NLnet Labs > Net-DNS-0.74 > Net::DNS::Packet

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Module Version: 1158   Source   Latest Release: Net-DNS-0.78

NAME ^

Net::DNS::Packet - DNS protocol packet

SYNOPSIS ^

    use Net::DNS::Packet;

    $query = new Net::DNS::Packet( 'example.com', 'MX', 'IN' );

    $reply = $resolver->send( $query );

DESCRIPTION ^

A Net::DNS::Packet object represents a DNS protocol packet.

METHODS ^

new

    $packet = new Net::DNS::Packet( 'example.com' );
    $packet = new Net::DNS::Packet( 'example.com', 'MX', 'IN' );

    $packet = new Net::DNS::Packet();

If passed a domain, type, and class, new() creates a Net::DNS::Packet object which is suitable for making a DNS query for the specified information. The type and class may be omitted; they default to A and IN.

If called with an empty argument list, new() creates an empty packet.

    $packet = new Net::DNS::Packet( \$data );
    $packet = new Net::DNS::Packet( \$data, 1 );        # debug

If passed a reference to a scalar containing DNS packet data, a new packet object is created by decoding the data. The optional second boolean argument is used to enable debugging output.

Returns undef if unable to create a packet object.

Decoding errors, including data corruption and truncation, are collected in the $@ ($EVAL_ERROR) variable.

    ( $packet, $length ) = new Net::DNS::Packet( \$data );

If called in array context, returns a packet object and the number of octets successfully decoded.

Note that the number of RRs in each section of the packet may differ from the corresponding header value if the data has been truncated or corrupted during transmission.

data

    $data = $packet->data;
    $data = $packet->data( $size );

Returns the packet data in binary format, suitable for sending as a query or update request to a nameserver.

Truncation may be specified using a non-zero optional size argument.

header

    $header = $packet->header;

Constructor method which returns a Net::DNS::Header object which represents the header section of the packet.

EDNS extended header

    $edns    = $packet->edns;
    $version = $edns->version;
    $size    = $edns->size;

Auxilliary function edns() provides access to EDNS extensions.

reply

    $reply = $query->reply( $UDPmax );

Constructor method which returns a new reply packet.

The optional UDPsize argument is the maximum UDP packet size which can be reassembled by the local network stack, and is advertised in response to an EDNS query.

question, zone

    @question = $packet->question;

Returns a list of Net::DNS::Question objects representing the question section of the packet.

In dynamic update packets, this section is known as zone() and specifies the DNS zone to be updated.

answer, pre, prerequisite

    @answer = $packet->answer;

Returns a list of Net::DNS::RR objects representing the answer section of the packet.

In dynamic update packets, this section is known as pre() or prerequisite() and specifies the RRs or RRsets which must or must not preexist.

authority, update

    @authority = $packet->authority;

Returns a list of Net::DNS::RR objects representing the authority section of the packet.

In dynamic update packets, this section is known as update() and specifies the RRs or RRsets to be added or deleted.

additional

    @additional = $packet->additional;

Returns a list of Net::DNS::RR objects representing the additional section of the packet.

print

    $packet->print;

Prints the packet data on the standard output in an ASCII format similar to that used in DNS zone files.

string

    print $packet->string;

Returns a string representation of the packet.

answerfrom

    print "packet received from ", $packet->answerfrom, "\n";

Returns the IP address from which this packet was received. User-created packets will return undef for this method.

answersize

    print "packet size: ", $packet->answersize, " bytes\n";

Returns the size of the packet in bytes as it was received from a nameserver. User-created packets will return undef for this method (use length($packet->data) instead).

push

    $ancount = $packet->push( prereq => $rr );
    $nscount = $packet->push( update => $rr );
    $arcount = $packet->push( additional => $rr );

    $nscount = $packet->push( update => $rr1, $rr2, $rr3 );
    $nscount = $packet->push( update => @rr );

Adds RRs to the specified section of the packet.

Returns the number of resource records in the specified section.

unique_push

    $ancount = $packet->unique_push( prereq => $rr );
    $nscount = $packet->unique_push( update => $rr );
    $arcount = $packet->unique_push( additional => $rr );

    $nscount = $packet->unique_push( update => $rr1, $rr2, $rr3 );
    $nscount = $packet->unique_push( update => @rr );

Adds RRs to the specified section of the packet provided that the RRs are not already present in the same section.

Returns the number of resource records in the specified section.

pop

    my $rr = $packet->pop( 'pre' );
    my $rr = $packet->pop( 'update' );
    my $rr = $packet->pop( 'additional' );

Removes a single RR from the specified section of the packet.

sign_tsig

    $update = new Net::DNS::Update( 'example.com' );
    $update->push( update => rr_add( 'foo.example.com A 10.1.2.3' ) );
    $update->sign_tsig( 'Khmac-sha512.example.+165+01018.key' );

    $update->sign_tsig( 'Khmac-sha512.example.+165+01018.key',
                        fudge => 60
                        );

Attaches a TSIG resource record object, which will be used to sign the packet (see RFC 2845).

The TSIG record can be customised by optional additional arguments to sign_tsig() or by calling the appropriate Net::DNS::RR::TSIG methods.

If you wish to create a TSIG record using a non-standard algorithm, you will have to create it yourself. In all cases, the TSIG name must uniquely identify the key shared between the parties, and the algorithm name must identify the signing function to be used with the specified key.

    $tsig = Net::DNS::RR->new(  name            => 'tsig.example',
                                type            => 'TSIG',
                                algorithm       => 'custom-algorithm',
                                sig_function    => sub { ... },
                                key             => '<base64 key text>'
                                );

    $packet = Net::DNS::Packet->new( 'www.example.com', 'A' );
    $packet->sign_tsig( $tsig );

    $response = $res->send( $packet );

The historical simplified syntax is still available, but additional options can not be specified.

    $packet->sign_tsig( $key_name, $key );

sign_sig0

SIG0 support is provided through the Net::DNS::RR::SIG class. This class is not part of the default Net::DNS distribution but resides in the Net::DNS::SEC distribution.

    $update = new Net::DNS::Update('example.com');
    $update->push( update => rr_add('foo.example.com A 10.1.2.3'));
    $update->sign_sig0('Kexample.com+003+25317.private');

The method will call Carp::croak() if Net::DNS::RR::SIG can not be found.

verify and verifyerr

    $packet->verify()           || die $packet->verifyerr;
    $reply->verify( $query )    || die $reply->verifyerr;

Verify TSIG signature of packet or reply to the corresponding query.

    $packet->verify( $keyrr )           || die $packet->verifyerr;
    $packet->verify( [$keyrr, ...] )    || die $packet->verifyerr;

Verify SIG0 packet signature against one or more specified KEY RRs.

truncate

The truncate method takes a maximum length as argument and then tries to truncate the packet and set the TC bit according to the rules of RFC2181 Section 9.

The minimum maximum length that is honoured is 512 octets.

COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c)1997-2002 Michael Fuhr.

Portions Copyright (c)2002-2004 Chris Reinhardt.

Portions Copyright (c)2002-2009 Olaf Kolkman

Portions Copyright (c)2007-2013 Dick Franks

All rights reserved.

This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

SEE ALSO ^

perl, Net::DNS, Net::DNS::Update, Net::DNS::Header, Net::DNS::Question, Net::DNS::RR, Net::DNS::RR::TSIG, RFC1035 Section 4.1, RFC2136 Section 2, RFC2845

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