_matrix = $canvas->cdVectorTextTransform($matrix);

Defines a transformation matrix with 6 elements. If the matrix is undef, no transformation is set. The default is no transformation. The origin is the left bottom corner of matrix. It returns the previous matrix, and the returned vector is only valid until the following call to the function.

The matrix contains scale, rotation and translation elements. It is applied after computing the position and orientation normal to the vector text. We can describe the elements as follows:

 |x'|   | scl_x*cos(ang)       -sin(ang)  trans_x |   |x|                     | $matrix->[3]  $matrix->[4]  $matrix->[5] | 
 |y'| = |       sin(ang)  scl_y*cos(ang)  trans_y | * |y|        with indices | $matrix->[0]  $matrix->[1]  $matrix->[2] |
                                                      |1|

It has the same effect of the cdTransform, but notice that the indices are different.

cdVectorTextSize()

 $canvas->cdVectorTextSize($width, $height, $text);
 $canvas->wdVectorTextSize($width, $height, $text);

Modifies the font size of the vector text so that it fits the string in the box defined by width and height.

cdVectorCharSize()

 $old_size = $canvas->cdVectorCharSize($size);
 $old_size = $canvas->wdVectorCharSize($size);

Modifies the font size by specifying the height of the characters. Returns the previous value. CD_QUERY returns the current value.

cdVectorFontSize()

 $canvas->cdVectorFontSize($size_x, $size_y);

Directly modifies the font size. Set size_x == size_y to maintain the original aspect ratio of the font.

cdGetVectorFontSize()

 ($size_x, $size_y) = $canvas->cdGetVectorFontSize();

Returns the font size. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

cdVectorFont()

 $fontname = $canvas->cdVectorFont($filename);

Replaces the current vector font with a font stored in a file with a given name. Returns the name of the font loaded or undef, if it fails. If filename is undef, it activates the default font "Simplex II" (There is no file associated to this font, it is an embedded font). The library will attempt to load a font from the current directory, if it fails then it will try the directory defined by the environment variable "CDDIR", if it fails, it will attempt to load it using the filename as a string containing the font as if the file was loaded into that string, if it fails again the font is reset to the default font and returns undef. The file format is compatible with the GKS file format (text mode).

cdGetVectorTextSize()

 ($width, $height) = $canvas->cdGetVectorTextSize($text);
 ($width, $height) = $canvas->wdGetVectorTextSize($text);

Returns the text size independent from orientation. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

cdGetVectorTextBounds()

 ($x0,$y0,$x1,$y1,$x2 $y2,$x3,$y3) = $canvas->cdGetVectorTextBounds($text, $x, $y);
 ($x0,$y0,$x1,$y1,$x2,$y2,$x3,$y3) = $canvas->wdGetVectorTextBounds($text, $x, $y);

Returns the oriented bounding rectangle occupied by a text at a given position. The rectangle has the same dimentions returned by cdGetVectorTextSize. The rectangle corners are returned in counter-clock wise order starting with the bottom left corner, arranged (x0,y0,x1,y1,x2,y2,x3,y3).

cdGetVectorTextBox()

 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax) = $canvas->cdGetVectorTextBox($x, $y, $text);
 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax) = $canvas->wdGetVectorTextBox($x, $y, $text);

Returns the horizontal bounding rectangle occupied by a text at a given position. If orientation is not 0 then its area is always larger than the area of the rectangle returned by cdGetVectorTextBounds. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

Character Codes

The old GKS format contains ASCII codes so a convertion from ANSI to ASCII is done when possible, unmapped characters are left unchanged, but some rearrage was necessary to acomodate the convertion.

The default vector font was changed from the original Simplex II to contain all ANSI accented characters. So some ASCII characters were replaced.

Bellow is the character code table of the default font.

Default Font

The original Simplex II font is available in the file "cd/etc/vectorfont00.txt". Bellow is the character code table of the original font (the table displays the characters after the convertion from ANSI to ASCII):

Original Simplex II

Methods - Primitives / Client Images

Client Images are bitmaps (kept in memory - usually in IUP::Canvas::Bitmap objects) that can be put (drawn) onto a canvas.

