Marc Mims > Net-Twitter-Lite-0.10003 > Net::Twitter::Lite

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Module Version: 0.10003   Source   Latest Release: Net-Twitter-Lite-0.11002

NAME ^

Net::Twitter::Lite - A perl interface to the Twitter API

VERSION ^

This document describes Net::Twitter::Lite version 0.10003

SYNOPSIS ^

  use Net::Twitter::Lite;

  my $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(
      username => $user,
      password => $password
  );

  my $result = eval { $nt->update('Hello, world!') };

  eval {
      my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline({ since_id => $high_water, count => 100 });
      for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
          print "$status->{created_at} <$status->{user}{screen_name}> $status->{text}\n";
      }
  };
  warn "$@\n" if $@;

DESCRIPTION ^

This module provides a perl interface to the Twitter APIs. It uses the same API definitions as Net::Twitter, but without the extra bells and whistles and without the additional dependencies. Same great taste, less filling.

This module is related to, but is not part of the Net::Twitter distribution. It's API methods and API method documentation are generated from Net::Twitter's internals. It exists for those who cannot, or prefer not to install Moose and its dependencies.

You should consider upgrading to Net::Twitter for additional functionality, finer grained control over features, full backwards compatibility with older versions of Net::Twitter, and additional error handling options.

CLIENT CODE CHANGES REQUIRED ^

The default apiurl changed in version 0.08006. The change should be transparent to client code, unless you're using the netrc option. If so, you'll need to either update the .netrc entry and change the machine value from twitter.com to api.twitter.com, or set either the netrc or netrc_machine options to twitter.com.

    $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(netrc_machine => 'twitter.com', netrc => 1);
    # -or-
    $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(netrc => 'twitter.com');

IMPORTANT ^

Beginning with version 0.03, it is necessary for web applications using OAuth authentication to pass the callback parameter to get_authorization_url. In the absence of a callback parameter, when the user authorizes the application a PIN number is displayed rather than redirecting the user back to your site.

MIGRATING FROM NET::TWITTER 2.x ^

If you are migrating from Net::Twitter 2.12 (or an earlier version), you may need to make some minor changes to your application code in order to user Net::Twitter::Lite successfully.

The primary difference is in error handling. Net::Twitter::Lite throws exceptions on error. It does not support the get_error, http_code, and http_message methods used in Net::Twitter 2.12 and prior versions.

Instead of

  # DON'T!
  my $friends = $nt->friends();
  if ( $friends ) {
      # process $friends
  }

wrap the API call in an eval block:

  # DO!
  my $friends = eval { $nt->friends() };
  if ( $friends ) {
      # process $friends
  }

Here's a much more complex example taken from application code using Net::Twitter 2.12:

  # DON'T!
  my $friends = $nt->friends();
  if ( $friends ) {
      # process $friends
  }
  else {
      my $error = $nt->get_error;
      if ( ref $error ) {
          if ( ref($error) eq 'HASH' && exists $error->{error} ) {
              $error = $error->{error};
          }
          else {
              $error = 'Unexpected error type ' . ref($error);
          }
      }
      else {
          $error = $nt->http_code() . ": " . $nt->http_message;
      }
      warn "$error\n";
  }

The Net::Twitter::Lite equivalent is:

  # DO!
  eval {
      my $friends = $nt->friends();
      # process $friends
  };
  warn "$@\n" if $@;
  return;

In Net::Twitter::Lite, an error can always be treated as a string. See Net::Twitter::Lite::Error. The HTTP Status Code and HTTP Message are both available. Rather than accessing them via the Net::Twitter::Lite instance, you access them via the Net::Twitter::Lite::Error instance thrown as an error.

For example:

  # DO!
  eval {
     my $friends = $nt->friends();
     # process $friends
  };
  if ( my $error = $@ ) {
      if ( blessed $error && $error->isa("Net::Twitter::Lite::Error)
           && $error->code() == 502 ) {
          $error = "Fail Whale!";
      }
      warn "$error\n";
  }

Unsupported Net::Twitter 2.12 options to new

Net::Twitter::Lite does not support the following Net::Twitter 2.12 options to new. It silently ignores them:

no_fallback

If Net::Twitter::Lite is unable to create an instance of the class specified in the useragent_class option to new, it dies, rather than falling back to an LWP::UserAgent object. You really don't want a failure to create the useragent_class you specified to go unnoticed.

twittervision

Net::Twitter::Lite does not support the TwitterVision API. Use Net::Twitter, instead, if you need it.

skip_arg_validation

Net::Twitter::Lite does not API parameter validation. This is a feature. If Twitter adds a new option to an API method, you can use it immediately by passing it in the HASH ref to the API call.

Net::Twitter::Lite relies on Twitter to validate its own parameters. An appropriate exception will be thrown if Twitter reports a parameter error.

die_on_validation

See "skip_arg_validation". If Twitter returns an bad parameter error, an appropriate exception will be thrown.

arrayref_on_error

This option allowed the following idiom in Net::Twitter 2.12:

  # DON'T!
  for my $friend ( @{ $nt->friends() } ) {
     # process $friend
  }

The equivalent Net::Twitter::Lite code is:

  # DO!
  eval {
      for my $friend ( @{ $nt->friends() } ) {
          # process $friend
      }
  };

Unsupported Net::Twitter 2.12 methods

clone

The clone method was added to Net::Twitter 2.x to allow safe error handling in an environment where concurrent requests are handled, for example, when using LWP::UserAgent::POE as the useragent_class. Since Net::Twitter::Lite throws exceptions instead of stashing them in the Net::Twitter::Lite instance, it is safe in a current request environment, obviating the need for clone.

get_error
http_code
http_message

These methods are replaced by Net::Twitter::Lite::Error. An instance of that class is thrown errors are encountered.

METHODS AND ARGUMENTS ^

new

This constructs a Net::Twitter::Lite object. It takes several named parameters, all of them optional:

username

This is the screen name or email used to authenticate with Twitter. Use this option for Basic Authentication, only.

password

This is the password used to authenticate with Twitter. Use this option for Basic Authentication, only.

consumer_key

A string containing the OAuth consumer key provided by Twitter when an application is registered. Use this option for OAuth authentication, only.

consumer_secret

A string containing the OAuth consumer secret. Use this option for OAuth authentication, only. the OAuth trait is included.

oauth_urls

A HASH ref of URLs to be used with OAuth authentication. Defaults to:

  {
      request_token_url => "http://twitter.com/oauth/request_token",
      authorization_url => "http://twitter.com/oauth/authorize",
      access_token_url  => "http://twitter.com/oauth/access_token",
      xauth_url         => "https://twitter.com/oauth/access_token",
  }
clientname

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-Name HTTP header. It defaults to "Perl Net::Twitter::Lite".

clientver

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-Version HTTP header. It defaults to current version of the Net::Twitter::Lite module.

clienturl

The value for the X-Twitter-Client-URL HTTP header. It defaults to the search.cpan.org page for the Net::Twitter::Lite distribution.

useragent_class

The LWP::UserAgent compatible class used internally by Net::Twitter::Lite. It defaults to "LWP::UserAgent". For POE based applications, consider using "LWP::UserAgent::POE".

useragent_args

An HASH ref of arguments to pass to constructor of the class specified with useragent_class, above. It defaults to {} (an empty HASH ref).

useragent

The value for User-Agent HTTP header. It defaults to "Net::Twitter::Lite/0.10003 (Perl)".

source

The value used in the source parameter of API method calls. It is currently only used in the update method in the REST API. It defaults to "twitterpm". This results in the text "from Net::Twitter" rather than "from web" for status messages posted from Net::Twitter::Lite when displayed via the Twitter web interface. The value for this parameter is provided by Twitter when a Twitter application is registered. See http://apiwiki.twitter.com/FAQ#HowdoIget%E2%80%9CfromMyApp%E2%80%9DappendedtoupdatessentfrommyAPIapplication.

apiurl

The URL for the Twitter API. This defaults to "http://twitter.com".

identica

If set to 1 (or any value that evaluates to true), apiurl defaults to "http://identi.ca/api".

ssl

If set to 1, an SSL connection will be used for all API calls. Defaults to 0.

netrc

(Optional) Sets the machine key to look up in .netrc to obtain credentials. If set to 1, Net::Twitter::Lite will use the value of the netrc_machine option (below).

   # in .netrc
   machine api.twitter.com
     login YOUR_TWITTER_USER_NAME
     password YOUR_TWITTER_PASSWORD
   machine semifor.twitter.com
     login semifor
     password SUPERSECRET

   # in your perl program
   $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(netrc => 1);
   $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(netrc => 'semifor.twitter.com');
netrc_machine

(Optional) Sets the machine entry to look up in .netrc when <netrc = 1>> is used. Defaults to api.twitter.com.

BASIC AUTHENTICATION METHODS

credentials($username, $password)

Set the credentials for Basic Authentication. This is helpful for managing multiple accounts.

OAUTH METHODS

authorized

Whether the client has the necessary credentials to be authorized.

Note that the credentials may be wrong and so the request may fail.

request_access_token

Returns list including the access token, access token secret, user_id, and screen_name for this user. Takes a HASH of arguments. The verifier argument is required. See "OAUTH EXAMPLES".

The user must have authorized this app at the url given by get_authorization_url first.

For desktop applications, the Twitter authorization page will present the user with a PIN number. Prompt the user for the PIN number, and pass it as the verifier argument to request_access_token.

Returns the access token and access token secret but also sets them internally so that after calling this method, you can immediately call API methods requiring authentication.

get_authorization_url(callback => $callback_url)

Get the URL used to authorize the user. Returns a URI object. For web applications, pass your applications callback URL as the callback parameter. No arguments are required for desktop applications (callback defaults to oob, out-of-band).

get_authentication_url(callback => $callback_url)

Get the URL used to authenticate the user with "Sign in with Twitter" authentication flow. Returns a URI object. For web applications, pass your applications callback URL as the callback parameter. No arguments are required for desktop applications (callback defaults to oob, out-of-band).

xauth($username, $password)

Exchanges a username and password for OAuth tokens. Your application must be approved for XAuth access by Twitter for this method to work. Twitter does not grant XAuth access for web applications except for a brief period of time to allow them to switch form Basic authentication to OAuth authentication.

access_token

Get or set the access token.

access_token_secret

Get or set the access token secret.

request_token

Get or set the request token.

request_token_secret

Get or set the request token secret.

access_token_url

Get or set the access_token URL.

authentication_url

Get or set the authentication URL.

authorization_url

Get or set the authorization URL.

request_token_url

Get or set the request_token URL.

xauth_url

Get or set the XAuth access token request URL.

API METHODS AND ARGUMENTS ^

Most Twitter API methods take parameters. All Net::Twitter::Lite API methods will accept a HASH ref of named parameters as specified in the Twitter API documentation. For convenience, many Net::Twitter::Lite methods accept simple positional arguments as documented, below. The positional parameter passing style is optional; you can always use the named parameters in a hash ref if you prefer.

For example, the REST API method update has one required parameter, status. You can call update with a HASH ref argument:

    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!' });

Or, you can use the convenient form:

    $nt->update('Hello world!');

The update method also has an optional parameter, in_reply_to_status_id. To use it, you must use the HASH ref form:

    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!', in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });

Convenience form is provided for the required parameters of all API methods. So, these two calls are equivalent:

    $nt->friendship_exists({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });
    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);

Many API methods have aliases. You can use the API method name, or any of its aliases, as you prefer. For example, these calls are all equivalent:

    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->relationship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->follows($fred, $barney);

Aliases support both the HASH ref and convenient forms:

    $nt->follows({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });

Methods that support the page parameter expect page numbers > 0. Twitter silently ignores invalid page values. So { page => 0 } produces the same result as { page => 1 }.

In addition to the arguments specified for each API method described below, an additional authenticate parameter can be passed. To request an Authorization header, pass authenticated => 1; to suppress an authentication header, pass authentication => 0. Even if requested, an Authorization header will not be added if there are no user credentials (username and password for Basic Authentication; access tokens for OAuth).

This is probably only useful for the "rate_limit_status" method in the REST API, since it returns different values for an authenticated and a non-authenticated call.

REST API Methods ^

Several of these methods accept a user ID as the id parameter. The user ID can be either a screen name, or the users numeric ID. To disambiguate, use the screen_name or user_id parameters, instead.

For example, These calls are equivalent:

    $nt->create_friend('perl_api');    # screen name
    $nt->create_friend(1564061);       # numeric ID
    $nt->create_friend({ id => 'perl_api' });
    $nt->create_friend({ screen_name => 'perl_api' });
    $nt->create_friend({ user_id     => 1564061 });

However user_id 911 and screen_name 911 are separate Twitter accounts. These calls are NOT equivalent:

    $nt->create_friend(911); # interpreted as screen name
    $nt->create_friend({ user_id => 911 }); # screen name: richellis

Whenever the id parameter is required and user_id and screen_name are also parameters, using any one of them satisfies the requirement.

block_exists
block_exists(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id

Returns if the authenticating user is blocking a target user. Will return the blocked user's object if a block exists, and error with HTTP 404 response code otherwise.

Returns: BasicUser

blocking
blocking(page)
Parameters: page
Required: none

Returns an array of user objects that the authenticating user is blocking.

Returns: ArrayRef[BasicUser]

blocking_ids
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns an array of numeric user ids the authenticating user is blocking.

Returns: ArrayRef[Int]

create_block
create_block(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Blocks the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the blocked user when successful. You can find out more about blocking in the Twitter Support Knowledge Base.

Returns: BasicUser

create_favorite
create_favorite(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the favorite status when successful.

Returns: Status

create_friend
create_friend(id)
alias: follow_new
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, follow
Required: id

Befriends the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the befriended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.

Returns: BasicUser

create_saved_search
create_saved_search(query)
Parameters: query
Required: query

Creates a saved search for the authenticated user.

Returns: SavedSearch

destroy_block
destroy_block(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Un-blocks the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-blocked user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

destroy_direct_message
destroy_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct message.

Returns: DirectMessage

destroy_favorite
destroy_favorite(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Un-favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-favorited status.

Returns: Status

destroy_friend
destroy_friend(id)
alias: unfollow
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id

Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-friended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.

Returns: BasicUser

destroy_saved_search
destroy_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Destroys a saved search. The search, specified by id, must be owned by the authenticating user.

Returns: SavedSearch

destroy_status
destroy_status(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.

Returns: Status

direct_messages
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent to the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.

Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]

disable_notifications
disable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Disables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

enable_notifications
enable_notifications(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Enables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

Returns: BasicUser

end_session
Parameters: none
Required: none

Ends the session of the authenticating user, returning a null cookie. Use this method to sign users out of client-facing applications like widgets.

Returns: Error

favorites
Parameters: id, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent favorite statuses for the authenticating user or user specified by the ID parameter.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

followers
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: none

Returns a reference to an array of the user's followers. If id, user_id, or screen_name is not specified, the followers of the authenticating user are returned. The returned users are ordered from most recently followed to least recently followed.

Use the optional cursor parameter to retrieve users in pages of 100. When the cursor parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys previous_cursor, next_cursor, and users. The value of users is a reference to an array of the user's friends. The result set isn't guaranteed to be 100 every time as suspended users will be filtered out. Set the optional cursor parameter to -1 to get the first page of users. Set it to the prior return's value of previous_cursor or next_cursor to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of previous_cursor will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of next_cursor will be 0.

Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[User]

followers_ids
followers_ids(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: id

Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user following the specified user.

Use the optional cursor parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of 5000. When the cursor parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys previous_cursor, next_cursor, and ids. The value of ids is a reference to an array of IDS of the user's followers. Set the optional cursor parameter to -1 to get the first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of previous_cursor or next_cursor to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of previous_cursor will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of next_cursor will be 0.

Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]

friends
alias: following
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: none

Returns a reference to an array of the user's friends. If id, user_id, or screen_name is not specified, the friends of the authenticating user are returned. The returned users are ordered from most recently followed to least recently followed.

Use the optional cursor parameter to retrieve users in pages of 100. When the cursor parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys previous_cursor, next_cursor, and users. The value of users is a reference to an array of the user's friends. The result set isn't guaranteed to be 100 every time as suspended users will be filtered out. Set the optional cursor parameter to -1 to get the first page of users. Set it to the prior return's value of previous_cursor or next_cursor to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of previous_cursor will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of next_cursor will be 0.

Returns: Hashref|ArrayRef[User]

friends_ids
friends_ids(id)
alias: following_ids
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: id

Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user followed the specified user.

Use the optional cursor parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of 5000. When the cursor parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys previous_cursor, next_cursor, and ids. The value of ids is a reference to an array of IDS of the user's friends. Set the optional cursor parameter to -1 to get the first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of previous_cursor or next_cursor to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of previous_cursor will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of next_cursor will be 0.

Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]

friends_timeline
alias: following_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, skip_user
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted by the authenticating user and that user's friends. This is the equivalent of /home on the Web.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

friendship_exists
friendship_exists(user_a, user_b)
alias: relationship_exists
alias: follows
Parameters: user_a, user_b
Required: user_a, user_b

Tests for the existence of friendship between two users. Will return true if user_a follows user_b, otherwise will return false.

Returns: Bool

friendships_incoming
friendships_incoming(cursor)
Parameters: cursor
Required: cursor

Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the ids element for every user who has a pending request to follow the authenticating user.

Returns: HashRef

friendships_outgoing
friendships_outgoing(cursor)
Parameters: cursor
Required: cursor

Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the ids element for every protected user for whom the authenticating user has a pending follow request.

Returns: HashRef

geo_id
geo_id(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Returns details of a place returned from the reverse_geocode method.

Returns: HashRef

home_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, skip_user
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses, including retweets, posted by the authenticating user and that user's friends. This is the equivalent of /timeline/home on the Web.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

lookup_users
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: none

Return up to 20 users worth of extended information, specified by either ID, screen name, or combination of the two. The author's most recent status (if the authenticating user has permission) will be returned inline. This method is rate limited to 1000 calls per hour.

This method will accept user IDs or screen names as either a comma delimited string, or as an ARRAY ref. It will also accept arguments in the normal HASHREF form or as a simple list of named arguments. I.e., any of the following forms are acceptable:

    $nt->lookup_users({ user_id => '1234,6543,3333' });
    $nt->lookup_users(user_id => '1234,6543,3333');
    $nt->lookup_users({ user_id => [ 1234, 6543, 3333 ] });
    $nt->lookup_users({ screen_name => 'fred,barney,wilma' });
    $nt->lookup_users(screen_name => ['fred', 'barney', 'wilma']);

    $nt->lookup_users(
        screen_name => ['fred', 'barney' ],
        user_id     => '4321,6789',
    );

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

mentions
alias: replies
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent mentions (statuses containing @username) for the authenticating user.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

new_direct_message
new_direct_message(user, text)
Parameters: user, text, screen_name, user_id
Required: user, text

Sends a new direct message to the specified user from the authenticating user. Requires both the user and text parameters. Returns the sent message when successful. In order to support numeric screen names, the screen_name or user_id parameters may be used instead of user.

Returns: DirectMessage

public_timeline
public_timeline(skip_user)
Parameters: skip_user
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses from non-protected users who have set a custom user icon. Does not require authentication. Note that the public timeline is cached for 60 seconds so requesting it more often than that is a waste of resources.

If user credentials are provided, public_timeline calls are authenticated, so they count against the authenticated user's rate limit. Use ->public_timeline({ authenticate => 0 }) to make an unauthenticated call which will count against the calling IP address' rate limit, instead.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

rate_limit_status
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the remaining number of API requests available to the authenticated user before the API limit is reached for the current hour.

Use ->rate_limit_status({ authenticate => 0 }) to force an unauthenticated call, which will return the status for the IP address rather than the authenticated user. (Note: for a web application, this is the server's IP address.)

Returns: RateLimitStatus

report_spam
report_spam(id)
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name
Required: id

The user specified in the id is blocked by the authenticated user and reported as a spammer.

Returns: User

retweet
retweet(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Retweets a tweet. Requires the id parameter of the tweet you are retweeting. Returns the original tweet with retweet details embedded.

Returns: Status

retweeted_by
retweeted_by(id)
Parameters: id, count, page
Required: id

Returns up to 100 users who retweeted the status identified by id.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

retweeted_by_ids
retweeted_by_ids(id)
Parameters: id, count, page
Required: id

Returns the IDs of up to 100 users who retweeted the status identified by id.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

retweeted_by_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the authenticating user.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

retweeted_to_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent retweets posted by the authenticating user's friends.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

retweets
retweets(id)
Parameters: id, count
Required: id

Returns up to 100 of the first retweets of a given tweet.

Returns: Arrayref[Status]

retweets_of_me
alias: retweeted_of_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent tweets of the authenticated user that have been retweeted by others.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

reverse_geocode
reverse_geocode(lat, long)
Parameters: lat, long, accuracy, granularity, max_results
Required: lat, long

Search for places (cities and neighborhoods) that can be attached to a statuses/update. Given a latitude and a longitude, return a list of all the valid places that can be used as a place_id when updating a status. Conceptually, a query can be made from the user's location, retrieve a list of places, have the user validate the location he or she is at, and then send the ID of this location up with a call to statuses/update.

There are multiple granularities of places that can be returned -- "neighborhoods", "cities", etc. At this time, only United States data is available through this method.

lat

Required. The latitude to query about. Valid ranges are -90.0 to +90.0 (North is positive) inclusive.

long

Required. The longitude to query about. Valid ranges are -180.0 to +180.0 (East is positive) inclusive.

accuracy

Optional. A hint on the "region" in which to search. If a number, then this is a radius in meters, but it can also take a string that is suffixed with ft to specify feet. If this is not passed in, then it is assumed to be 0m. If coming from a device, in practice, this value is whatever accuracy the device has measuring its location (whether it be coming from a GPS, WiFi triangulation, etc.).

granularity

Optional. The minimal granularity of data to return. If this is not passed in, then neighborhood is assumed. city can also be passed.

max_results

Optional. A hint as to the number of results to return. This does not guarantee that the number of results returned will equal max_results, but instead informs how many "nearby" results to return. Ideally, only pass in the number of places you intend to display to the user here.

Returns: HashRef

saved_searches
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the authenticated user's saved search queries.

Returns: ArrayRef[SavedSearch]

sent_direct_messages
Parameters: since_id, max_id, page
Required: none

Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent by the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.

Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]

show_friendship
show_friendship(id)
alias: show_relationship
Parameters: source_id, source_screen_name, target_id, target_id_name
Required: id

Returns detailed information about the relationship between two users.

Returns: Relationship

show_saved_search
show_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Retrieve the data for a saved search, by ID, owned by the authenticating user.

Returns: SavedSearch

show_status
show_status(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Returns a single status, specified by the id parameter. The status's author will be returned inline.

Returns: Status

show_user
show_user(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id

Returns extended information of a given user, specified by ID or screen name as per the required id parameter. This information includes design settings, so third party developers can theme their widgets according to a given user's preferences. You must be properly authenticated to request the page of a protected user.

Returns: ExtendedUser

test
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the string "ok" status code.

Returns: Str

trends_available
Parameters: lat, long
Required: none

Returns the locations with trending topic information. The response is an array of "locations" that encode the location's WOEID (a Yahoo! Where On Earth ID http://developer.yahoo.com/geo/geoplanet/) and some other human-readable information such as a the location's canonical name and country.

When the optional lat and long parameters are passed, the available trend locations are sorted by distance from that location, nearest to farthest.

Use the WOEID returned in the location object to query trends for a specific location.

Returns: ArrayRef[Location]

trends_location
trends_location(woeid)
Parameters: woeid
Required: woeid

Returns the top 10 trending topics for a specific location. The response is an array of "trend" objects that encode the name of the trending topic, the query parameter that can be used to search for the topic on Search, and the direct URL that can be issued against Search. This information is cached for five minutes, and therefore users are discouraged from querying these endpoints faster than once every five minutes. Global trends information is also available from this API by using a WOEID of 1.

Returns: ArrayRef[Trend]

update
update(status)
Parameters: status, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates, in_reply_to_status_id
Required: status

Updates the authenticating user's status. Requires the status parameter specified. A status update with text identical to the authenticating user's current status will be ignored.

status

Required. The text of your status update. URL encode as necessary. Statuses over 140 characters will cause a 403 error to be returned from the API.

in_reply_to_status_id

Optional. The ID of an existing status that the update is in reply to. o Note: This parameter will be ignored unless the author of the tweet this parameter references is mentioned within the status text. Therefore, you must include @username, where username is the author of the referenced tweet, within the update.

lat

Optional. The location's latitude that this tweet refers to. The valid ranges for latitude is -90.0 to +90.0 (North is positive) inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside that range, if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled, or if there not a corresponding long parameter with this tweet.

long

Optional. The location's longitude that this tweet refers to. The valid ranges for longitude is -180.0 to +180.0 (East is positive) inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside that range, if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled, or if there not a corresponding lat parameter with this tweet.

place_id

Optional. The place to attach to this status update. Valid place_ids can be found by querying reverse_geocode.

display_coordinates

Optional. By default, geo-tweets will have their coordinates exposed in the status object (to remain backwards compatible with existing API applications). To turn off the display of the precise latitude and longitude (but keep the contextual location information), pass display_coordinates = 0> on the status update.

Returns: Status

update_delivery_device
update_delivery_device(device)
Parameters: device
Required: device

Sets which device Twitter delivers updates to for the authenticating user. Sending none as the device parameter will disable IM or SMS updates.

Returns: BasicUser

update_profile
Parameters: name, email, url, location, description
Required: none

Sets values that users are able to set under the "Account" tab of their settings page. Only the parameters specified will be updated; to only update the "name" attribute, for example, only include that parameter in your request.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_background_image
update_profile_background_image(image)
Parameters: image
Required: image

Updates the authenticating user's profile background image. The image parameter must be an arrayref with the same interpretation as the image parameter in the update_profile_image method. See that method's documentation for details.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_colors
Parameters: profile_background_color, profile_text_color, profile_link_color, profile_sidebar_fill_color, profile_sidebar_border_color
Required: none

Sets one or more hex values that control the color scheme of the authenticating user's profile page on twitter.com. These values are also returned in the /users/show API method.

Returns: ExtendedUser

update_profile_image
update_profile_image(image)
Parameters: image
Required: image

Updates the authenticating user's profile image. The image parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:

  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]

The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().

$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing undef as the first array value.

Returns: ExtendedUser

user_timeline
Parameters: id, user_id, screen_name, since_id, max_id, count, page, skip_user
Required: none

Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted from the authenticating user. It's also possible to request another user's timeline via the id parameter. This is the equivalent of the Web /archive page for your own user, or the profile page for a third party.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

users_search
users_search(q)
alias: find_people
alias: search_users
Parameters: q, per_page, page
Required: q

Run a search for users similar to Find People button on Twitter.com; the same results returned by people search on Twitter.com will be returned by using this API (about being listed in the People Search). It is only possible to retrieve the first 1000 matches from this API.

Returns: ArrayRef[Users]

verify_credentials
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns an HTTP 200 OK response code and a representation of the requesting user if authentication was successful; returns a 401 status code and an error message if not. Use this method to test if supplied user credentials are valid.

Returns: ExtendedUser

Search API Methods ^

search
search(q)
Parameters: q, callback, lang, rpp, page, since_id, geocode, show_user
Required: q

Returns a HASH reference with some meta-data about the query including the next_page, refresh_url, and max_id. The statuses are returned in results. To iterate over the results, use something similar to:

    my $r = $nt->search($searh_term);
    for my $status ( @{$r->{results}} ) {
        print "$status->{text}\n";
    }

Returns: HashRef

trends
Parameters: none
Required: none

Returns the top ten queries that are currently trending on Twitter. The response includes the time of the request, the name of each trending topic, and the url to the Twitter Search results page for that topic.

Returns: ArrayRef[Query]

trends_current
trends_current(exclude)
Parameters: exclude
Required: none

Returns the current top ten trending topics on Twitter. The response includes the time of the request, the name of each trending topic, and query used on Twitter Search results page for that topic.

Returns: HashRef

trends_daily
Parameters: date, exclude
Required: none

Returns the top 20 trending topics for each hour in a given day.

Returns: HashRef

trends_weekly
Parameters: date, exclude
Required: none

Returns the top 30 trending topics for each day in a given week.

Returns: HashRef

Lists API Methods ^

add_list_member
add_list_member(user, list_id, id)
Parameters: user, list_id, id
Required: user, list_id, id

Adds the user identified by id to the list.

Returns a reference the added user as a hash reference.

Returns: User

create_list
create_list(user, name)
Parameters: user, name, mode, description
Required: user, name

Creates a new list for the authenticated user. The mode parameter may be either public or private. If not specified, it defaults to public.

Returns: HashRef

delete_list
delete_list(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id
Required: user, list_id

Deletes a list owned by the authenticating user. Returns the list as a hash reference.

Returns:

delete_list_member
delete_list_member(user, list_id, id)
alias: remove_list_member
Parameters: user, list_id, id
Required: user, list_id, id

Deletes the user identified by id from the specified list.

Returns the deleted user as a hash reference.

Returns:

get_list
get_list(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id
Required: user, list_id

Returns the specified list as a hash reference.

Returns: HashRef

get_lists
get_lists(user)
alias: list_lists
Parameters: user, cursor
Required: user

Returns a reference to an array of lists owned by the specified user. If the user is the authenticated user, it returns both public and private lists. Otherwise, it only returns public lists.

When the cursor parameter is used, a hash reference is returned; the lists are returned in the lists element of the hash.

Returns: ArrayRef[List]

is_list_member
is_list_member(user, list_id, id)
Parameters: user, list_id, id
Required: user, list_id, id

Returns the list member as a HASH reference if id is a member of the list. Otherwise, returns undef.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

is_list_subscriber
is_list_subscriber(user, list_id, id)
alias: is_subscribed_list
Parameters: user, list_id, id
Required: user, list_id, id

Returns the subscriber as a HASH reference if id is a subscriber to the list. Otherwise, returns undef.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

list_members
list_members(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id, id, cursor
Required: user, list_id

Returns the list members as an array reference.

The optional id parameter can be used to determine if the user specified by id is a member of the list. If so, the user is returned as a hash reference; if not, undef is returned.

When the cursor parameter is used, a hash reference is returned; the members are returned in the users element of the hash.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

list_memberships
list_memberships(user)
Parameters: user, cursor
Required: user

Returns the lists the specified user is a member of as an array reference.

When the cursor parameter is used, a hash reference is returned; the lists are returned in the lists element of the hash.

Returns:

list_statuses
list_statuses(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id, since_id, max_id, per_page, page
Required: user, list_id

Returns a timeline of list member statuses as an array reference.

Returns: ArrayRef[Status]

list_subscribers
list_subscribers(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id, id, cursor
Required: user, list_id

Returns the subscribers to a list as an array reference.

When the cursor parameter is used, a hash reference is returned; the subscribers are returned in the users element of the hash.

Returns: ArrayRef[User]

list_subscriptions
list_subscriptions(user)
Parameters: user, cursor
Required: user

Returns a lists to which the specified user is subscribed as an array reference.

When the cursor parameter is used, a hash reference is returned; the lists are returned in the lists element of the hash.

Returns:

subscribe_list
subscribe_list(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id
Required: user, list_id

Subscribes the authenticated user to the specified list.

Returns: List

unsubscribe_list
unsubscribe_list(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id
Required: user, list_id

Unsubscribes the authenticated user from the specified list.

Returns: List

update_list
update_list(user, list_id)
Parameters: user, list_id, name, mode, description
Required: user, list_id

Updates a list to change the name, mode, description, or any combination thereof.

Returns: HashRef

ERROR HANDLING ^

When Net::Twitter::Lite encounters a Twitter API error or a network error, it throws a Net::Twitter::Lite::Error object. You can catch and process these exceptions by using eval blocks and testing $@:

    eval {
        my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline(); # this might die!

        for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
            #...
        }
    };
    if ( $@ ) {
        # friends_timeline encountered an error

        if ( blessed $@ && $@->isa('Net::Twitter::Lite::Error' ) {
            #... use the thrown error obj
            warn $@->error;
        }
        else {
            # something bad happened!
            die $@;
        }
    }

Net::Twitter::Lite::Error stringifies to something reasonable, so if you don't need detailed error information, you can simply treat $@ as a string:

    eval { $nt->update($status) };
    if ( $@ ) {
        warn "update failed because: $@\n";
    }

AUTHENTICATION ^

Net::Twitter::Lite currently supports both Basic Authentication and OAuth. The choice of authentication strategies is determined by the options passed to new or the use of the credentials method. An error will be thrown if options for both strategies are provided.

BASIC AUTHENTICATION

To use Basic Authentication, pass the username and password options to new, or call credentials to set them. When Basic Authentication is used, the Authorization header is set on each authenticated API call.

OAUTH AUTHENTICATION

To use OAuth authentication, pass the consumer_key and consumer_secret options to new.

Net::OAuth::Simple must be installed in order to use OAuth and an error will be thrown if OAuth is attempted without it. Net::Twitter::Lite does not require Net::OAuth::Simple, making OAuth an optional feature.

OAUTH EXAMPLES

See the examples directory included in this distribution for full working examples using OAuth.

Here's how to authorize users as a desktop app mode:

  use Net::Twitter::Lite;

  my $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(
      consumer_key    => "YOUR-CONSUMER-KEY",
      consumer_secret => "YOUR-CONSUMER-SECRET",
  );

  # You'll save the token and secret in cookie, config file or session database
  my($access_token, $access_token_secret) = restore_tokens();
  if ($access_token && $access_token_secret) {
      $nt->access_token($access_token);
      $nt->access_token_secret($access_token_secret);
  }

  unless ( $nt->authorized ) {
      # The client is not yet authorized: Do it now
      print "Authorize this app at ", $nt->get_authorization_url, " and enter the PIN#\n";

      my $pin = <STDIN>; # wait for input
      chomp $pin;

      my($access_token, $access_token_secret, $user_id, $screen_name) =
          $nt->request_access_token(verifier => $pin);
      save_tokens($access_token, $access_token_secret); # if necessary
  }

  # Everything's ready

In a web application mode, you need to save the oauth_token and oauth_token_secret somewhere when you redirect the user to the OAuth authorization URL.

  sub twitter_authorize : Local {
      my($self, $c) = @_;

      my $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(%param);
      my $url = $nt->get_authorization_url(callback => $callbackurl);

      $c->response->cookies->{oauth} = {
          value => {
              token => $nt->request_token,
              token_secret => $nt->request_token_secret,
          },
      };

      $c->response->redirect($url);
  }

And when the user returns back, you'll reset those request token and secret to upgrade the request token to access token.

  sub twitter_auth_callback : Local {
      my($self, $c) = @_;

      my %cookie = $c->request->cookies->{oauth}->value;

      my $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(%param);
      $nt->request_token($cookie{token});
      $nt->request_token_secret($cookie{token_secret});

      my($access_token, $access_token_secret, $user_id, $screen_name) =
          $nt->request_access_token;

      # Save $access_token and $access_token_secret in the database associated with $c->user
  }

Later on, you can retrieve and reset those access token and secret before calling any Twitter API methods.

  sub make_tweet : Local {
      my($self, $c) = @_;

      my($access_token, $access_token_secret) = ...;

      my $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite->new(%param);
      $nt->access_token($access_token);
      $nt->access_token_secret($access_token_secret);

      # Now you can call any Net::Twitter::Lite API methods on $nt
      my $status = $c->req->param('status');
      my $res = $nt->update({ status => $status });
  }

SEE ALSO ^

Net::Twitter::Lite::Error

The Net::Twitter::Lite exception object.

http://apiwiki.twitter.com/Twitter-API-Documentation

This is the official Twitter API documentation. It describes the methods and their parameters in more detail and may be more current than the documentation provided with this module.

LWP::UserAgent::POE

This LWP::UserAgent compatible class can be used in POE based application along with Net::Twitter::Lite to provide concurrent, non-blocking requests.

SUPPORT ^

Please report bugs to bug-net-twitter@rt.cpan.org, or through the web interface at https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Net-Twitter.

Join the Net::Twitter IRC channel at irc://irc.perl.org/net-twitter.

Follow perl_api: http://twitter.com/perl_api.

Track Net::Twitter::Lite development at http://github.com/semifor/net-twitter-lite.

AUTHOR ^

Marc Mims <marc@questright.com>

LICENSE ^

Copyright (c) 2009 Marc Mims

The Twitter API itself, and the description text used in this module is:

Copyright (c) 2009 Twitter

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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