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Module Version: 4.00003   Source   Latest Release: Net-Twitter-4.01006

NAME ^

Net::Twitter - A perl interface to the Twitter API

VERSION ^

version 4.00003

SYNOPSIS ^

  use Net::Twitter;
  use Scalar::Util 'blessed';

  # When no authentication is required:
  my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 0);

  # As of 13-Aug-2010, Twitter requires OAuth for authenticated requests
  my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
      traits   => [qw/API::RESTv1_1/],
      consumer_key        => $consumer_key,
      consumer_secret     => $consumer_secret,
      access_token        => $token,
      access_token_secret => $token_secret,
  );

  my $result = $nt->update('Hello, world!');

  eval {
      my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline({ since_id => $high_water, count => 100 });
      for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
          print "$status->{created_at} <$status->{user}{screen_name}> $status->{text}\n";
      }
  };
  if ( my $err = $@ ) {
      die $@ unless blessed $err && $err->isa('Net::Twitter::Error');

      warn "HTTP Response Code: ", $err->code, "\n",
           "HTTP Message......: ", $err->message, "\n",
           "Twitter error.....: ", $err->error, "\n";
  }

TWITTER API V1.1 SUPPORT ^

This version of Net::Twitter provides Twitter API v1.1 support. Enable it by including the API::RESTv1_1 trait instead of API::REST. Using Twitter API v1.1 may require changes to you code! It is not completely backwards compatible with v1.

For help migrating your application to Twitter API v1.1, see Net::Twitter::Manual::MigratingToV1_1.

DESCRIPTION ^

This module provides a perl interface to the Twitter APIs. See http://dev.twitter.com/doc for a full description of the Twitter APIs.

TWITTER API VERSION 1.1 ^

Twitter will (perhaps has by the time you read this) deprecated version 1 of the API. Documentation, here, assumes version 1.1 of the API. For version 1 documentation, see Net::Twitter::Role::API::REST.

To use Twitter API version 1.1, simply replace API::REST in the traits argument to new with API::RESTv1_1. The Net::Twitter API is backwards compatible to the extent possible. If Twitter does not provide a 1.1 endpoint for a version 1 call, Net::Twitter cannot support it, of course.

Twitter API version 1.1 requires OAuth authentication for all calls. There is no longer an IP address limit and a per-user limit. Each API call has it's own rate limit. Most are 15 calls reset every 15 minutes. Others are 180 calls, reset every 15 minutes. These limits may change. For current rate limits, see https://dev.twitter.com/docs/rate-limiting/1.1/limits.

OMG! THE MOOSE! ^

Net::Twitter is Moose based. Moose provides some advantages, including the ability for the maintainer of this module to respond quickly to Twitter API changes.

See Net::Twitter::Lite if you need an alternative without Moose and its dependencies.

Net::Twitter::Lite's API method definitions and documentation are generated from Net::Twitter. It is a related module, but does not depend on Net::Twitter or Moose for installation.

RETURN VALUES ^

Net::Twitter decodes the data structures returned by the Twitter API into native perl data structures (HASH references and ARRAY references). The full layout of those data structures are not documented, here. They change often, usually with the addition of new elements, and documenting all of those changes would be a significant challenge.

Instead, rely on the online Twitter API documentation and inspection of the returned data.

The Twitter API online documentation is located at http://dev.twitter.com/doc.

To inspect the data, use Data::Dumper or similar module of your choice. Here's a simple example using Data::Dumper:

    use Data::Dumper;

    my $r = $nt->search($search_term);
    print Dumper $r;

For more information on perl data structures, see perlreftut, perldsc, and perllol.

METHODS AND ARGUMENTS ^

new

This constructs a Net::Twitter object. It takes several named parameters, all of them optional:

traits

An ARRAY ref of traits used to control which APIs the constructed Net::Twitter object will support and how it handles errors. Possible values are:

API::RESTv1_1

Provides support for the Twitter REST API version 1.1 methods.

API::Search

Provides support for the Twitter Search API methods.

AutoCursor

AutoCursor is a parameterized trait that provides an automatic loop for cursored calls, returning an ARRAY reference to the combined results. By default, it handles friends_ids and followers_ids. See Net::Twitter::Role::AutoCursor for details.

InflateObjects

When this optional trait is included, Net::Twitter inflates HASH refs returned by Twitter into objects with read accessors for each element. In addition, it inflates dates to DateTime objects and URLs to URI objects. Objects that include a created_at attribute also have a relative_created_at method.

For example, with InflateObjects applied, the <friends_timeline> method returns an array of status objects:

    $r = $nt->friends_timeline;
    for my $status ( @$r ) {
        $r->user->screen_name; # same as $r->{user}{screen_name}

        # $created_at is a DateTime; $age is a DateTime::Duration
        my $age = DateTime->now - $r->created_at;

        # print an age in a similar style to the Twitter web site, e.g.:
        # less than a minute ago
        # about a minute ago
        # 6 minutes ago
        # 1 day ago
        # etc.
        print $r->relative_created_at;
Legacy

This trait provides backwards compatibility to Net::Twitter versions prior to 3.00. It implies the traits API::REST, API::Search, API::TwitterVision, and API::WrapError. It also provides additional functionality to ensure consistent behavior for applications written for use with legacy versions of Net::Twitter.

In the current version, this trait is automatically included if the traits option is not specified. This ensures backwards compatibility for existing applications using Net::Twitter versions prior to 3.00. See section "LEGACY COMPATIBILITY" for more details.

OAuth

The OAuth trait provides OAuth authentication rather than the default Basic Authentication for Twitter API method calls. See the "Authentication" section and Net::Twitter::Role::OAuth for full documentation.

RateLimit

The RateLimit trait adds utility methods that return information about the current rate limit status. See Net::Twitter::Role::RateLimit for details.

RetryOnError

The RetryOnError trait automatically retries Twitter API calls with temporary failures. See Net::Twitter::Role::RetryOnError for details.

WrapError

Net::Twitter normally throws exceptions on error. When this trait is included, Net::Twitter returns undef when a method fails and makes the error available through method get_error. This is the way all errors were handled in Net::Twitter versions prior to version 3.00.

Some examples of using the traits parameter in new:

    # provide support for *only* the REST API; throw exceptions on error
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['API::RESTv1_1']);

    # provide support for both the REST and Search APIs; wrap errors
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => [qw/API::RESTv1_1 API::Search WrapError/]);

    # Provide legacy support for applications written with Net::Twitter
    # prior to version 3.0.
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);
legacy

A boolean. If set to 0, new constructs a Net::Twitter object implementing the REST API and throws exceptions on API method errors.

    Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 0);

is a shortcut for:

    Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['API::RESTv1_1']);

If set to 1, new constructs a Net::Twitter object with the Legacy trait.

    Net::Twitter->new(legacy => 1);

is a shortcut for:

    Net::Twitter->new(traits => ['Legacy']);
username

This is the username for Basic Authentication. NOTE: as of 31-Aug-2010, Twitter no longer supports Basic Authentication. Use OAuth instead. Other Twitter compatible services may, however, accept Basic Authentication, so support for it remains in Net::Twitter.

password

This is the password used for Basic Authentication.

clientname

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-Name HTTP header. It defaults to "Perl Net::Twitter". Note: This option has nothing to do with the "via" application byline.

clientver

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-Version HTTP header. It defaults to current version of the Net::Twitter module.

clienturl

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-URL HTTP header. It defaults to the search.cpan.org page for the Net::Twitter distribution.

useragent_class

The LWP::UserAgent compatible class used internally by Net::Twitter. It defaults to "LWP::UserAgent". For POE based applications, consider using "LWP::UserAgent::POE".

useragent_args

An HASH ref of arguments to pass to constructor of the class specified with useragent_class, above. It defaults to {} (an empty HASH ref).

useragent

The value for User-Agent HTTP header. It defaults to "Net::Twitter/$VERSION (Perl)", where $VERSION is the current version of Net::Twitter.

source

Twitter on longer uses the source parameter. Support for it remains in Net::Twitter for any compatible services that may use it. It was originally used by Twitter to provide an "via" application byline.

apiurl

The URL for the Twitter API. This defaults to "http://api.twitter.com/1". This option is available when the API::RESTv1_1 trait is included.

apihost

DEPRECATED - Setting the apiurl is sufficient.

apirealm

A string containing the Twitter API realm used for Basic Authentication. It defaults to "Twitter API". This option is available when the API::RESTv1_1 trait is included.

identica

If set to 1, Net::Twitter overrides the defaults for apiurl, apihost, and apirealm to "http://identi.ca/api", "identi.ca:80", and "Laconica API" respectively. It defaults to 0. This option is available when the API::RESTv1_1 trait is included.

consumer_key

A string containing the OAuth consumer key provided by Twitter when an application is registered. This option is available when the OAuth trait is included.

consumer_secret

A string containing the OAuth consumer secret. This option is available when the OAuth trait is included.

ssl

If set to 1, an SSL connection will be used for all API calls. Defaults to 0.

netrc

(Optional) Sets the machine key to look up in .netrc to obtain credentials. If set to 1, Net::Twitter will use the value of the netrc_machine option (below).

   # in .netrc
   machine api.twitter.com
     login YOUR_TWITTER_USER_NAME
     password YOUR_TWITTER_PASSWORD
   machine semifor.twitter.com
     login semifor
     password SUPERSECRET

   # in your perl program
   $nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 1);
   $nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 'semifor.twitter.com');
netrc_machine

(Optional) Sets the machine entry to look up in .netrc when <netrc = 1>> is used. Defaults to api.twitter.com.

decode_html_entities

Twitter encodes HTML entities in the text field of statuses. Set this option to 1 to have them automatically decoded. Default 0.

credentials($username, $password)

Set the credentials for Basic Authentication. This is helpful for managing multiple accounts.

ua

Provides access to the constructed user agent object used internally by Net::Twitter. Use it with caution.

AUTHENTICATION ^

With REST API version 1.1, all API calls require OAuth. Since 31-Aug-2010, version 1 required OAuth requests requiring authentication. Other Twitter compatible services, like Identi.ca, accept Basic Authentication. So, Net::Twitter provides support for both.

To set up OAuth, include the consumer_key and consumer_secret options to "new". When they are provided, the OAuth trait will be automatically included. See Net::Twitter::Role::OAuth for more information on using OAuth, including examples.

To set up Basic Authentication in Net::Twitter, provide the username and password options to "new" or call the "credentials" method.

In addition to the arguments specified for each API method described below, an additional -authenticate parameter can be passed. To request an Authorization header, pass -authenticate => 1; to suppress an authentication header, pass -authenticate => 0. Even if requested, an Authorization header will not be added if there are no user credentials (username and password for Basic Authentication; access tokens for OAuth).

This is probably only useful for non-Twitter sites that use the Twitter API and support unauthenticated calls.

API METHODS AND ARGUMENTS ^

Most Twitter API methods take parameters. All Net::Twitter API methods will accept a HASH ref of named parameters as specified in the Twitter API documentation. For convenience, many Net::Twitter methods accept simple positional arguments. The positional parameter passing style is optional; you can always use the named parameters in a HASH reference if you prefer.

You may pass any number of required parameters as positional parameters. You must pass them in the order specified in the documentation for each method. Optional parameters must be passed as named parameters in a HASH reference. The HASH reference containing the named parameters must be the final parameter to the method call. Any required parameters not passed as positional parameters, must be included in the named parameter HASH reference.

For example, the REST API method update has one required parameter, status. You can call update with a HASH ref argument:

    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!' });

Or, you can use the convenient, positional parameter form:

    $nt->update('Hello world!');

The update method also has an optional parameter, in_reply_to_status_id. To use it, you must use the HASH ref form:

    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!', in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });

You may use the convenient positional form for the required status parameter with the optional parameters specified in the named parameter HASH reference:

    $nt->update('Hello world!', { in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });

Convenience form is provided for the required parameters of all API methods. So, these two calls are equivalent:

    $nt->friendship_exists({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });
    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);

Many API methods have aliases. You can use the API method name, or any of its aliases, as you prefer. For example, these calls are all equivalent:

    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->relationship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->follows($fred, $barney);

Aliases support both the HASH ref and convenient forms:

    $nt->follows({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });

Cursors and Paging

Some methods return partial results a page at a time. Originally, methods that returned partial results used a page parameter. A more recent addition to the Twitter API for retrieving multiple pages uses the cursor parameter. Usually, a method uses either the page parameter or the cursor parameter, but not both. There have been exceptions to this rule when Twitter deprecates the use of page for a method in favor of cursor. In that case, both methods may work during a transition period. So, if a method supports both, you should always use the cursor parameter.

Paging

For methods that support paging, the first page is returned by passing page => 1, the second page by passing page => 2, etc. If no page parameter is passed, the first page is returned.

Here's an example that demonstrates how to obtain all favorites in a loop:

    my @favs;
    for ( my $page = 1; ; ++$page ) {
        my $r = $nt->favorites({ page => $page });
        last unless @$r;

        push @favs, @$r;
    }

Cursors

Cursoring employs a different strategy. To obtain the first page of results, pass cursor => -1. Twitter returns a reference to a hash that includes entries next_cursor, previous_cursor, and an entry with a reference to an array containing a page of the requested items. The key for the array reference will be named users, ids, or something similar depending upon the type of returned items. For example, when cursor parameter is used with the followers_ids method, the returned in hash entry ids.

The next_cursor value can be used in a subsequent call to obtain the next page of results. When you have obtained the last page of results, next_cursor will be 0. Likewise, you can use the value for previous_cursor to obtain the previous page of results. When you have obtained the first page, previous_cursor will be 0.

Here's an example that demonstrates how to obtain all follower IDs in a loop using the cursor parameter:

    my @ids;
    for ( my $cursor = -1, my $r; $cursor; $cursor = $r->{next_cursor} ) {
        $r = $nt->followers_ids({ cursor => $cursor });
        push @ids, @{ $r->{ids} };
    }

Synthetic Arguments

In addition to the arguments described in the Twitter API Documentation for each API method, Net::Twitter supports additional synthetic arguments.

-authenticate

When set to 1, Net::Twitter will provide an Authorization header for the API call; when set to 0, it will suppress the Authentication header. This argument overrides the defined authentication behavior for the API method. It is probably only useful for the rate_limit_satus method which returns different values for authenticated and unauthenticated calls. See "AUTHENTICATION" for more details.

-since

API methods that accept the since_id argument will also accept the synthetic -since argument, instead. -since may be a Date::Time object, an epoch time (the number of seconds since the system epoch), or a string in the same format returned by Twitter for the created_at attribute. Only statuses with a created_at time greater than -since will be returned by the API call.

-legacy_lists_api

This option is only effective when the legacy API::Lists trait is applied. Passing -legacy_lists_api set to 0 for lists methods will use the new lists endpoints and semantics. This will facilitate upgrading an application to use the new lists api methods. When the API::Lists trait is not applied, this option is ignored.

REST API Methods ^

These methods are provided when trait API::RESTv1_1 is included in the traits option to new.

Common Parameters

id

Several of these methods accept a user ID as the id parameter. The user ID can be either a screen name, or the users numeric ID. To disambiguate, use the screen_name or user_id parameters, instead.

For example, These calls are equivalent:

    $nt->create_friend('perl_api');    # screen name
    $nt->create_friend(1564061);       # numeric ID
    $nt->create_friend({ id => 'perl_api' });
    $nt->create_friend({ screen_name => 'perl_api' });
    $nt->create_friend({ user_id     => 1564061 });

However user_id 911 and screen_name 911 are separate Twitter accounts. These calls are NOT equivalent:

    $nt->create_friend(911); # interpreted as screen name
    $nt->create_friend({ user_id => 911 }); # screen name: richellis

Whenever the id parameter is required and user_id and screen_name are also parameters, using any one of them satisfies the requirement.

skip_user

The timeline methods all accept an optional skip_user parameter. When set to a true value, the statuses returned in a timeline will not contain an entire embedded user HASH. Instead, the user node will contain only an id element to indicate the numerical ID of the Twitter user that sent the status.

Methods

account_settings
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the current trend, geo and sleep time information for the authenticating user.

Returns: HashRef

account_totals DEPRECATED
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the current count of friends, followers, updates (statuses) and favorites of the authenticating user.

Returns: HashRef

add_list_member
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none

Add a member to a list. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to add members to it. Note that lists can't have more than 500 members.

Returns: User

add_place
add_place(name, contained_within, token, lat, long)
Parameters: name, contained_within, token, lat, long, attribute:street_address, callback
Required: name, contained_within, token, lat, long

Creates a new place object at the given latitude and longitude.

Before creating a place you need to query similar_places with the latitude, longitude and name of the place you wish to create. The query will return an array of places which are similar to the one you wish to create, and a token. If the place you wish to create isn't in the returned array you can use the token with this method to create a new one.

Returns: Place

block_exists DEPRECATED
block_exists(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id

Returns if the authenticating user is blocking a target user. Will return the blocked user's object if a block exists, and error with HTTP 404 response code otherwise.

Returns: BasicUser

blocking
alias: blocks_list
Parameters: cursor, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Returns an array of user objects that the authenticating user is blocking.

Returns: ArrayRef[BasicUser]

blocking_ids
alias: blocks_ids
Parameters: cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none

Returns an array of numeric user ids the authenticating user is blocking.

Returns: ArrayRef[Int]

contributees
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_satus
Required: none

Returns an array of users that the specified user can contribute to.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

contributors
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_satus
Required: none

Returns an array of users who can contribute to the specified account.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

create_block
create_block(id)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: id

Blocks the user specified in the user_id or screen_name parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the blocked user when successful. You can find out more about blocking in the Twitter Support Knowledge Base.

Returns: BasicUser

create_favorite
create_favorite(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id

Favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the favorite status when successful.

Returns: Status

create_friend
alias: follow
alias: follow_new
alias: create_friendship
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, follow
Required: none

Follows the user specified in the user_id or screen_name parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the befriended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.

Returns: BasicUser

create_list
create_list(name)
Parameters: list_id, slug, name, mode, description, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: name

Creates a new list for the authenticated user. Note that you can't create more than 20 lists per account.

Returns: List

create_saved_search
create_saved_search(query)
Parameters: query
Required: query

Creates a saved search for the authenticated user.

Returns: SavedSearch

delete_list
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug
Required: none

Deletes the specified list. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to destroy it.

Returns: List

delete_list_member
alias: remove_list_member
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none

Removes the specified member from the list. The authenticated user must be the list's owner to remove members from the list.

Returns: User

destroy_block
destroy_block(id)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: id

Un-blocks the user specified in the user_id or screen_name parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-blocked user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

destroy_direct_message
destroy_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id

Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct message.

Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.

Returns: DirectMessage

destroy_favorite
destroy_favorite(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id

Un-favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-favorited status.

Returns: Status

destroy_friend
destroy_friend(id)
alias: unfollow
alias: destroy_friendship
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: id

Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the user_id or screen_name parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-friended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.

Returns: BasicUser

destroy_saved_search
destroy_saved_search(id)
alias: delete_saved_search
Parameters: id
Required: id

Destroys a saved search. The search, specified by id, must be owned by the authenticating user.

Returns: SavedSearch

destroy_status
destroy_status(id)
Parameters: id, trim_user
Required: id

Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.

Returns: Status

direct_messages
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent to the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.

Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.

Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]

disable_notifications DEPRECATED
disable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id

Disables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

enable_notifications DEPRECATED
enable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: id

Enables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

end_session DEPRECATED
Parameters: none
Required: none

Ends the session of the authenticating user, returning a null cookie. Use this method to sign users out of client-facing applications like widgets.

Returns: Error

favorites
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, count, since_id, max_id, include_entities
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent favorite statuses for the authenticating user or user specified by the ID parameter.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

followers
alias: followers_list
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: none

Returns a cursored collection of user objects for users following the specified user.

Returns: HashRef

followers_ids
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none

Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user following the specified user. The order of the IDs may change from call to call. To obtain the screen names, pass the arrayref to "lookup_users".

Use the optional cursor parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of 5000. When the cursor parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys previous_cursor, next_cursor, and ids. The value of ids is a reference to an array of IDS of the user's followers. Set the optional cursor parameter to -1 to get the first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of previous_cursor or next_cursor to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of previous_cursor will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of next_cursor will be 0.

Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]

friends
alias: friends_list
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: none

Returns a cursored collection of user objects for users followed by the specified user.

Returns: HashRef

friends_ids
alias: following_ids
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none

Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user followed by the specified user. The order of the IDs is reverse chronological.

Use the optional cursor parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of 5000. When the cursor parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys previous_cursor, next_cursor, and ids. The value of ids is a reference to an array of IDS of the user's friends. Set the optional cursor parameter to -1 to get the first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of previous_cursor or next_cursor to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of previous_cursor will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of next_cursor will be 0.

Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]

friends_timeline DEPRECATED
alias: following_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, exclude_replies, contributor_details, include_entities, trim_user
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses, including retweets, posted by the authenticating user and that user's friends.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

friendship_exists DEPRECATED
friendship_exists(user_a, user_b)
alias: relationship_exists
alias: follows
Parameters: user_id_a, user_id_b, screen_name_a, screen_name_b, user_a, user_b
Required: user_a, user_b

This method is provided for backwards compatibility with Twitter API V1.0. Twitter API V1.1 does not provide an endpoint for this call. Instead, show_friendship is called, the result is inspected, and an appropriate value is returned which can be evaluated in a boolean context.

Tests for the existence of friendship between two users. Will return true if user_a follows user_b, otherwise will return false.

Use of user_a and user_b is deprecated. It has been preserved for backwards compatibility, and is used for the two-argument positional form:

    $nt->friendship_exists($user_a, $user_b);

Instead, you should use one of the named argument forms:

    $nt->friendship_exists({ user_id_a => $id1, user_id_b => $id2 });
    $nt->friendship_exists({ screen_name_a => $name1, screen_name_b => $name2 });

Consider using show_friendship instead.

Returns: Bool

friendships_incoming
alias: incoming_friendships
Parameters: cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none

Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the ids element for every user who has a pending request to follow the authenticating user.

Returns: HashRef

friendships_outgoing
alias: outgoing_friendships
Parameters: cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none

Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the ids element for every protected user for whom the authenticating user has a pending follow request.

Returns: HashRef

geo_id
geo_id(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Returns details of a place returned from the reverse_geocode method.

Returns: HashRef

geo_search
Parameters: lat, long, query, ip, granularity, accuracy, max_results, contained_within, attribute:street_address, callback
Required: none

Search for places that can be attached to a statuses/update. Given a latitude and a longitude pair, an IP address, or a name, this request will return a list of all the valid places that can be used as the place_id when updating a status.

Conceptually, a query can be made from the user's location, retrieve a list of places, have the user validate the location he or she is at, and then send the ID of this location with a call to statuses/update.

This is the recommended method to use find places that can be attached to statuses/update. Unlike geo/reverse_geocode which provides raw data access, this endpoint can potentially re-order places with regards to the user who is authenticated. This approach is also preferred for interactive place matching with the user.

Returns: HashRef

get_configuration
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the current configuration used by Twitter including twitter.com slugs which are not usernames, maximum photo resolutions, and t.co URL lengths.

It is recommended applications request this endpoint when they are loaded, but no more than once a day.

Returns: HashRef

get_languages
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the list of languages supported by Twitter along with their ISO 639-1 code. The ISO 639-1 code is the two letter value to use if you include lang with any of your requests.

Returns: ArrayRef[Lanugage]

get_list
alias: show_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none

Returns the specified list. Private lists will only be shown if the authenticated user owns the specified list.

Returns: List

get_lists
alias: list_lists
alias: all_subscriptions
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: none

Returns all lists the authenticating or specified user subscribes to, including their own. The user is specified using the user_id or screen_name parameters. If no user is given, the authenticating user is used.

Returns: Hashref

get_privacy_policy
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns Twitter's privacy policy.

Returns: HashRef

get_tos
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the Twitter Terms of Service. These are not the same as the Developer Rules of the Road.

Returns: HashRef

home_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, exclude_replies, contributor_details, include_entities, trim_user
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses, including retweets, posted by the authenticating user and that user's friends.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, cursor, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Returns the members of the specified list. Private list members will only be shown if the authenticated user owns the specified list.

Returns: Hashref

list_memberships
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor, filter_to_owned_lists
Required: none

Returns the lists the specified user has been added to. If user_id or screen_name are not provided the memberships for the authenticating user are returned.

Returns: Hashref

list_statuses
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, since_id, max_id, count, include_entities, include_rts
Required: none

Returns tweet timeline for members of the specified list. Historically, retweets were not available in list timeline responses but you can now use the include_rts=true parameter to additionally receive retweet objects.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

list_subscribers
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, cursor, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Returns the subscribers of the specified list. Private list subscribers will only be shown if the authenticated user owns the specified list.

Returns: Hashref

lookup_friendships
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: none

Returns the relationship of the authenticating user to the comma separated list or ARRAY ref of up to 100 screen_names or user_ids provided. Values for connections can be: following, following_requested, followed_by, none. Requires authentication.

Returns: ArrayRef

lookup_users
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: none

Return up to 100 users worth of extended information, specified by either ID, screen name, or combination of the two. The author's most recent status (if the authenticating user has permission) will be returned inline. This method is rate limited to 1000 calls per hour.

This method will accept user IDs or screen names as either a comma delimited string, or as an ARRAY ref. It will also accept arguments in the normal HASHREF form or as a simple list of named arguments. I.e., any of the following forms are acceptable:

    $nt->lookup_users({ user_id => '1234,6543,3333' });
    $nt->lookup_users(user_id => '1234,6543,3333');
    $nt->lookup_users({ user_id => [ 1234, 6543, 3333 ] });
    $nt->lookup_users({ screen_name => 'fred,barney,wilma' });
    $nt->lookup_users(screen_name => ['fred', 'barney', 'wilma']);

    $nt->lookup_users(
        screen_name => ['fred', 'barney' ],
        user_id     => '4321,6789',
    );

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

members_create_all
alias: add_list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none

Adds multiple members to a list, by specifying a reference to an array or a comma-separated list of member ids or screen names. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to add members to it. Note that lists can't have more than 500 members, and you are limited to adding up to 100 members to a list at a time with this method.

Returns: List

members_destroy_all
alias: remove_list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none

Removes multiple members from a list, by specifying a reference to an array of member ids or screen names, or a string of comma separated user ids or screen names. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to remove members from it. Note that lists can't have more than 500 members, and you are limited to removing up to 100 members to a list at a time with this method.

Please note that there can be issues with lists that rapidly remove and add memberships. Take care when using these methods such that you are not too rapidly switching between removals and adds on the same list.

Returns: List

mentions
alias: replies
alias: mentions_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, trim_user, include_entities, contributor_details
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent mentions (statuses containing @username) for the authenticating user.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

new_direct_message
new_direct_message(text)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, text
Required: text

Sends a new direct message to the specified user from the authenticating user. Requires both the user and text parameters. Returns the sent message when successful. In order to support numeric screen names, the screen_name or user_id parameters may be used instead of user.

Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.

Returns: DirectMessage

no_retweet_ids
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns an ARRAY ref of user IDs for which the authenticating user does not want to receive retweets.

Returns: ArrayRef[UserIDs]

oembed
Parameters: id, url, maxwidth, hide_media, hide_thread, omit_script, align, related, lang
Required: none

Returns information allowing the creation of an embedded representation of a Tweet on third party sites. See the oEmbed specification for information about the response format.

While this endpoint allows a bit of customization for the final appearance of the embedded Tweet, be aware that the appearance of the rendered Tweet may change over time to be consistent with Twitter's Display Requirements. Do not rely on any class or id parameters to stay constant in the returned markup.

Returns: Status

profile_banner
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: none

Returns a hash reference mapping available size variations to URLs that can be used to retrieve each variation of the banner.

Returns: HashRef

rate_limit_status
rate_limit_status(resources)
Parameters: resources
Required: none

Returns the remaining number of API requests available to the authenticated user before the API limit is reached for the current hour.

Use ->rate_limit_status({ authenticate => 0 }) to force an unauthenticated call, which will return the status for the IP address rather than the authenticated user. (Note: for a web application, this is the server's IP address.)

Returns: RateLimitStatus

related_results DEPRECATED
related_results(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

If available, returns an array of replies and mentions related to the specified status. There is no guarantee there will be any replies or mentions in the response. This method is only available to users who have access to #newtwitter. Requires authentication.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

remove_profile_banner
Parameters: none
Required: none

Removes the uploaded profile banner for the authenticating user.

Returns: Nothing

report_spam
report_spam(id)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: id

The user specified in the id is blocked by the authenticated user and reported as a spammer.

Returns: User

retweet
retweet(id)
Parameters: idtrim_user
Required: id

Retweets a tweet.

Returns: Status

retweeted_by DEPRECATED
retweeted_by(id)
Parameters: id, count, page, trim_user, include_entities
Required: id

Returns up to 100 users who retweeted the status identified by id.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

retweeted_by_ids DEPRECATED
retweeted_by_ids(id)
Parameters: id, count, page, trim_user, include_entities
Required: id

Returns the IDs of up to 100 users who retweeted the status identified by id.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

retweeted_by_me DEPRECATED
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, trim_user, include_entities
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the authenticating user.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

retweeted_by_user DEPRECATED
retweeted_by_user(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id

Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the specified user. The user is specified using the user_id or screen_name parameters. This method is identical to retweeted_by_me except you can choose the user to view. Does not require authentication, unless the user is protected.

Returns: ArrayRef

retweeted_to_me DEPRECATED
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the authenticating user's friends.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

retweeted_to_user DEPRECATED
retweeted_to_user(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id

Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by users the specified user follows. The user is specified using the user_id or screen_name parameters. This method is identical to retweeted_to_me except you can choose the user to view. Does not require authentication, unless the user is protected.

Returns: ArrayRef

retweets
retweets(id)
Parameters: id, count, trim_user
Required: id

Returns up to 100 of the first retweets of a given tweet.

Returns: Arrayref[Status]

retweets_of_me
alias: retweeted_of_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, trim_user, include_entities, include_user_entities
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent tweets of the authenticated user that have been retweeted by others.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

reverse_geocode
reverse_geocode(lat, long)
Parameters: lat, long, accuracy, granularity, max_results, callback
Required: lat, long

Search for places (cities and neighborhoods) that can be attached to a statuses/update. Given a latitude and a longitude, return a list of all the valid places that can be used as a place_id when updating a status. Conceptually, a query can be made from the user's location, retrieve a list of places, have the user validate the location he or she is at, and then send the ID of this location up with a call to statuses/update.

There are multiple granularities of places that can be returned -- "neighborhoods", "cities", etc. At this time, only United States data is available through this method.

lat

Required. The latitude to query about. Valid ranges are -90.0 to +90.0 (North is positive) inclusive.

long

Required. The longitude to query about. Valid ranges are -180.0 to +180.0 (East is positive) inclusive.

accuracy

Optional. A hint on the "region" in which to search. If a number, then this is a radius in meters, but it can also take a string that is suffixed with ft to specify feet. If this is not passed in, then it is assumed to be 0m. If coming from a device, in practice, this value is whatever accuracy the device has measuring its location (whether it be coming from a GPS, WiFi triangulation, etc.).

granularity

Optional. The minimal granularity of data to return. If this is not passed in, then neighborhood is assumed. city can also be passed.

max_results

Optional. A hint as to the number of results to return. This does not guarantee that the number of results returned will equal max_results, but instead informs how many "nearby" results to return. Ideally, only pass in the number of places you intend to display to the user here.

Returns: HashRef

saved_searches
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the authenticated user's saved search queries.

Returns: ArrayRef[SavedSearch]

search
search(q)
Parameters: q, count, callback, lang, locale, rpp, since_id, max_id, until, geocode, result_type, include_entities
Required: q

Returns a HASH reference with some meta-data about the query including the next_page, refresh_url, and max_id. The statuses are returned in results. To iterate over the results, use something similar to:

    my $r = $nt->search($searh_term);
    for my $status ( @{$r->{statuses}} ) {
        print "$status->{text}\n";
    }

Returns: HashRef

sent_direct_messages
alias: direct_messages_sent
Parameters: since_id, max_id, page, count, include_entities
Required: none

Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent by the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.

Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.

Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]

show_direct_message
show_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Returns a single direct message, specified by an id parameter. Like the direct_messages request, this method will include the user objects of the sender and recipient. Requires authentication.

Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.

Returns: HashRef

show_friendship
alias: show_relationship
Parameters: source_id, source_screen_name, target_id, target_screen_name
Required: none

Returns detailed information about the relationship between two users.

Returns: Relationship

show_list_member
alias: is_list_member
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Check if the specified user is a member of the specified list. Returns the user or undef.

Returns: Maybe[User]

show_list_subscriber
alias: is_list_subscriber
alias: is_subscriber_lists
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Returns the user if they are a subscriber.

Returns: User

show_saved_search
show_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Retrieve the data for a saved search, by id, owned by the authenticating user.

Returns: SavedSearch

show_status
show_status(id)
Parameters: id, trim_user, include_entities, include_my_retweet
Required: id

Returns a single status, specified by the id parameter. The status's author will be returned inline.

Returns: Status

show_user
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: none

Returns extended information of a given user, specified by ID or screen name as per the required id parameter. This information includes design settings, so third party developers can theme their widgets according to a given user's preferences. You must be properly authenticated to request the page of a protected user.

Returns: ExtendedUser

similar_places
similar_places(lat, long, name)
Parameters: lat, long, name, contained_within, attribute:street_address, callback
Required: lat, long, name

Locates places near the given coordinates which are similar in name.

Conceptually you would use this method to get a list of known places to choose from first. Then, if the desired place doesn't exist, make a request to add_place to create a new one.

The token contained in the response is the token needed to be able to create a new place.

Returns: HashRef

subscribe_list
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug
Required: none

Subscribes the authenticated user to the specified list.

Returns: List

subscriptions
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, count, cursor
Required: none

Obtain a collection of the lists the specified user is subscribed to, 20 lists per page by default. Does not include the user's own lists.

Returns: ArrayRef[List]

suggestion_categories
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the list of suggested user categories. The category slug can be used in the user_suggestions API method get the users in that category . Does not require authentication.

Returns: ArrayRef

test DEPRECATED
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the string "ok" status code.

Returns: Hash

trends_available
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the locations with trending topic information. The response is an array of "locations" that encode the location's WOEID (a Yahoo! Where On Earth ID http://developer.yahoo.com/geo/geoplanet/) and some other human-readable information such as a the location's canonical name and country.

For backwards compatibility, this method accepts optional lat and long parameters. You should call trends_closest directly, instead.

Use the WOEID returned in the location object to query trends for a specific location.

Returns: ArrayRef[Location]

trends_closest
Parameters: lat, long
Required: none

Returns the locations with trending topic information. The response is an array of "locations" that encode the location's WOEID (a Yahoo! Where On Earth ID http://developer.yahoo.com/geo/geoplanet/) and some other human-readable information such as a the location's canonical name and country. The results are sorted by distance from that location, nearest to farthest.

Use the WOEID returned in the location object to query trends for a specific location.

Returns: ArrayRef[Location]

trends_current DEPRECATED
trends_current(exclude)
Parameters: exclude
Required: none

Returns the current top ten trending topics on Twitter. The response includes the time of the request, the name of each trending topic, and query used on Twitter Search results page for that topic.

Returns: HashRef

trends_daily DEPRECATED
Parameters: date, exclude
Required: none

Returns the top 20 trending topics for each hour in a given day.

Returns: HashRef

trends_place
trends_place(id)
alias: trends_location
Parameters: id, exclude
Required: id

Returns the top 10 trending topics for a specific WOEID. The response is an array of "trend" objects that encode the name of the trending topic, the query parameter that can be used to search for the topic on Search, and the direct URL that can be issued against Search. This information is cached for five minutes, and therefore users are discouraged from querying these endpoints faster than once every five minutes. Global trends information is also available from this API by using a WOEID of 1.

Returns: ArrayRef[Trend]

trends_weekly DEPRECATED
Parameters: date, exclude
Required: none

Returns the top 30 trending topics for each day in a given week.

Returns: HashRef

unsubscribe_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none

Unsubscribes the authenticated user from the specified list.

Returns: List

update
update(status)
Parameters: status, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates, in_reply_to_status_id, trim_user
Required: status

Updates the authenticating user's status. Requires the status parameter specified. A status update with text identical to the authenticating user's current status will be ignored.

status

Required. The text of your status update. URL encode as necessary. Statuses over 140 characters will cause a 403 error to be returned from the API.

in_reply_to_status_id

Optional. The ID of an existing status that the update is in reply to. o Note: This parameter will be ignored unless the author of the tweet this parameter references is mentioned within the status text. Therefore, you must include @username, where username is the author of the referenced tweet, within the update.

lat

Optional. The location's latitude that this tweet refers to. The valid ranges for latitude is -90.0 to +90.0 (North is positive) inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside that range, if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled, or if there not a corresponding long parameter with this tweet.

long

Optional. The location's longitude that this tweet refers to. The valid ranges for longitude is -180.0 to +180.0 (East is positive) inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside that range, if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled, or if there not a corresponding lat parameter with this tweet.

place_id

Optional. The place to attach to this status update. Valid place_ids can be found by querying reverse_geocode.

display_coordinates

Optional. By default, geo-tweets will have their coordinates exposed in the status object (to remain backwards compatible with existing API applications). To turn off the display of the precise latitude and longitude (but keep the contextual location information), pass display_coordinates = 0> on the status update.

Returns: Status

update_account_settings
Parameters: trend_location_woid, sleep_time_enabled, start_sleep_time, end_sleep_time, time_zone, lang
Required: none

Updates the authenticating user's settings.

Returns: HashRef

update_delivery_device
update_delivery_device(device)
Parameters: device, include_entities
Required: device

Sets which device Twitter delivers updates to for the authenticating user. Sending none as the device parameter will disable SMS updates.

Returns: BasicUser

update_friendship
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, device, retweets
Required: none

Allows you enable or disable retweets and device notifications from the specified user. All other values are assumed to be false. Requires authentication.

Returns: HashRef

update_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, name, mode, description, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none

Updates the specified list. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to update it.

Returns: List

update_location DEPRECATED
update_location(location)
Parameters: location
Required: location

This method has been deprecated in favor of the update_profile method. Its URL will continue to work, but please consider migrating to the newer and more comprehensive method of updating profile attributes.

Returns: BasicUser

update_profile
Parameters: name, url, location, description, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Sets values that users are able to set under the "Account" tab of their settings page. Only the parameters specified will be updated; to only update the "name" attribute, for example, only include that parameter in your request.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_background_image
Parameters: image, tile, include_entities, skip_status, use
Required: none

Updates the authenticating user's profile background image. The image parameter must be an arrayref with the same interpretation as the image parameter in the update_profile_image method. See that method's documentation for details. The use parameter allows you to specify whether to use the uploaded profile background or not.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_banner
update_profile_banner(banner)
Parameters: banner, width, height, offset_left, offset_top
Required: banner

Uploads a profile banner on behalf of the authenticating user. The image parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:

  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]

The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().

$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing undef as the first array value.

Returns: Nothing

update_profile_colors
Parameters: profile_background_color, profile_text_color, profile_link_color, profile_sidebar_fill_color, profile_sidebar_border_color, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Sets one or more hex values that control the color scheme of the authenticating user's profile page on twitter.com. These values are also returned in the /users/show API method.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_image
update_profile_image(image)
Parameters: image, include_entities, skip_status
Required: image

Updates the authenticating user's profile image. The image parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:

  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]

The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().

$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing undef as the first array value.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_with_media
update_with_media(status, media[])
Parameters: status, media[], possibly_sensitive, in_reply_to_status_id, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates
Required: status, media[]

Updates the authenticating user's status and attaches media for upload.

The media[] parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:

  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]

The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().

$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing undef as the first array value.

The Tweet text will be rewritten to include the media URL(s), which will reduce the number of characters allowed in the Tweet text. If the URL(s) cannot be appended without text truncation, the tweet will be rejected and this method will return an HTTP 403 error.

Returns: Status

user_suggestions
user_suggestions(category)
alias: follow_suggestions
Parameters: category, lang
Required: category

Access the users in a given category of the Twitter suggested user list and return their most recent status if they are not a protected user. Currently supported values for optional parameter lang are en, fr, de, es, it. Does not require authentication.

Returns: ArrayRef

user_suggestions_for
user_suggestions_for(category)
alias: follow_suggestions
Parameters: category, lang
Required: category

Access the users in a given category of the Twitter suggested user list.

Returns: ArrayRef

user_timeline
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, since_id, max_id, count, trim_user, exclude_replies, include_rts, contributor_details
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted by the authenticating user, or the user specified by screen_name or user_id.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

users_search
users_search(q)
alias: find_people
alias: search_users
Parameters: q, per_page, page, count, include_entities
Required: q

Run a search for users similar to Find People button on Twitter.com; the same results returned by people search on Twitter.com will be returned by using this API (about being listed in the People Search). It is only possible to retrieve the first 1000 matches from this API.

Returns: ArrayRef[Users]

verify_credentials
Parameters: include_entities, skip_status
Required: none

Returns an HTTP 200 OK response code and a representation of the requesting user if authentication was successful; returns a 401 status code and an error message if not. Use this method to test if supplied user credentials are valid.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_with_media
update_with_media(status, media)
Parameters: status, media[], possibly_sensitive, in_reply_to_status_id, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates
Required: status, media

Updates the authenticating user's status and attaches media for upload.

The media[] parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:

  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]

The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().

$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing undef as the first array value.

The Tweet text will be rewritten to include the media URL(s), which will reduce the number of characters allowed in the Tweet text. If the URL(s) cannot be appended without text truncation, the tweet will be rejected and this method will return an HTTP 403 error.

Returns: Status

Search API Methods ^

These methods are provided when trait API::Search is included in the traits option to new.

search
search(q)
Parameters: q, callback, lang, locale, rpp, page, since_id, until, geocode, show_user, result_type
Required: q

Returns a HASH reference with some meta-data about the query including the next_page, refresh_url, and max_id. The statuses are returned in results. To iterate over the results, use something similar to:

    my $r = $nt->search($searh_term);
    for my $status ( @{$r->{results}} ) {
        print "$status->{text}\n";
    }

Returns: HashRef

Lists API Methods ^

The original Lists API methods have been deprecated. Net::Twitter::Role::API::Lists provides backwards compatibility for code written using those deprecated methods. If you're not already using the API::Lists trait, don't! Use the lists methods described above.

If you are using the API::Lists trait, you should remove it from your code and change the arguments in your list API method calls to match those described above.

Also, if using the API::Lists trait, you can pass synthetic argument -legacy_lists_api set to 0 for individual calls to use the new endpoints semantics.

TwitterVision API Methods ^

These methods are provided when trait API::TwitterVision is included in the traits option to new.

current_status
current_status(id)
Parameters: id, callback
Required: id

Get the current location and status of a user.

Returns: HashRef

update_twittervision
update_twittervision(location)
Parameters: location
Required: location

Updates the location for the authenticated user.

Returns: HashRef

LEGACY COMPATIBILITY ^

This version of Net::Twitter automatically includes the Legacy trait if no traits option is provided to new. Therefore, these 2 calls are currently equivalent:

    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(username => $user, password => $passwd);
    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
        username => $user,
        password => $passwd,
        traits   => ['Legacy'],
    );

Thus, existing applications written for a prior version of Net::Twitter should continue to run, without modification, with this version.

In a future release, the default traits may change. Prior to that change, however, a nearer future version will add a warning if no traits option is provided to new. To avoid this warning, add an appropriate traits option to your existing application code.

ERROR HANDLING ^

There are currently two strategies for handling errors: throwing exceptions and wrapping errors. Exception handling is the newer, recommended strategy.

Wrapping Errors

When trait WrapError is specified (or Legacy, which includes trait WrapError), Net::Twitter returns undef on error. To retrieve information about the error, use methods http_code, http_message, and get_error. These methods are described in the Net::Twitter::Role::WrapError.

    if ( my $followers = $nt->followers ) {
        for my $follower ( @$followers ) {
            #...
        }
    }
    else {
        warn "HTTP message: ", $nt->http_message, "\n";
    }

Since an error is stored in the object instance, this error handling strategy is problematic when using a user agent like LWP::UserAgent::POE that provides concurrent requests. The error for one request can be overwritten by a concurrent request before you have an opportunity to access it.

Exception Handling

When Net::Twitter encounters a Twitter API error or a network error, it throws a Net::Twitter::Error object. You can catch and process these exceptions by using eval blocks and testing $@:

    eval {
        my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline(); # this might die!

        for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
            #...
        }
    };
    if ( $@ ) {
        # friends_timeline encountered an error

        if ( blessed $@ && $@->isa('Net::Twitter::Error') ) {
            #... use the thrown error obj
            warn $@->error;
        }
        else {
            # something bad happened!
            die $@;
        }
    }

Net::Twitter::Error stringifies to something reasonable, so if you don't need detailed error information, you can simply treat $@ as a string:

    eval { $nt->update($status) };
    if ( $@ ) {
        warn "update failed because: $@\n";
    }

FAQ ^

Why does ->followers({ screen_name => $friend }) return my followers instead of $friends's?

First, check carefully to make sure you've spelled "screen_name" correctly. Twitter sometimes discards parameters it doesn't recognize. In this case, the result is a list of your own followers---the same thing that would happen if you called followers without the screen_name parameter.

How do I use the geocode parameter in the Search API?

The geocode parameter value includes a latitude, longitude, and radius separated with commas.

    $r = $nt->search({ geocode => "45.511795,-122.675629,25mi" });
How do I get Twitter to display something other than "from Perl Net::Twitter"?

If you set the source parameter to api, twitter will display "from API", and if you set it to the empty string, twitter will display, "from web".

    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 1,legacy => 0,ssl => 1,source => 'api');
    $nt->update('A post with the source parameter overridden.');
    # result: http://twitter.com/semifor_test/status/6541105458

    $nt = Net::Twitter->new(netrc => 1,legacy => 0,ssl => 1,source => '');
    $nt->update('A post with the source parameter overridden.');
    # result: http://twitter.com/semifor_test/status/6541257224

If you want something other than "Net::Twitter", "API", or "web", you need to register an application and use OAuth authentication. If you do that, you can have any name you choose for the application printed as the source. Since rolling out OAuth, Twitter has stopped issuing new registered source parameters, only existing register source parameters are valid.

SEE ALSO ^

Net::Twitter::Error

The Net::Twitter exception object.

http://dev.twitter.com/doc

This is the official Twitter API documentation. It describes the methods and their parameters in more detail and may be more current than the documentation provided with this module.

LWP::UserAgent::POE

This LWP::UserAgent compatible class can be used in POE based application along with Net::Twitter to provide concurrent, non-blocking requests.

Catalyst::Authentication::Credential::Twitter

This module, by Jesse Stay, provides Twitter OAuth authentication support for the popular Catalyst web application framework.

SUPPORT ^

Please report bugs to bug-net-twitter@rt.cpan.org, or through the web interface at https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Net-Twitter.

Join the Net::Twitter IRC channel at irc://irc.perl.org/net-twitter.

Follow perl_api: http://twitter.com/perl_api.

Track Net::Twitter development at http://github.com/semifor/Net-Twitter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^

Many thanks to Chris Thompson <cpan@cthompson.com>, the original author of Net::Twitter and all versions prior to 3.00.

Also, thanks to Chris Prather (perigrin) for answering many design and implementation questions, especially with regards to Moose.

AUTHOR ^

Marc Mims <marc@questright.com> (@semifor on Twitter)

CONTRIBUTORS ^

Roberto Etcheverry <retcheverry@gmail.com> (@retcheverry on Twitter)

KATOU Akira

Francisco Pecorella

Doug Bell <doug@plainblack.com>

Justin Hunter <justin.d.hunter@gmail.com>

Allen Haim <allen@netherrealm.net>

LICENSE ^

Copyright (c) 2009-2011 Marc Mims

The Twitter API itself, and the description text used in this module is:

Copyright (c) 2009 Twitter

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY ^

BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENSE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

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