Paul Evans > Tickit-0.45 > Tickit::RenderBuffer

Download:
Tickit-0.45.tar.gz

Dependencies

Annotate this POD

CPAN RT

New  1
Open  2
View/Report Bugs
Module Version: 0.45   Source   Latest Release: Tickit-0.46

NAME ^

Tickit::RenderBuffer - efficiently render text and linedrawing on Tickit windows

SYNOPSIS ^

 package Tickit::Widget::Something;
 ...

 sub render_to_rb
 {
    my $self = shift;
    my ( $rb, $rect ) = @_;

    $rb->eraserect( $rect );
    $rb->text_at( 2, 2, "Hello, world!", $self->pen );
 }

 $win->set_on_expose( with_rb => sub {
    my ( $win, $rb, $rect ) = @_;

    $rb->eraserect( $rect );
    $rb->text_at( 2, 2, "Hello, world!" );
 });

DESCRIPTION ^

Provides a buffer of pending rendering operations to apply to a Window. The buffer is modified by rendering operations performed by the widget, and flushed to the widget's window when complete.

This provides the following advantages:

Drawing methods come in two forms; absolute, and cursor-relative:

State Stack

The RenderBuffer stores a stack of saved state. The state of the buffer can be stored using the save method, so that changes can be made, before finally restoring back to that state using restore. The following items of state are saved:

When the state is saved to the stack, the render pen is remembered and merged with any pen set using the setpen method.

The queued content to render is not part of the state stack. It is intended that the state stack be used to implement recursive delegation of drawing operations down a tree of code, allowing child contexts to be created by saving state and modifying it, to later restore it again afterwards.

CONSTRUCTOR ^

$rb = Tickit::RenderBuffer->new( %args )

Returns a new instance of a Tickit::RenderBuffer.

Takes the following named arguments:

lines => INT
cols => INT

The size of the buffer area.

METHODS ^

$lines = $rb->lines

$cols = $rb->cols

Returns the size of the buffer area

$line = $rb->line

$col = $rb->col

Returns the current position of the virtual cursor, or undef if it is not set.

$rb->save

Pushes a new state-saving context to the stack, which can later be returned to by the restore method.

$rb->savepen

Pushes a new state-saving context to the stack that only stores the pen. This can later be returned to by the restore method, but will only restore the pen. Other attributes such as the virtual cursor position will be unaffected.

This may be more efficient for rendering runs of text in a different pen, than multiple calls to text or erase using the same pen. For a single call it is better just to pass a different pen directly.

$rb->restore

Pops and restores a saved state previously created with save.

$rb->clip( $rect )

Restricts the clipping rectangle of drawing operations to be no further than the limits of the given rectangle. This will apply to subsequent rendering operations but does not affect existing content, nor the actual rendering to the window.

Clipping rectangles cumulative; each call further restricts the drawing region. To revert back to a larger drawing area, use the save and restore stack.

$rb->mask( $rect )

Masks off the given area against any further changes. This will apply to subsequent rendering operations but does not affect the existing content, nor the actual rendering to the window.

Areas within the clipping region may be arbitrarily masked. Masks are scoped to the depth of the stack they are applied at; once the restore method is invoked, any masks applied since its corresponding save will be removed.

$rb->translate( $downward, $rightward )

Applies a translation to the coordinate system used by goto and the absolute-position methods *_at. After this call, all positions used will be offset by the given amount.

$rb->reset

Removes any pending changes and reverts the RenderBuffer to its default empty state. Undefines the virtual cursor position, resets the clipping rectangle, and clears the stack of saved state.

$rb->clear( $pen )

Resets every cell in the buffer to an erased state. A shortcut to calling erase_at for every line.

$rb->goto( $line, $col )

Sets the position of the virtual cursor.

$rb->setpen( $pen )

Sets the rendering pen to use for drawing operations. If a pen is set then a $pen argument is optional to any of the drawing methods. If a pen argument is supplied as well as having a stored pen, then the attributes are merged, with the directly-applied pen taking precedence.

Successive calls to this method will replace the active pen used, but if there is a saved state on the stack it will be merged with the rendering pen of the most recent saved state.

This method may be preferrable to passing pens into multiple text or erase calls as it may be more efficient than merging the same pen on every call. If the original pen is still required afterwards, the savepen / restore pair may be useful.

$rb->skip_at( $line, $col, $len )

Sets the range of cells given to a skipped state. No content will be drawn here, nor will any content existing on the window be erased.

Initially, or after calling reset, all cells are set to this state.

$rb->skip( $len )

Sets the range of cells at the virtual cursor position to a skipped state, and updates the position.

$rb->skip_to( $col )

Sets the range of cells from the virtual cursor position until before the given column to a skipped state, and updates the position to the column.

If the position is already past this column then the cursor is moved backwards and no buffer changes are made.

$cols = $rb->text_at( $line, $col, $text, $pen )

Sets the range of cells starting at the given position, to render the given text in the given pen.

Returns the number of columns wide the actual $text is (which may be more than was actually printed).

$cols = $rb->text( $text, $pen )

Sets the range of cells at the virtual cursor position to render the given text in the given pen, and updates the position.

Returns the number of columns wide the actual $text is (which may be more than was actually printed).

$rb->erase_at( $line, $col, $len, $pen )

Sets the range of cells given to erase with the given pen.

$rb->erase( $len, $pen )

Sets the range of cells at the virtual cursor position to erase with the given pen, and updates the position.

$rb->erase_to( $col, $pen )

Sets the range of cells from the virtual cursor position until before the given column to erase with the given pen, and updates the position to the column.

If the position is already past this column then the cursor is moved backwards and no buffer changes are made.

$rb->eraserect( $rect, $pen )

Sets the range of cells given by the rectangle to erase with the given pen.

LINE DRAWING ^

The RenderBuffer supports storing line-drawing characters in cells, and can merge line segments where they meet, attempting to draw the correct character for the segments that meet in each cell.

There are three exported constants giving supported styles of line drawing:

Note that linedrawing is performed by Unicode characters, and not every possible combination of line segments of differing styles meeting in a cell is supported by Unicode. The following sets of styles may be relied upon:

Other combinations are not directly supported (i.e. any combination of DOUBLE and THICK in the same cell, or any attempt to change from SINGLE to DOUBLE in either the vertical or horizontal direction). To handle these cases, a cell may be rendered with a substitution character which replaces a DOUBLE or THICK segment with a SINGLE one within that cell. The effect will be the overall shape of the line is retained, but close to the edge or corner it will have the wrong segment type.

Conceptually, every cell involved in line drawing has a potential line segment type at each of its four borders to its neighbours. Horizontal lines are drawn though the vertical centre of each cell, and vertical lines are drawn through the horizontal centre.

There is a choice of how to handle the ends of line segments, as to whether the segment should go to the centre of each cell, or should continue through the entire body of the cell and stop at the boundary. By default line segments will start and end at the centre of the cells, so that horizontal and vertical lines meeting in a cell will form a neat corner. When drawing isolated lines such as horizontal or vertical rules, it is preferrable that the line go right through the cells at the start and end. To control this behaviour, the $caps bitmask is used. CAP_START and CAP_END state that the line should consume the whole of the start or end cell, respectively; CAP_BOTH is a convenient shortcut specifying both behaviours.

A rectangle may be formed by combining two hline_at and two vline_at calls, without end caps:

 $rb->hline_at( $top,    $left, $right, $style, $pen );
 $rb->hline_at( $bottom, $left, $right, $style, $pen );
 $rb->vline_at( $top, $bottom, $left,  $style, $pen );
 $rb->vline_at( $top, $bottom, $right, $style, $pen );

$rb->hline_at( $line, $startcol, $endcol, $style, $pen, $caps )

Draws a horizontal line between the given columns (both are inclusive), in the given line style, with the given pen.

$rb->vline_at( $startline, $endline, $col, $style, $pen, $caps )

Draws a vertical line between the centres of the given lines (both are inclusive), in the given line style, with the given pen.

$rb->linebox_at( $startline, $endline, $startcol, $endcol, $style, $pen )

A convenient shortcut to calling two hline_at and two vline_at in order to draw a rectangular box.

$rb->char_at( $line, $col, $codepoint, $pen )

Sets the given cell to render the given Unicode character (as given by codepoint number, not character string) in the given pen.

While this is also achieveable by the text_at method, this method is implemented without storing a text segment, so can be more efficient than many single-column wide text_at calls. It will also be more efficient in the C library rewrite.

$cell = $rb->get_cell( $line, $col )

Returns a structure containing the content stored in the given cell. The $cell structure responds to the following methods:

$cell->char

On a skipped cell, returns undef. On a text or char cell, returns the unicode codepoint number. On a line or erased cell, returns 0.

$cell->linemask

On a line cell, returns a representation of the line segments in the cell. This is a sub-structure with four fields; north, south, east, west to represent the four cell borders; the value of each is either zero, or one of the LINE_ constants.

On any other kind of cell, returns undef.

$cell->pen

Returns the Tickit::Pen for non-skipped cells, or undef for skipped cells.

$rb->flush_to_window( $win )

Renders the stored content to the given Tickit::Window. After this, the buffer will be cleared and reset back to initial state.

Flushing to the window is now deprecated. Widgets should render to the renderbuffer given to their render_to_rb method. Applications that wish to perform lower-level drawing without Widgets or Windows should construct a renderbuffer and use the flush_to_term method.

$rb->flush_to_term( $term )

Renders the stored content to the given Tickit::Term. After this, the buffer will be cleared and reset back to initial state.

AUTHOR ^

Paul Evans <leonerd@leonerd.org.uk>

syntax highlighting: