Mark Shelor > Digest-SHA3-0.08 > Digest::SHA3

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Module Version: 0.08   Source   Latest Release: Digest-SHA3-0.12

NAME ^

Digest::SHA3 - Perl extension for SHA-3

SYNOPSIS ^

In programs:

                # Functional interface

        use Digest::SHA3 qw(sha3_224 sha3_256_hex sha3_512_base64 ...);

        $digest = sha3_224($data);
        $digest = sha3_256_hex($data);
        $digest = sha3_384_base64($data);
        $digest = sha3_512($data);

        $digest = sha3_0_hex($data);

                # Object-oriented

        use Digest::SHA3;

        $sha3 = Digest::SHA3->new($alg);

        $sha3->add($data);              # feed data into stream

        $sha3->addfile(*F);
        $sha3->addfile($filename);

        $sha3->add_bits($bits);
        $sha3->add_bits($data, $nbits);

        $digest = $sha3->digest;        # compute digest
        $digest = $sha3->hexdigest;
        $digest = $sha3->b64digest;

ABSTRACT ^

Digest::SHA3 is a complete implementation of the NIST SHA-3 cryptographic hash function, known originally as Keccak. It gives Perl programmers a convenient way to calculate SHA3-224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384, and SHA3-512 message digests, as well as variable-length hashes using the SHA3-0 variant. The module can handle all types of input, including partial-byte data.

DESCRIPTION ^

Digest::SHA3 is written in C for speed. If your platform lacks a C compiler, perhaps you can find the module in a binary form compatible with your particular processor and operating system.

The programming interface is easy to use: it's the same one found in CPAN's Digest module. So, if your applications currently use Digest::SHA and you'd prefer the newer flavor of the NIST standard, it's a simple matter to convert them.

The interface provides two ways to calculate digests: all-at-once, or in stages. To illustrate, the following short program computes the SHA3-256 digest of "hello world" using each approach:

        use Digest::SHA3 qw(sha3_256_hex);

        $data = "hello world";
        @frags = split(//, $data);

        # all-at-once (Functional style)
        $digest1 = sha3_256_hex($data);

        # in-stages (OOP style)
        $state = Digest::SHA3->new(256);
        for (@frags) { $state->add($_) }
        $digest2 = $state->hexdigest;

        print $digest1 eq $digest2 ?
                "that's the ticket!\n" : "oops!\n";

To calculate the digest of an n-bit message where n is not a multiple of 8, use the add_bits() method. For example, consider the 446-bit message consisting of the bit-string "110" repeated 148 times, followed by "11". Here's how to display its SHA3-512 digest:

        use Digest::SHA3;
        $bits = "110" x 148 . "11";
        $sha3 = Digest::SHA3->new(512)->add_bits($bits);
        print $sha3->hexdigest, "\n";

Note that for larger bit-strings, it's more efficient to use the two-argument version add_bits($data, $nbits), where $data is in the customary packed binary format used for Perl strings.

UNICODE AND SIDE EFFECTS ^

Perl supports Unicode strings as of version 5.6. Such strings may contain wide characters, namely, characters whose ordinal values are greater than 255. This can cause problems for digest algorithms such as SHA-3 that are specified to operate on sequences of bytes.

The rule by which Digest::SHA3 handles a Unicode string is easy to state, but potentially confusing to grasp: the string is interpreted as a sequence of byte values, where each byte value is equal to the ordinal value (viz. code point) of its corresponding Unicode character. That way, the Unicode string 'abc' has exactly the same digest value as the ordinary string 'abc'.

Since a wide character does not fit into a byte, the Digest::SHA3 routines croak if they encounter one. Whereas if a Unicode string contains no wide characters, the module accepts it quite happily. The following code illustrates the two cases:

        $str1 = pack('U*', (0..255));
        print sha3_224_hex($str1);              # ok

        $str2 = pack('U*', (0..256));
        print sha3_224_hex($str2);              # croaks

Be aware that the digest routines silently convert UTF-8 input into its equivalent byte sequence in the native encoding (cf. utf8::downgrade). This side effect influences only the way Perl stores the data internally, but otherwise leaves the actual value of the data intact.

PADDING OF BASE64 DIGESTS ^

By convention, CPAN Digest modules do not pad their Base64 output. Problems can occur when feeding such digests to other software that expects properly padded Base64 encodings.

For the time being, any necessary padding must be done by the user. Fortunately, this is a simple operation: if the length of a Base64-encoded digest isn't a multiple of 4, simply append "=" characters to the end of the digest until it is:

        while (length($b64_digest) % 4) {
                $b64_digest .= '=';
        }

To illustrate, sha3_256_base64("abc") is computed to be

        TgNleupFqU/H1HuoJsjWZ8DR5uM6ZKA27ET1j6EtbEU

which has a length of 43. So, the properly padded version is

        TgNleupFqU/H1HuoJsjWZ8DR5uM6ZKA27ET1j6EtbEU=

EXPORT ^

None by default.

EXPORTABLE FUNCTIONS ^

Provided your C compiler supports a 64-bit type (e.g. the long long of C99, or __int64 used by Microsoft C/C++), all of these functions will be available for use. Otherwise you won't be able to perform any of them.

In the interest of simplicity, maintainability, and small code size, it's unlikely that future versions of this module will support a 32-bit implementation. Older platforms using 32-bit-only compilers should continue to favor 32-bit hash implementations such as SHA-1, SHA-224, or SHA-256. The desire to use the SHA-3 hash standard, dating from 2012, should reasonably require that one's compiler adhere to programming language standards dating from at least 1999.

Functional style

sha3_0($data, ...)
sha3_224($data, ...)
sha3_256($data, ...)
sha3_384($data, ...)
sha3_512($data, ...)

Logically joins the arguments into a single string, and returns its SHA3-0/224/256/384/512 digest encoded as a binary string.

The digest size for SHA3-0 is 4096 bits (512 bytes), which can be truncated to any desired length. The ability to generate even larger digest sizes might be supported in future versions of this module, pending interest from the user community.

sha3_0_hex($data, ...)
sha3_224_hex($data, ...)
sha3_256_hex($data, ...)
sha3_384_hex($data, ...)
sha3_512_hex($data, ...)

Logically joins the arguments into a single string, and returns its SHA3-0/224/256/384/512 digest encoded as a hexadecimal string.

sha3_0_base64($data, ...)
sha3_224_base64($data, ...)
sha3_256_base64($data, ...)
sha3_384_base64($data, ...)
sha3_512_base64($data, ...)

Logically joins the arguments into a single string, and returns its SHA3-0/224/256/384/512 digest encoded as a Base64 string.

It's important to note that the resulting string does not contain the padding characters typical of Base64 encodings. This omission is deliberate, and is done to maintain compatibility with the family of CPAN Digest modules. See "PADDING OF BASE64 DIGESTS" for details.

OOP style

new($alg)

Returns a new Digest::SHA3 object. Allowed values for $alg are 0, 224, 256, 384, or 512. It's also possible to use common string representations of the algorithm (e.g. "sha3-256", "SHA-3-384"). If the argument is missing, SHA3-224 will be used by default.

Invoking new as an instance method will not create a new object; instead, it will simply reset the object to the initial state associated with $alg. If the argument is missing, the object will continue using the same algorithm that was selected at creation.

reset($alg)

This method has exactly the same effect as new($alg). In fact, reset is just an alias for new.

hashsize

Returns the number of digest bits for this object. The values are 4096, 224, 256, 384, and 512 for SHA3-0, SHA3-224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384, and SHA3-512, respectively.

The associated digest size for SHA3-0 is 4096 bits (512 bytes), which can be truncated to any desired length. The ability to generate even larger digest sizes might be supported in future versions of this module, pending interest from the user community.

algorithm

Returns the digest algorithm for this object. The values are 0, 224, 256, 384, and 512 for SHA3-0, SHA3-224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384, and SHA3-512, respectively.

clone

Returns a duplicate copy of the object.

add($data, ...)

Logically joins the arguments into a single string, and uses it to update the current digest state. In other words, the following statements have the same effect:

        $sha3->add("a"); $sha3->add("b"); $sha3->add("c");
        $sha3->add("a")->add("b")->add("c");
        $sha3->add("a", "b", "c");
        $sha3->add("abc");

The return value is the updated object itself.

add_bits($data, $nbits)
add_bits($bits)

Updates the current digest state by appending bits to it. The return value is the updated object itself.

The first form causes the most-significant $nbits of $data to be appended to the stream. The $data argument is in the customary binary format used for Perl strings.

The second form takes an ASCII string of "0" and "1" characters as its argument. It's equivalent to

        $sha3->add_bits(pack("B*", $bits), length($bits));

So, the following two statements do the same thing:

        $sha3->add_bits("111100001010");
        $sha3->add_bits("\xF0\xA0", 12);
addfile(*FILE)

Reads from FILE until EOF, and appends that data to the current state. The return value is the updated object itself.

addfile($filename [, $mode])

Reads the contents of $filename, and appends that data to the current state. The return value is the updated object itself.

By default, $filename is simply opened and read; no special modes or I/O disciplines are used. To change this, set the optional $mode argument to one of the following values:

        "b"     read file in binary mode

        "p"     use portable mode

        "0"     use BITS mode

The "p" mode ensures that the digest value of $filename will be the same when computed on different operating systems. It accomplishes this by internally translating all newlines in text files to UNIX format before calculating the digest. Binary files are read in raw mode with no translation whatsoever.

The BITS mode ("0") interprets the contents of $filename as a logical stream of bits, where each ASCII '0' or '1' character represents a 0 or 1 bit, respectively. All other characters are ignored. This provides a convenient way to calculate the digest values of partial-byte data by using files, rather than having to write programs using the add_bits method.

digest

Returns the digest encoded as a binary string.

Note that the digest method is a read-once operation. Once it has been performed, the Digest::SHA3 object is automatically reset in preparation for calculating another digest value. Call $sha->clone->digest if it's necessary to preserve the original digest state.

hexdigest

Returns the digest encoded as a hexadecimal string.

Like digest, this method is a read-once operation. Call $sha->clone->hexdigest if it's necessary to preserve the original digest state.

This method is inherited if Digest::base is installed on your system. Otherwise, a functionally equivalent substitute is used.

b64digest

Returns the digest encoded as a Base64 string.

Like digest, this method is a read-once operation. Call $sha->clone->b64digest if it's necessary to preserve the original digest state.

This method is inherited if Digest::base is installed on your system. Otherwise, a functionally equivalent substitute is used.

It's important to note that the resulting string does not contain the padding characters typical of Base64 encodings. This omission is deliberate, and is done to maintain compatibility with the family of CPAN Digest modules. See "PADDING OF BASE64 DIGESTS" for details.

SEE ALSO ^

Digest, Digest::SHA, Digest::Keccak

The Keccak/SHA-3 specifications can be found at:

http://keccak.noekeon.org/Keccak-reference-3.0.pdf http://keccak.noekeon.org/Keccak-submission-3.pdf

AUTHOR ^

        Mark Shelor     <mshelor@cpan.org>

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ^

The author is particularly grateful to

        Chris Skiscim

for being on the ball, as usual.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE ^

Copyright (C) 2012-2013 Mark Shelor

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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