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Module Version: 0.94   Source   Latest Release: Log-Report-1.21

NAME ^

Log::Report::Message - a piece of text to be translated

SYNOPSIS ^

 # Created by Log::Report's __ functions

DESCRIPTION ^

Any used of a translation function, like Log::Report::__() or Log::Report::__x() will result in this object. It will capture some environmental information, and delay the translation until it is needed.

Creating an object first, and translating it later, is slower than translating it immediately. However, on the location where the message is produced, we do not yet know to what language to translate: that depends on the front-end, the log dispatcher.

METHODS ^

Constructors

$obj->clone(OPTIONS, VARIABLES)

Returns a new object which copies info from original, and updates it with the specified OPTIONS and VARIABLES. The advantage is that the cached translations are shared between the objects.

example: use of clone()

 my $s = __x "found {nr} files", nr => 5;
 my $t = $s->clone(nr => 3);
 my $t = $s->(nr => 3);      # equivalent
 print $s;     # found 5 files
 print $t;     # found 3 files
Log::Report::Message->new(OPTIONS, VARIABLES)

Do not use this method directly, but use Log::Report::__() and friends.

 -Option   --Default
  _append    undef
  _category  undef
  _class     []
  _classes   []
  _count     undef
  _domain    from use
  _expand    false
  _msgid     undef
  _plural    undef
  _prepend   undef
  _to        <undef>
_append => STRING
_category => INTEGER
_class => STRING|ARRAY

When messages are used for exception based programming, you add _class parameters to the argument list. Later, with for instance Log::Report::Dispatcher::Try::wasFatal(class), you can check the category of the message.

One message can be part of multiple classes. The STRING is used as comma- and/or blank seperated list of class tokens, the ARRAY lists all tokens seperately. See classes().

_classes => STRING|ARRAY

Alternative for _class, which cannot be used at the same time.

_count => INTEGER

When defined, then _plural need to be defined as well.

_domain => STRING

The textdomain in which this msgid is defined.

_expand => BOOLEAN

Indicates whether variables are filled-in.

_msgid => MSGID

The message label, which refers to some translation information. Usually a string which is close the English version of the error message. This will also be used if there is no translation possible

_plural => MSGID

Can be specified when a _count is specified. This plural form of the message is used to simplify translation, and as fallback when no translations are possible: therefore, this can best resemble an English message.

_prepend => STRING
_to => NAME

Specify the NAME of a dispatcher as destination explicitly. Short for report {to => NAME}, ... See to()

Accessors

$obj->append

Returns the string or Log::Report::Message object which is appended after this one. Usually undef.

$obj->classes

Returns the LIST of classes which are defined for this message; message group indicators, as often found in exception-based programming.

$obj->count

Returns the count, which is used to select the translation alternatives.

$obj->domain

Returns the domain of the first translatable string in the structure.

$obj->msgid

Returns the msgid which will later be translated.

$obj->prepend

Returns the string which is prepended to this one. Usually undef.

$obj->to([NAME])

Returns the NAME of a dispatcher if explicitly specified with the '_to' key. Can also be used to set it. Usually, this will return undef, because usually all dispatchers get all messages.

$obj->valueOf(PARAMETER)

Lookup the named PARAMETER for the message. All pre-defined names have their own method, and should be used with preference.

example:

When the message was produced with my @files = qw/one two three/; my $msg = __xn "found one file: {files}" , "found {_count} files: {files}" , scalar @files, files => \@files , _class => 'IO, files';

then the values can be takes from the produced message as my $files = $msg->valueOf('files'); # returns ARRAY reference print @$files; # 3 my $count = $msg->count; # 3 my @class = $msg->classes; # 'IO', 'files' if($msg->inClass('files')) # true

Processing

$obj->concat(STRING|OBJECT, [PREPEND])

This method implements the overloading of concatenation, which is needed to delay translations even longer. When PREPEND is true, the STRING or OBJECT (other Log::Report::Message) needs to prepended, otherwise it is appended.

example: of concatenation

 print __"Hello" . ' ' . __"World!";
 print __("Hello")->concat(' ')->concat(__"World!")->concat("\n");
$obj->inClass(CLASS|REGEX)

Returns true if the message is in the specified CLASS (string) or matches the REGEX. The trueth value is the (first matching) class.

$obj->toString([LOCALE])

Translate a message. If not specified, the default locale is used.

$obj->untranslated

Return the concatenation of the prepend, msgid, and append strings. Variable expansions within the msgid is not performed.

DETAILS ^

OPTIONS and VARIABLES

Interpolating

With the __x() or __nx(), interpolation will take place on the translated MSGID string. The translation can contain the VARIABLE and OPTION names between curly brackets. Text between curly brackets which is not a known parameter will be left untouched.

Next to the name, you can specify a format code. With gettext(), you often see this:

 printf gettext("approx pi: %.6f\n"), PI;

Locale::TextDomain has two ways.

 printf __"approx pi: %.6f\n", PI;
 print __x"approx pi: {approx}\n", approx => sprintf("%.6f", PI);

The first does not respect the wish to be able to reorder the arguments during translation. The second version is quite long. With Log::Report, above syntaxes do work, but you can also do

 print __x"approx pi: {pi%.6f}\n", pi => PI;

So: the interpolation syntax is { name [format] } . Other examples:

 print __x "{perms} {links%2d} {user%-8s} {size%10d} {fn}\n"
         , perms => '-rw-r--r--', links => 1, user => 'me'
         , size => '12345', fn => $filename;

An additional advantage is the fact that not all languages produce comparable length strings. Now, the translators can take care that the layout of tables is optimal.

Interpolation of OPTIONS

You are permitted the interpolate OPTION values in your string. This may simplify your coding. The useful names are:

_msgid

The MSGID as provided with Log::Report::__() and Log::Report::__x()

_msgid, _plural, _count

The single MSGID and PLURAL MSGIDs, respectively the COUNT as used with Log::Report::__n() and Log::Report::__nx()

_textdomain

The label of the textdomain in which the translation takes place.

_class or _classes

Are to be used to group reports, and can be queried with inClass(), Log::Report::Exception::inClass(), or Log::Report::Dispatcher::Try::wasFatal().

Interpolation of VARIABLES

There is no way of checking beforehand whether you have provided all required values, to be interpolated in the translated string. A translation could be specified like this:

 my @files = @ARGV;
 local $"  = ', ';
 my $s = __nx "One file specified ({files})"
            , "{_count} files specified ({files})"
            , scalar @files     # actually, 'scalar' is not needed
            , files => \@files;

For interpolating, the following rules apply:

.

Simple scalar values are interpolated "as is"

.

References to SCALARs will collect the value on the moment that the output is made. The Log::Report::Message object which is created with the __xn can be seen as a closure. The translation can be reused. See example below.

.

Code references can be used to create the data "under fly". The Log::Report::Message object which is being handled is passed as only argument. This is a hash in which all OPTIONS and VARIABLES can be found.

.

When the value is an ARRAY, all members will be interpolated with $" between the elements.

Avoiding repetative translations

This way of translating is somewhat expensive, because an object to handle the __x() is created each time.

 for my $i (1..100_000)
 {   print __x "Hello World {i}\n", $i;
 }

The suggestion that Locale::TextDomain makes to improve performance, is to get the translation outside the loop, which only works without interpolation:

 use Locale::TextDomain;
 my $i = 42;
 my $s = __x("Hello World {i}\n", i => $i);
 foreach $i (1..100_000)
 {   print $s;
 }

Oops, not what you mean. With Log::Report, you can do

 use Log::Report;
 my $i;
 my $s = __x("Hello World {i}", i => \$i);
 foreach $i (1..100_000)
 {   print $s;
 }

Mind you not to write: for my $i in this case!!!! You can also write an incomplete translation:

 use Log::Report;
 my $s = __x "Hello World {i}";
 foreach my $i (1..100_000)
 {   print $s->(i => $i);
 }

In either case, the translation will be looked-up only once.

The Log::Report functions which define translation request can all have OPTIONS. Some can have VARIABLES to be interpolated in the string as well. To distinguish between the OPTIONS and VARIABLES (both a list of key-value pairs), the keys of the OPTIONS start with an underscore _. As result of this, please avoid the use of keys which start with an underscore in variable names. On the other hand, you are allowed to interpolate OPTION values in your strings.

OVERLOADING ^

overload: as function

When the object is used to call as function, a new object is created with the data from the original one but updated with the new parameters. Implemented in clone().

overload: concatenation

An (accidental) use of concatenation (a dot where a comma should be used) would immediately stringify the object. This is avoided by overloading that operation.

overload: stringification

When the object is used in string context, it will get translated. Implemented as toString().

SEE ALSO ^

This module is part of Log-Report distribution version 0.94, built on August 23, 2011. Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/log-report/

LICENSE ^

Copyrights 2007-2011 by Mark Overmeer. For other contributors see ChangeLog.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html

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