Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni - Inflect Kebreni verbs
This documentation refers to version 0.90 of Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni, released on 2002-05-19.
use Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni; $word = Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni->new('kanu'); $inflection = $word->perfective; $inflection = $word->make_polite->benefactive->polite; $base = $word->base; $string = $word->to_string; # or use "$word"
This module allows you to inflect Kebreni verbs. Kebreni is a language spoken on the fictional world of Almea, created by Mark Rosenfelder. It has a rather "interesting" verbal system (of which Mark says he's particularly proud).
The module has an object-oriented interface. To use it, first create an object by calling the
new method and passing it the verb name in traditional orthography -- for example, 'kanu' or "z'ynu". Use the dictionary form (the imperfective) for this.
Now you can call various methods on this object. Each method, when successful, will return another object. This is useful becuause it is often necessary to chain method calls. For example, to form the volitional benefactive, call the 'benefactive' method on your verb object and then the 'volitional' method on the return value of the 'benefactive' method, for example, like this:
$inflected = $word->benefactive->volitional;
The module also has an overloaded "" function, so if you use a Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni object in a string context, it will give you the string representation. So you could print out the volitional benefactive of 'kanu' like this:
$inflected = Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni->new('kanu') ->benefactive ->volitional; print "The inflected form is $inflected\n";
You can also explicitly stringify an object by calling the
to_string method on it.
You cannot call the object methods in any order. Rather, you must adhere to the following order when creating complex verb forms:
See the individual documentation of each method to find out a bit more about what it does.
In general, polite and subordinating forms are mutually exclusive (since only the main, conjugated form of the verb in a clause will be marked for politeness), but they are presented as separate steps here because they do not have a close semantic relationship in the sense that benefactive and antibenefactive forms do (which are also mutually exclusive).
In general, methods return another Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni object when successful and croak if they have a problem.
This is the constructor for Lingua::Zompist::Kebreni objects. The most common calling method is as a class method; in this case, pass it the dictionary form of the verb you wish to inflect. You can also, optionally, pass in flags which will become the base flags of the verb. This is hardly ever necessary.
new can also be called as an object method; in this case, it can take up to three parameters. This is used internally but can also be used by end-users if desires. The first parameter is, again, the base verb; the second (optional) is flags which will be OR'ed into the flags of the object the method is called on; and the third (also optional) is an explicit base (this is used for verbs with suppletive polite forms, where the conjugation base is not the same as the dictionary base; in this case, the first parameter is the conjugation base and the third is the dictionary base which will be returned by the
This returns the base (dictionary form) of the current verb.
This returns the flags of the current verb form. Probably not very interesting except for developers.
This does nothing; it simply returns the object that it was called on. This can be useful, for example, if you are constructing a table of different verb forms by cycling through different possible inflections. Then instead of, say,
$word $word->perfective $word->volitional $word->volitional->perfective
you could use
$word->null->null $word->null->perfective $word->volitional->null $word->volitional->perfective
and have the same number of steps at each turn.
Forms the perfective form of a given word, given an imperfective form.
Forms the volitional form of a given word.
If you wish to make the polite form of a verb, you need two steps. First, you must call
make_polite as the first step, and then you must later call
polite at the appropriate point (for example, after you have formed the volitional perfective, or whatever form you wanted). The reason for this is that some verbs have suppletive polite forms, which are substituted right at the beginning of the conjugation process.
The currently recognised irregular verbs and their supplective polite base forms are:
verb polite badu seh'epu tasu soru es'u natu
This is used to form the polite form of a verb. The verb form must have had
make_polite called on it in the past.
If the current verb is the suppletive form of another verb, this operation is a null op[*]. In the interest of generality, it should always be called, even if the current verb is known to have a suppletive polite form.
[*] actually, not quite; this method still sets an internal flag on the word.
This method forms the benefactive form of a verb. To form the benefactive-to-listener form, you must later call the
ben2 method, which see.
This method changes a benefactive or antibenefactive form of a verb into the benefactive-to-listener or antibenefactive-to-listener form of the verb. Note that you do not, in general, call this method immediately after the
antiben method, since
perfective may come in between as well.
This method forms the antibenefactive form of a verb. To form the antibenefactive-to-listener form, you must later call the
ben2 method, which see.
This forms the subordinating form of a given verb.
This forms the "one who does" or "agent" form of a verb. This method, as well as the following ones, is called on the dictionary form of the verb (imperfective).
This forms the feminine "one who does" or "agent" form of a verb. This method is called on the dictionary form of a verb.
This method forms a word form that means "that has been Xed", which is a bit like a past participle. For more information, see the Kebreni grammar.
Use this method to form the action related to a verb.
Nothing by default. However, the following flags can be imported explicitly, either individually or all together using the tag ':flags'. They're mostly for internal use only, however.
BENEFACTIVE ANTIBEN VOLITIONAL PERFECTIVE DIR3 POLITE SUBORDINATE SUPPLETIVE MADE_POLITE
You called the
dir2 method without first calling either of
antiben. This makes no sense, as -to-listener forms only exist for benefactive and antibenefactive forms.
See also "Method calling order".
You apparently tried to call methods in the wrong order. See "Method calling order" for more information on which order to call methods in.
You apparently called a method on a verb which does not look as if it has the right form. Check your spelling, or see whether it's really a Kebreni verb.
Apparently, you wanted to form the polite form of a verb but forgot to call make_polite right at the beginning.
See also "Method calling order".
Philip Newton, <email@example.com>
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