Some bitmap manipulation functions (load, save, change colors/pixels) are available via IUP::Canvas::Bitmap.

cdPutBitmap()

 $bmp = IUP::Canvas::Bitmap->new('file.png');
 $canvas->cdPutBitmap($bmp,$x,$y,$w,$h);
 #or
 $canvas->wdPutBitmap($bmp,$x,$y,$w,$h);

Draws the image in the position (x,y), changing the scale. It supports bmp to be of type CD_RGB, CD_RGBZ or CD_MAP. The region of the image drawn depends on the rectangle defined by IUP::Canvas::Bitmap method SetRect. If no rectangle was defined, then the whole image is used.

The parameters w and h allow scaling the image, increasing or decreasing its dimensions when drawn. If w and/or h are 0, then no scale change is assumed.

cdGetBitmap()

 $bmp = $canvas->cdGetBitmap($x,$y,$w,$h);
 #$bmp is a reference to IUP::Canvas::Bitmap object

Returns IUP::Canvas::Bitmap object containing each pixel in a server image given by area: [x,y,w,h].

Methods - Primitives / Server Images

Server Image is a high performance image compatible with a specific canvas. It is faster than Client Image functions, but less flexible. It is commonly used for off-screen drawing in Window Systems.

You can make gets and puts on several canvases but they must be created using the same driver. It is possible to specify a part of the image to be drawn, but it is not possible to zoom.

It is called "server" images because the data is stored in a system private format, that the application (or the client) does not have access.

To create a server image there must be an active canvas of a driver with server image support. Only the base drivers Win32, GDI+, X-Windows, XRender and Cairo, support server images.

The server image can only be greated via cdGetImage

cdGetImage, cdPutImage and wdPutImage are the only methods for manipulating Server Images.

You cannot edit or even acces image content by any mean.

cdGetImage()

 $image = $canvas->cdGetImage($x, $y, $w, $h);
 #NOTE: $image is a reference to 'internal-ServerImage' object

Copies a rectangular region from the current rectangular context to the memory - 'internal-ServerImage' object (which can be later used via cdPutImage or wdPutImage).

(x,y) is the coordinate of the bottom left corner of the rectangular region. The width and length of the rectangular region are defined in the image structure (when the image is created).

cdPutImage()

 $image = $canvas->cdGetImage($x, $y, $w, $h);
 #NOTE: $image has to be a reference to 'internal-ServerImage' object
 $canvas->cdPutImage($image, $x, $y, $xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax); 
 #or
 $canvas->wdPutImage($image, $x, $y, $xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);

Copies an image (stored via cdGetImage) in a rectangular region of the canvas with the bottom left corner in (x,y). Allows specifying a rectangle inside the image to be drawn, if xmin, xmax, ymin and ymax are 0, then the whole image is assumed.

cdCanvasScrollArea()

 $canvas->cdCanvasScrollArea($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax, $dx, $dy);

Copies the rectangle defined by the coordinates (xmin,ymin) and (xmax,ymax) to the rectangle defined by (xmin+dx,ymin+dy) and (xmax+dx,ymax+dy). It has the same effect as cdGetImage followed by cdPutImage, but it should be faster and does not require the explicit creation of an image to be executed. Note that the region belonging to the first rectangle, but not to the second, remains unchanged (the function does not clean this region).

Methods - Canvas Clipping

The clipping area is an area that limits the available drawing area inside the canvas. Any primitive is drawn only inside the clipping area. It affects all primitives.

You can set the clipping area by using the function cdClipArea, and retrieve it using cdGetClipArea. The clipping area is a rectangle by default, but it can has other shapes. In some drivers a polygon area can be defined, and in display based drivers a complex region can be defined. The complex region can be a combination of boxes, polygons, sectors, chords and texts.

cdClip()

 $old_mode = $canvas->cdClip($mode);

Activates or deactivates clipping. Returns the previous status. Values: CD_CLIPAREA, CD_CLIPPOLYGON, CD_CLIPREGION or CD_CLIPOFF. The value CD_QUERY simply returns the current status. Default value: CD_CLIPOFF.

The value CD_CLIPAREA activates a rectangular area as the clipping region.

The value CD_CLIPPOLYGON activates a polygon as a clipping region, but works only in some drivers (please refer to the notes of each driver). The clipping polygon must be defined before activating the polygon clipping; if it is not defined, the current clipping state remains unchanged. See the documentation of cdBegin, cdVertex, cdEnd to create a polygon.

The value CD_CLIPREGION activates a complex clipping region. See the documentation of Regions.

The defined clipping area, polygon and complex regions are stored internally, so you may define them independently and switch between area, polygon and complex region without having to define them again. Also if the active clipping region is re-defined it immediately becomes the current clipping region.

cdClipArea()

 $canvas->cdClipArea($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);  #params are integers
 $canvas->cdfClipArea($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax); #params are floating numbers
 $canvas->wdClipArea($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax);  #params are floating numbers

Defines the current rectangle for clipping. Only the points in the interval xmin <= x <= xmax and ymin <= y <= ymax will be printed. Default region: (0, w-1, 0, h-1).

cdGetClipArea()

 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax, $status) = canvas->cdGetClipArea();  #params are integers
 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax, $status) = canvas->cdfGetClipArea(); #params are floating numbers
 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax, $status) = canvas->wdGetClipArea();  #params are floating numbers

Returns the rectangle and the clipping status. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

A polygon for clipping can be created using:

 $canvas->cdBegin(CD_CLIP);
 $canvas->cdVertex($x,$y);
 #...
 $canvas->cdEnd();

See the documentation of cdBegin, cdVertex, cdEnd.

Methods - Complex Clipping Regions

A complex region can composed of boxes, sectors, chords, polygons and texts. It is implemented only in the Windows GDI, GDI+ and X-Windows base drivers.

Complex clipping regions can be created using:

 $canvas->cdBegin(CD_REGION);
 # filled primtives ...
 $canvas->cdEnd()

See more info about cdBegin and cdEnd.

Between a $canvas->cdBegin(CD_REGION) and a $canvas->cdEnd(), all calls to cdBox, cdSector, cdChord, cdBegin(CD_FILL) / cdVertex(x,y) / ... / cdEnd() and cdText will be composed in a region for clipping. This is the only exception when you can call a cdBegin after another cdBegin.

When you call $canvas->cdBegin(CD_REGION) a new empty region will be created. So for the first operation you should use CD_UNION or CD_NOTINTERSECT combine modes. When you finished to compose the region call cdEnd.

To make the region active you must call cdClip(CD_CLIPREGION). For other clipping regions see Clipping.

Complex clipping regions are not saved by cdSaveState.

cdRegionCombineMode()

 $old_mode = $canvas->cdRegionCombineMode($mode);

Changes the way regions are combined when created. Returns the previous status. Values: CD_UNION, CD_INTERSECT, CD_DIFFERENCE or CD_NOTINTERSECT. The value CD_QUERY simply returns the current status. Default value: CD_UNION.

Combine Modes

cdIsPointInRegion()

 $status = $canvas->cdIsPointInRegion($x, $y);
 $status = $canvas->wdIsPointInRegion($x, $y);

Returns a non zero value if the point is contained inside the current region.

cdOffsetRegion()

 $canvas->cdOffsetRegion($dx, $dy);
 $canvas->wdOffsetRegion($dx, $dy);

Moves the current region by the given offset. In X-Windows, if the region moves to outside the canvas border, the part moved outside will be lost, the region will need to be reconstructed.

cdGetRegionBox()

 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax, $status) = $canvas->cdGetRegionBox();
 ($xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax, $status) = $canvas->wdGetRegionBox();

Returns the rectangle of the bounding box of the current region. It is not necessary to provide all return pointers, you can provide only the desired values and undef for the others.

Methods - Others

cdVersion()

 $verstring = IUP::Canvas->cdVersion();

Returns the current version number of the library. The string with the version number has a format "major.minor.build". For instance, the string "2.1.3" has number 2 as the main (major) version number, 1 as the secondary (minor) version number, and 3 as the build number. The major version number represents a change in the structure or behavior of functions; the minor version number represents one or more new drivers and functions added to the library; and the build version number represents one or more corrected bugs.

cdVersionDate()

 $verdate = IUP::Canvas->cdVersionDate();

Returns the release date of the current version of the library - e.g. "2007/04/09"

cdVersionNumber()

 $vernumber = IUP::Canvas->cdVersionNumber();

Returns the current version number of the library - e.g. 500000 (for version 5.0)

cdPlay()

 $ctx = $canvas1->cdGetContext();
 #NOTE: $ctx param has to be a reference to 'internal-context'
 $status = $canvas2->cdPlay($ctx, $xmin, $xmax, $ymin, $ymax, $data); 

Interprets the graphical contents (primitives and attributes) in a given driver and calls equivalent functions of the CD library using the given canvas. The primitives are drawn inside the region defined by the given limits. If limits are 0 (xmin, xmax, ymin and ymax) the primitives will be drawn with their coordinates having the original values in the file.

Only some drivers IUP::Canvas::FileVector formats implement this function:

cdContextRegisterCallback() #NOT_IMPLEMENTED

cdActivate()

 $status = $canvas->cdActivate();

Activates a canvas for drawing. This is used only for a few drivers. Native Window and IUP drivers will update the canvas size if the window size has changed. Double Buffer driver will recreate the image buffer if the window canvas size has changed. In these cases the function MUST be called, for other drivers is useless. Returns CD_ERROR or CD_OK.

cdDeactivate()

 $canvas->cdDeactivate();

Called when the application has finished drawing in the canvas. It is optional, but if used for the Native Window driver in Windows when the handle can not be retained, the drawing can only be done again after a cdCanvasActivate. On some drivers will simply call cdFlush.

cdKillCanvas()

  $canvas->cdKillCanvas();

Destroys a previously created canvas. There is no need to call this function in perl, as the garbage collector will call it automatically during DESTROY().

cdUseContextPlus()

 $old_use = IUP::Canvas->cdUseContextPlus();

NOTE: for advanced users

Activates or deactivates the use of an external context for the next calls of IUP::Canvas->new(...)

cdInitContextPlus() #NOT_IMPLEMENTED

 IUP::Canvas->cdInitContextPlus();

NOTE: for advanced users

Initializes the context driver to use another context replacing the standard drivers. This functions is only available when a library containing a "ContextPlus" context driver is used. See the Cairo, GDI+ and XRender base drivers. Those libraries does not support XOR write mode, but has support for anti-aliasing and alpha for transparency.

cdGetContext()

 $context = $canvas->cdGetContext();

Returns the reference to 'internal-context' object of a given canvas.

cdContextCaps()

 $context = $canvas->cdGetContext();
 #NOTE: $context param has to be a reference to 'internal-context'
 $caps = IUP::Canvas->cdContextCaps($context);

Returns the resources available for that context. To verify if a given resource is available, perform a binary AND with the following values:

 CD_CAP_FLUSH
 CD_CAP_CLEAR
 CD_CAP_PLAY
 CD_CAP_YAXIS - The Y axis has the same orientation as the CD axis.
 CD_CAP_CLIPAREA
 CD_CAP_CLIPPOLY - Usually is not implemented.
 CD_CAP_MARK - Marks are implemented directly in the driver (they are usually simulated).
 CD_CAP_RECT - Rectangles are implemented directly in the driver (they are usually simulated).
 CD_CAP_VECTORTEXT - Vector text is implemented directly in the driver (it is usually simulated).
 CD_CAP_IMAGERGB
 CD_CAP_IMAGERGBA - If this is not implemented, but cdGetImageRGB is, then it is simulated using cdGetImageRGB and cdPutImageRGB.
 CD_CAP_IMAGEMAP
 CD_CAP_GETIMAGERGB
 CD_CAP_IMAGESRV - Usually is only implemented in contexts of window graphics systems (Native Window and IUP).
 CD_CAP_BACKGROUND
 CD_CAP_BACKOPACITY
 CD_CAP_WRITEMODE
 CD_CAP_LINESTYLE
 CD_CAP_LINEWITH
 CD_CAP_WD - Functions of world coordinates are implemented directly in the driver (they are usually simulated).
 CD_CAP_HATCH
 CD_CAP_STIPPLE
 CD_CAP_PATTERN
 CD_CAP_FONT
 CD_CAP_FONTDIM - If not defined, the function is implemented using an internal heuristics of the library.
 CD_CAP_TEXTSIZE - If not defined, the function is implemented using an internal heuristics of the library.
 CD_CAP_TEXTORIENTATION - Usually is not implemented.
 CD_CAP_PALETTE - Usually is only implemented in contexts of window graphics systems (Native Window and IUP).

cdSimulate()

 $old_mode = $canvas->cdSimulate($mode);

Activates the simulation of one or more primitives. It is ignored for the canvas in the ImageRGB context, because in this case everything is already simulated. It also has no effect for primitives that are usually simulated. It returns the previous simulation, but does not include primitives that are usually simulated. The simulation can be activated at any moment. For instance, if a line simulation is required only for a situation, the simulation can be activated for the line to be drawn, and then deactivated.

EXAMPLES ^

The element IUP::Canvas is used in the following sample scripts:

SEE ALSO ^

IUP::Canvas::EMF, IUP::Canvas::SVG, IUP::CanvasGL

The original doc: iupcanvas.html

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