View on
Mark Overmeer > Mail-Box-2.108 > Mail::Message::Field::Address



Annotate this POD


New  2
Open  10
View/Report Bugs
Module Version: 2.108   Source   Latest Release: Mail-Box-2.120


Mail::Message::Field::Address - One e-mail address


   is a Mail::Identity
   is a User::Identity::Item


 my $addr = Mail::Message::Field::Address->new(...);

 my $ui   = User::Identity->new(...);
 my $addr = Mail::Message::Field::Address->coerce($ui);

 my $mi   = Mail::Identity->new(...);
 my $addr = Mail::Message::Field::Address->coerce($mi);

 print $addr->address;
 print $addr->fullName;   # possibly unicode!
 print $addr->domain;


Many header fields can contain e-mail addresses. Each e-mail address can be represented by an object of this class. These objects will handle interpretation and character set encoding and decoding for you.

See documentation in base class.


overload: boolean()

The object used as boolean will always return true

overload: string comparison()

Two address objects are the same when their email addresses are the same.

overload: stringification()

When the object is used in string context, it will return the encoded representation of the e-mail address, just like string() does.


See documentation in base class.


See documentation in base class.


Try to coerce the OBJECT into a Mail::Message::Field::Address. In case of a STRING, it is interpreted as an email address.

The OPTIONS are passed to the object creation, and overrule the values found in the OBJECT. The result may be undef or a newly created object. If the OBJECT is already of the correct type, it is returned unmodified.

The OBJECT may currently be a Mail::Address, a Mail::Identity, or a User::Identity. In case of the latter, one of the user's addresses is chosen at random.

Mail::Message::Field::Address->new([NAME], OPTIONS)

See "Constructors" in Mail::Identity


Parse the string for an address. You never know whether one or more addresses are specified on a line (often applications are wrong), therefore, the STRING is first parsed for as many addresses as possible and then the one is taken at random.


See documentation in base class.


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in User::Identity::Item


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in User::Identity::Item


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See "Attributes" in Mail::Identity


See documentation in base class.


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item

$obj->addCollection(OBJECT | ([TYPE], OPTIONS))

See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item

$obj->find(COLLECTION, ROLE)

See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item


See "Collections" in User::Identity::Item



Character-set encoding, like 'q' and 'b', to be used when non-ascii characters are to be transmitted.

Access to the content


Returns an RFC compliant e-mail address, which will have character set encoding if needed. The objects are also overloaded to call this method in string context.


 print $address->string;
 print $address;          # via overloading


Error: $object is not a collection.

The first argument is an object, but not of a class which extends User::Identity::Collection.

Error: Cannot coerce a $type into a Mail::Message::Field::Address

When addresses are specified to be included in header fields, they may be coerced into Mail::Message::Field::Address objects first. What you specify is not accepted as address specification. This may be an internal error.

Error: Cannot load collection module for $type ($class).

Either the specified $type does not exist, or that module named $class returns compilation errors. If the type as specified in the warning is not the name of a package, you specified a nickname which was not defined. Maybe you forgot the 'require' the package which defines the nickname.

Error: Creation of a collection via $class failed.

The $class did compile, but it was not possible to create an object of that class using the options you specified.

Error: Don't know what type of collection you want to add.

If you add a collection, it must either by a collection object or a list of options which can be used to create a collection object. In the latter case, the type of collection must be specified.

Warning: No collection $name

The collection with $name does not exist and can not be created.


This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.108, built on June 25, 2013. Website:


Copyrights 2001-2013 by [Mark Overmeer]. For other contributors see ChangeLog.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See

syntax highlighting: