Kristian Torp > Interval.0.03 > Date::Interval

Download:
KTORP/Interval.0.03.tar.gz

Dependencies

Annotate this POD

View/Report Bugs
Module Version: 0.03   Source  

NAME ^

Date::Interval - handling of temporal intervals based on Date::Manip

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (C) 1997 by Kristian Torp, <torp@cs.auc.dk>

This program is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed AS IS in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

Class Methods ^

setDefaultIntervalType

  Description: Sets the default <interval type>
  Input:       <interval type>
  Output:      none

getDefaultIntervalType

  Description: Gets the default <interval type>
  Input:       none
  Output:      <interval type>

setDisplayFormat

  Description: Sets the default <display format>
  Input:       <display format>
  Output:      none

getDisplayFormat

  Description: Gets the default <display format>
  Input:       none
  Output:      <display format>

Public Methods ^

new

  Description: Constructor
  Input:       <start value> <stop value> [<interval type>]
  Output:      reference   

length

  Description: Returns the Length of an interval in Date::Manip format
  Input:       none
  Output:      <delta>

length

  Description: Returns the length of an interval in string format
  Input:       none
  Output:      string

get

  Description: Returns the interval in string format
  Input:       none
  Output:      string

getStart

  Description: Returns the <start value>
  Input:       none
  Output:      <date>

getStop

  Description: Returns the <stop value>
  Input:       none
  Output:      <date>

overlaps

  Description: Checks if two intervals overlap
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

getOverlap

  Description: Return the overlap of two intervals
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <interval> | undef

before

  Description: Examines if interval is before
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

meets

  Description: Examines if intervals meets
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

leftOverlaps

  Description: Examines if two intervals left overlap
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

rightOverlaps

  Description: Examines if two intervals right overlap
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

during

  Description: Examines if two intervals during overlap
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

totallyOverlaps

  Description: Examines if two intervals totally overlap
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

extends

  Description: Examines if two intervals extends
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

after

  Description: Examines if two intervals after
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

howOverlaps

  Description: Describes in text how intervals overlaps
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      to screen

AllenHowOverlaps

  Description: Return how intervals overlap in Allen´s terminology
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      to screen

AllenBefore

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen before
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenMeets

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen meets
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenLeftOverlaps

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen left overlaps
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenLeftCovers

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen left covers
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenCovers

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen covers
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenStarts

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen starts
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenEquals

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen equals
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenRightCovers

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen right covers
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenDuring

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen during
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenFinishes

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen finishes
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenRightOverlaps

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen right overlaps
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenExtends

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen extends
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

AllenAfter

  Description: Examines if intervals Allen after
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

Private Methods ^

_initialize

  Description: Initization of new instances
  Input:       <start value> <stop value> [<interval type>]
  Output:      none

_new_empty

  Description: Initization of new empty instance
  Input:       none
  Output:      empty <interval>

_setIntervalType

  Description: Sets the <interval type>
  Input:       <interval type>
  Output:      <boolean>

_setBrackets

  Description: Sets the interval brackets
  Input:       <interval end> <interval end>
  Output:      <boolean>

_overlaps

  Description: Examines how intervals overlaps
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <overlap type> || FALSE

_AllenOverlaps

  Description: Finds how intervals overlap in Allen terminology
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      <Allen overlap type>

Overloaded Operators ^

_plus

  Description: + operator. If two intervals overlaps the union is returned
  Input:       <interval> <interval>
  Output:      <interval> || undefined

_minus

  Description: - operator. 
               If two intervals overlaps the intersection is returned
  Input:       <interval> <interval>
  Output:      <interval> [ <interval> ] || undefined

_smaller_than

  Description: < operator. 
  Input:       <interval> <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

_greater_than

  Description: > operator. 
  Input:       <interval> <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

_equal

  Description: == operator. 
  Input:       <interval> <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

_equal

  Description: != operator. 
  Input:       <interval> <interval>
  Output:      <boolean>

_spaceship

  Description: <=> operator. 
               Use ONLY for sorting because based on the start value
  Input:       <interval> <interval>
  Output:      -1 || 0 || 1    

_stringify

  Description: For strinifying an interval
  Input:       <interval>
  Output:      string

_getEndPoint

  Description: Converts a string to an <end point>
  Input:       string
  Output:      <end point> <value type>

_to_date

  Description: Converts <end point> to a date
  Input:       <fix clock> <value type> <end point> [<start date value type> 
                                                     <start date>]
  Output:      <date>

_getCurrentTime

  Description: Converts an <end point> to a string
  Input:       <boolean>
  Output:      string

_to_string

  Description: Converts an <end point> to a string
  Input:       <value type> <end point>
  Output:      string

SYNOPSIS ^

    use Date::Interval;

    ### class methods ###
    Date::Interval->setDefaultIntervalType ($Date::Interval::OPEN_INT); 
    $int_open = new Date::Interval ("10-10-1997", "10-20-1997"); 
    print "$int_open\n"        # prints  '(10-10-1997, 10-20-1997) 

    $nDefaultType = Date::Interval->getDefaultIntervalType;

    ### constructor ##
    $i1 = new Date::Interval ("10-30-1997", "12-01-1998");
    $i2 = new Date::Interval ("01-20-1996", "11-01-1997", $Date::Interval::RIGHT_OPEN_INT);

    use Date::Manip;
    $date1 = &ParseDate ("10-10-1997");
    $date2 = &ParseDate ("10-15-1997");
    $int = new Date::Interval ($d1, $d2);

    ### Overload operators ###
    $i3 = $i1 + $i2;          # + gives the sum of intervals if the overlap
    print "$i3\n";            # prints '[01-20-1997, 12-01-1998)'

    $i4 = $i1 - $i2;          # - gives difference of intervals of intervals
    print "$i4\n";            # prints '[11-01-1997, 12-01-1998)'
   
    $i5 = $i1 - $i1; 
    print "$i5\n";            # prints '<empty>'

    ### <Allen overlap type> ### 
    $X = new Date::Interval (<parameters>);
    $Y = new Date::Interval (<parameters>);
                              ###  relationship between intervals ###
    $Y->AllenBefore ($X);             YYYYYY XXXXXX

    $Y->AllenMeets ($X);              YYYYYYXXXXXX

    $Y->AllenLeftOverlaps ($X);          XXXXXX
                                      YYYYYY

    $Y->AllenLeftCovers ($X);            XXXXXX
                                      YYYYYYYYY

    $Y->AllenCovers ($X);                XXXXXX
                                      YYYYYYYYYYYY

    $Y->AllenStarts ($X);             XXXXXX
                                      YYY

    $Y->AllenEquals ($X);             XXXXXX
                                      YYYYYY
    
    $Y->AllenRightCovers ($X);        XXXXXX
                                      YYYYYYYYY

    $Y->AllenDuring ($X);             XXXXXX
                                       YYYY

    $Y->AllenFinishes ($X);           XXXXXX
                                        YYYY 

    $Y->AllenRightOverlaps ($X);      XXXXXX
                                         YYYYYY

    $Y->AllenExtends ($X);            XXXXXXYYYYYY

    $Y->AllenAfter ($X):              XXXXXX YYYYYY

    ### <overlap type> ###
    $Y->before ($X)         same as  $Y->AllenBefore ($X)
    $Y->meets  ($X)         same as  $Y->AllenMeets ($X)

    $Y->leftOverlaps ($X)   same as  $Y->AllenLeftOverlaps ($X)  or
                                     $Y->AllenStarts ($X)

    $Y->totalOverlaps ($X)  same as  $Y->AllenCovers ($X)        or
                                     $Y->AllenLeftCovers ($X)    or
                                     $Y->AllenRightCovers ($X)   or
                                     $Y->AllenEquals ($X)

    $Y->rightOverlaps ($X)  same as  $Y->AllenFinishes ($X)      or
                                     $Y->AllenRightCovers

    $Y->during ($X)         same as  $Y->AllenDuring ($X)
    $Y->extends ($X)        same as  $Y->AllenExtends ($X)
    $Y->after ($X)          same as  $Y->AllenAfter ($X)

    ### <interval type> ###
    $closed_int = new Interval ("10-10-1997", "10-20-1997", $CLOSED_INT); 
    print "$closed_int\n";      # prints [10-10-1997, 10-20-1997]

    $left_open_int = new Interval ("10-10-1997", "10-20-1997", $LEFT_OPEN_INT); 
    print "$left_open_int\n";   # prints (10-10-1997, 10-20-1997]

    $right_open_int = new Interval ("10-10-1997", "10-20-1997", $RIGHT_OPEN_INT); 
    print "$right_open_int\n";  # prints [10-10-1997, 10-20-1997)

   $open_int = new Interval ("10-10-1997", "10-20-1997", $OPEN_INT); 
   print "$open_int\n";         # prints (10-10-1997, 10-20-1997)

   ### check and get overlapping interval ###
    $i1 = new Interval ("10-30-1997", "12-01-1998");
    $i2 = new Interval ("01-20-1996", "11-01-1997");
    $i3 = new Interval ("01-01-1995", "04-30-1995");

    if ($i1->overlaps ($i2)) {
        $i4 = $i1->getOverlap($i2);
        print "$i4\n";              # prints [10-30-1997, 11-01-1997)
    }
    if ($i1->overlaps ($i3)){       # tests fails, does not print anything
        $i5 = $i1->getOverlap($i2);
        print "$i5\n";
    }

DESCRIPTION ^

    All strings which can be used to create a Date::Manip date object
    can be used to create an Interval. However, the start date must be
    greater than the stop date. Because Date::Manip both handles dates
    and times this module can also handle both dates and times.

    The comparison of intervals is based on the 13 ways intervals can
    overlap as defined by J.F. Allen (See the litteratur). Further, I
    have included a small number of interval comparison which are
    handy if you are only interested in getting the overlapping region
    of two intervals.

Open and Closed Intervals

    A closed interval is closed in an interval where both the start
    and the stop values are included in the interval. As an example
    [10-10-1997, 10-30-1997] both the 10th and the 30th of November is
    a part of the interval.

    An open interval is an interval where the start value or the stop
    value are not included in the interval. In the right open interval
    [10-10-1997, 10-30-1997) the 10th of November is a part of the
    interval but the 30th of November is not. 

    There are three types of open intervals
    - right open intervals, e.g., [10-10-1997, 10-30-1997)
    - left open intervals, e.g., (10-10-1997, 10-30-1997]
    - open intervals, e.g., (10-10-1997, 10-30-1997)

Absolute and Relative Intervals

    An absolute interval is an interval where the start and the stop
    values of the inteval are anchored on the time line, i.e., they
    are specific dates as 04-30-1994.

    A relative interval is an interval where the start or the stop
    value is not anchored on the time line, e.g., 'tomorrow'. When
    'tomorrow' evaluated now it has one value when evaluated a month
    from now it has a different values.

    Date::Interval fully supports absolute intervals and to a limited
    degree relative intervals. 

    The relative intervals supported currently (NOW :-)) are of the
    following type.

    $int1 = new Date::Interval("10-21-1997", 'NOBIND NOW');

    Relative start and stop values are prefixed with the word
    'NOBIND'. In the example 'NOBIND NOW' means that the current time
    (now) whenever it asked for. So if you ask for the length of $int1
    at the 24th of October you get 3 days. If you ask for the length
    of $int1 again at the 28th of October you get 7 days.

    I am working on additional support for relative Intervals.

Defaults

    The default interval type is right open intervals. Stick to this
    interval type if you want to keep life simple.

    To use Date::Manip the time zone variable must be set. It is
    default set to Central European Time (CET). For Americans, this is
    the Capital of Stockholm :-).

    To change the time zone, e.g., to Eastern Standard Time (EST) put
    in our script $Date::Manip::TZ = 'EST'; (As an European I assume
    this must be close to Atlanta, New Mexico).

    The default input format is default of Date::Manip, that is
    "10-12-1997" is the 12th of October 1997 not the 10th of December
    1997. To change the input format, e.g., put in our script
    &Date::Manip::Date_Init("DateFormat=non-US");

    The default output format is MM-DD-YYY. It Can be changed by
    calling Interval->setDisplayFormat(<string>). Where <string> is
    a UnixDate format in Date::Manip.

    The default separator when an interval is printed is the special
    variable $, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR. If this value is not defined
    ',' is used.

The "Fixed" Clock

    The module has a class variable $NOW which contains the current
    time. The current time must be fixed when relative intervals are
    compared, otherwise the comparison may return the wrong result. As
    an example if the two intervals [NOBIND NOW, NOBIND NOW) [NOBIND
    NOW, NOBIND NOW) are compared for equality the result is
    true. However, if the equality comparison is implemented by asking
    four time for the current time the times returned may be different
    because the *real world clock* ticks between the invocations of
    getting the current time. If the clock ticks the equality
    predicate in the example returns false.

    Because different interval objects must be compared with the same
    clock the variable must be a class variable and not an instance
    variable. $NOW is used in the method _to_date.

"Non-terminals" used in the Source Code

<delta> ::= Date::Manip delta data type
<date> ::= Date::Manip data type
<interval end> ::= CLOSE || OPEN
<interval type> ::= CLOSED_INT || OPEN_INT || LEFT_OPEN_INT || RIGHT_OPEN_INT
<value type> ::= ABSOLUTE || RELATIVE
<overlap type> ::= How two intervals overlaps
<Allen overlap type> ::= How two intervals Allen overlaps

BUGS ^

    Tried my best to avoid them send me an email if you are bitten by
    a bug. 

    Note, the module cannot handle subtract intervals which overlap
    with "during" overlaps, this results in two intervals (currently
    results in an empty interval)

TODO ^

    - Cannot take references to dates as input parameters for the
      constructors

    - Cannot subtract intervals which overlap with "during" overlaps,
      this results in two intervals (currently results an error message and
      an empty interval is returned)

    - Implement getOverlap and overloaded operators for relative intervals

Change History ### Changes version 0.02 => 0.03 ### - TODO: during overlap ^

    - Made code to fit onto 80 columns
    - Added POD for each method/function

    ### Changes version 0.01 => 0.02 ###
    - Add overload  <, >, ==, !=, <=>. 
    - Add stringLength, to print length of interval in a more readable way.
    - Changed the default separator to the $, special variable
    - Added support for comparison of relative intervals 

    Changes thanks to Tim Bruce
    - Changed the module name from Interval to Date::Interval
    - Added methods getStart and getStop.
    - Added method lengthString to print nicely the length of the
      interval.
    - Changed the default output format to be similar to the 
      default input format
    - Taken BEGIN {$Date::Manip::TZ = "CET"; &Date_Init ("DateFormat=non-US");}
      out because it is anti-social :-)
    - Added to POD that the both dates and times can be used with intervals
    - Added to POD the description of open and closed intervals

LITTERATURE ^

    Allen, J. F., "An Interval-Based Representation of Temporal Knowledge",
    Communication of the ACM, 26(11) pp. 832-843, November 1983.

AUTHORS ^

Kristian Torp <torp@cs.auc.dk>

syntax highlighting: