View on
Mark Overmeer > Mail-Box-2.107 > Mail::Message::Field::Address



Annotate this POD


New  2
Open  10
View/Report Bugs
Module Version: 2.107   Source   Latest Release: Mail-Box-2.120


Mail::Message::Field::Address - One e-mail address


   is a Mail::Identity
   is a User::Identity::Item


 my $addr = Mail::Message::Field::Address->new(...);

 my $ui   = User::Identity->new(...);
 my $addr = Mail::Message::Field::Address->coerce($ui);

 my $mi   = Mail::Identity->new(...);
 my $addr = Mail::Message::Field::Address->coerce($mi);

 print $addr->address;
 print $addr->fullName;   # possibly unicode!
 print $addr->domain;


Many header fields can contain e-mail addresses. Each e-mail address can be represented by an object of this class. These objects will handle interpretation and character set encoding and decoding for you.


overload: boolean()

The object used as boolean will always return true

overload: string comparison()

Two address objects are the same when their email addresses are the same.

overload: stringification()

When the object is used in string context, it will return the encoded representation of the e-mail address, just like string() does.




Try to coerce the OBJECT into a Mail::Message::Field::Address. In case of a STRING, it is interpreted as an email address.

The OPTIONS are passed to the object creation, and overrule the values found in the OBJECT. The result may be undef or a newly created object. If the OBJECT is already of the correct type, it is returned unmodified.

The OBJECT may currently be a Mail::Address, a Mail::Identity, or a User::Identity. In case of the latter, one of the user's addresses is chosen at random.

Mail::Message::Field::Address->new([NAME], OPTIONS)

See "Constructors" in Mail::Identity


Parse the string for an address. You never know whether one or more addresses are specified on a line (often applications are wrong), therefore, the STRING is first parsed for as many addresses as possible and then the one is taken at random.



See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in User::Identity::Item


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in User::Identity::Item


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity



See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item

$obj->addCollection(OBJECT | ([TYPE], OPTIONS))

See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item

$obj->find(COLLECTION, ROLE)

See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item



Character-set encoding, like 'q' and 'b', to be used when non-ascii characters are to be transmitted.

Access to the content


Returns an RFC compliant e-mail address, which will have character set encoding if needed. The objects are also overloaded to call this method in string context.


 print $address->string;
 print $address;          # via overloading


Error: $object is not a collection.

The first argument is an object, but not of a class which extends User::Identity::Collection.

Error: Cannot coerce a $type into a Mail::Message::Field::Address

When addresses are specified to be included in header fields, they may be coerced into Mail::Message::Field::Address objects first. What you specify is not accepted as address specification. This may be an internal error.

Error: Cannot load collection module for $type ($class).

Either the specified $type does not exist, or that module named $class returns compilation errors. If the type as specified in the warning is not the name of a package, you specified a nickname which was not defined. Maybe you forgot the 'require' the package which defines the nickname.

Error: Creation of a collection via $class failed.

The $class did compile, but it was not possible to create an object of that class using the options you specified.

Error: Don't know what type of collection you want to add.

If you add a collection, it must either by a collection object or a list of options which can be used to create a collection object. In the latter case, the type of collection must be specified.

Warning: No collection $name

The collection with $name does not exist and can not be created.


This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.107, built on November 28, 2012. Website:


Copyrights 2001-2012 by [Mark Overmeer]. For other contributors see ChangeLog.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See

syntax highlighting: