Paul Evans > Socket-GetAddrInfo-0.22 > Socket::GetAddrInfo

Download:
Socket-GetAddrInfo-0.22.tar.gz

Dependencies

Annotate this POD

CPAN RT

Open  0
View/Report Bugs
Module Version: 0.22   Source  

NAME ^

Socket::GetAddrInfo - address-family independent name resolving functions

SYNOPSIS ^

 use Socket qw( SOCK_STREAM );
 use Socket::GetAddrInfo qw( getaddrinfo getnameinfo );
 use IO::Socket;

 my %hints = ( socktype => SOCK_STREAM );
 my ( $err, @res ) = getaddrinfo( "www.google.com", "www", \%hints );

 die "Cannot resolve name - $err" if $err;

 my $sock;

 foreach my $ai ( @res ) {
    my $candidate = IO::Socket->new();

    $candidate->socket( $ai->{family}, $ai->{socktype}, $ai->{protocol} )
       or next;

    $candidate->connect( $ai->{addr} )
       or next;

    $sock = $candidate;
    last;
 }

 if( $sock ) {
    my ( $err, $host, $service ) = getnameinfo( $sock->peername );
    print "Connected to $host:$service\n" if !$err;
 }

DESCRIPTION ^

The RFC 2553 functions getaddrinfo and getnameinfo provide an abstracted way to convert between a pair of host name/service name and socket addresses, or vice versa. getaddrinfo converts names into a set of arguments to pass to the socket() and connect() syscalls, and getnameinfo converts a socket address back into its host name/service name pair.

These functions provide a useful interface for performing either of these name resolution operation, without having to deal with IPv4/IPv6 transparency, or whether the underlying host can support IPv6 at all, or other such issues. However, not all platforms can support the underlying calls at the C layer, which means a dilema for authors wishing to write forward-compatible code. Either to support these functions, and cause the code not to work on older platforms, or stick to the older "legacy" resolvers such as gethostbyname(), which means the code becomes more portable.

This module attempts to solve this problem, by detecting at compiletime whether the underlying OS will support these functions. If it does not, the module will use pure-perl emulations of the functions using the legacy resolver functions instead. The emulations support the same interface as the real functions, and behave as close as is resonably possible to emulate using the legacy resolvers. See Socket::GetAddrInfo::Emul for details on the limits of this emulation.

As of Perl version 5.14.0, Perl already supports getaddrinfo in core. On such a system, this module simply uses the functions provided by Socket, and does not need to use its own compiled XS, or pure-perl legacy emulation.

As Socket in core now provides all the functions also provided by this module, it is likely this may be the last released version of this module. And code currently using this module would be advised to switch to using core Socket instead.

EXPORT TAGS ^

The following tags may be imported by use Socket::GetAddrInfo qw( :tag ):

AI

Imports all of the AI_* constants for getaddrinfo flags

NI

Imports all of the NI_* constants for getnameinfo flags

EAI

Imports all of the EAI_* for error values

constants

Imports all of the above constants

FUNCTIONS ^

( $err, @res ) = getaddrinfo( $host, $service, $hints )

getaddrinfo turns human-readable text strings (containing hostnames, numeric addresses, service names, or port numbers) into sets of binary values containing socket-level representations of these addresses.

When given both host and service, this function attempts to resolve the host name to a set of network addresses, and the service name into a protocol and port number, and then returns a list of address structures suitable to connect() to it.

When given just a host name, this function attempts to resolve it to a set of network addresses, and then returns a list of these addresses in the returned structures.

When given just a service name, this function attempts to resolve it to a protocol and port number, and then returns a list of address structures that represent it suitable to bind() to.

When given neither name, it generates an error.

The optional $hints parameter can be passed a HASH reference to indicate how the results are generated. It may contain any of the following four fields:

flags => INT

A bitfield containing AI_* constants. At least the following flags will be available:

  • AI_PASSIVE

    Indicates that this resolution is for a local bind() for a passive (i.e. listening) socket, rather than an active (i.e. connecting) socket.

  • AI_CANONNAME

    Indicates that the caller wishes the canonical hostname (canonname) field of the result to be filled in.

  • AI_NUMERICHOST

    Indicates that the caller will pass a numeric address, rather than a hostname, and that getaddrinfo must not perform a resolve operation on this name. This flag will prevent a possibly-slow network lookup operation, and instead return an error, if a hostname is passed.

Other flags may be provided by the OS.

family => INT

Restrict to only generating addresses in this address family

socktype => INT

Restrict to only generating addresses of this socket type

protocol => INT

Restrict to only generating addresses for this protocol

Errors are indicated by the $err value returned; which will be non-zero in numeric context, and contain a string error message as a string. The value can be compared against any of the EAI_* constants to determine what the error is. Rather than explicitly checking, see also Socket::GetAddrInfo::Strict which provides functions that throw exceptions on errors.

If no error occurs, @res will contain HASH references, each representing one address. It will contain the following five fields:

family => INT

The address family (e.g. AF_INET)

socktype => INT

The socket type (e.g. SOCK_STREAM)

protocol => INT

The protocol (e.g. IPPROTO_TCP)

addr => STRING

The address in a packed string (such as would be returned by pack_sockaddr_in)

canonname => STRING

The canonical name for the host if the AI_CANONNAME flag was provided, or undef otherwise. This field will only be present on the first returned address.

( $err, $host, $service ) = getnameinfo( $addr, $flags, $xflags )

getnameinfo turns a binary socket address into a pair of human-readable strings, containing the host name, numeric address, service name, or port number.

The optional $flags parameter is a bitfield containing NI_* constants. At least the following flags will be available:

Other flags may be provided by the OS.

The optional $xflags parameter is a bitfield containing NIx_* constants. These are a Perl-level extension to the API, to indicate extra information.

Errors are indicated by the $err value returned; which will be non-zero in numeric context, and contain a string error message as a string. The value can be compared against any of the EAI_* constants to determine what the error is. Rather than explicitly checking, see also Socket::GetAddrInfo::Strict which provides functions that throw exceptions on errors.

EXAMPLES ^

Lookup for connect

The getaddrinfo function converts a hostname and a service name into a list of structures, each containing a potential way to connect() to the named service on the named host.

 my %hints = ( socktype => SOCK_STREAM );
 my ( $err, @res ) = getaddrinfo( $hostname, $servicename, \%hints );
 die "Cannot getaddrinfo - $err" if $err;

 my $sock;

 foreach my $ai ( @res ) {
    my $candidate = IO::Socket->new();

    $candidate->socket( $ai->{family}, $ai->{socktype}, $ai->{protocol} )
       or next;

    $candidate->connect( $ai->{addr} )
       or next;

    $sock = $candidate;
    last;
 }

Because a list of potential candidates is returned, the while loop tries each in turn until it it finds one that succeeds both the socket() and connect() calls.

This function performs the work of the legacy functions gethostbyname, getservbyname, inet_aton and pack_sockaddr_in.

Making a human-readable string out of an address

The getnameinfo function converts a socket address, such as returned by getsockname or getpeername, into a pair of human-readable strings representing the address and service name.

 my ( $err, $hostname, $servicename ) = getnameinfo( $socket->peername );
 die "Cannot getnameinfo - $err" if $err;

 print "The peer is connected from $hostname\n";

Since in this example only the hostname was used, the redundant conversion of the port number into a service name may be omitted by passing the NIx_NOSERV flag.

 my ( $err, $hostname ) = getnameinfo( $socket->peername, 0, NIx_NOSERV );

This function performs the work of the legacy functions unpack_sockaddr_in, inet_ntoa, gethostbyaddr and getservbyport.

Resolving hostnames into IP addresses

To turn a hostname into a human-readable plain IP address use getaddrinfo to turn the hostname into a list of socket structures, then getnameinfo on each one to make it a readable IP address again.

 my ( $err, @res ) = getaddrinfo( $hostname, "", { socktype => SOCK_RAW } );
 die "Cannot getaddrinfo - $err" if $err;

 while( my $ai = shift @res ) {
    my ( $err, $ipaddr ) = getnameinfo( $ai->{addr}, NI_NUMERICHOST, NIx_NOSERV );
    die "Cannot getnameinfo - $err" if $err;

    print "$ipaddr\n";
 }

The socktype hint to getaddrinfo filters the results to only include one socket type and protocol. Without this most OSes return three combinations, for SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_RAW, resulting in triplicate output of addresses. The NI_NUMERICHOST flag to getnameinfo causes it to return a string-formatted plain IP address, rather than reverse resolving it back into a hostname.

This combination performs the work of the legacy functions gethostbyname and inet_ntoa.

BUILDING WITHOUT XS CODE ^

In some environments it may be preferred not to build the XS implementation, leaving a choice only of the core or pure-perl emulation implementations.

 $ perl Build.PL --pp

or

 $ PERL_SOCKET_GETADDRINFO_NO_BUILD_XS=1 perl Build.PL 

BUGS ^

SEE ALSO ^

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ^

Christian Hansen <chansen@cpan.org> - for help with some XS features and Win32 build fixes.

Zefram <zefram@fysh.org> - for help with fixing some bugs in the XS code.

Reini Urban <rurban@cpan.org> - for help with older perls and more Win32 build fixes.

AUTHOR ^

Paul Evans <leonerd@leonerd.org.uk>

syntax highlighting: