Flavio Poletti > Log-Log4perl-Tiny-1.2.3 > Log::Log4perl::Tiny

Download:
Log-Log4perl-Tiny-1.2.3.tar.gz

Dependencies

Annotate this POD

CPAN RT

Open  2
View/Report Bugs
Module Version: 1.2.3   Source   Latest Release: Log-Log4perl-Tiny-1.2.4_02

NAME ^

Log::Log4perl::Tiny - mimic Log::Log4perl in one single module

VERSION ^

version 1.2.3

SYNOPSIS ^

   use Log::Log4perl::Tiny qw( :easy );
   Log::Log4perl->easy_init({
      file   => '>>/var/log/something.log',
      layout => '[%d] [%-5P:%-5p] %m%n',
      level  => $INFO,
   });

   WARN 'something weird happened';
   INFO 'just doing it';
   DEBUG 'this does not get printed at $INFO level';

   # LOGLEVEL isn't in Log::Log4perl, but might come handy
   LOGLEVEL($DEBUG);   # enable debugging for small section
   # otherwise, "get_logger()->level($DEBUG)", see below

   DEBUG 'now this gets printed';
   LOGLEVEL($INFO);    # disable debugging again
   DEBUG 'skipped, again';
   DEBUG 'complex evaluation value:', sub { 
      # evaluation skipped if log level filters DEBUG out
   };

   # Object-oriented interface is available as well
   my $logger = get_logger();
   $logger->level($DEBUG);   # enable debugging for small section
   $logger->debug('whatever you want');
   $logger->level($INFO);    # disable debugging again

   # All stealth loggers are available
   LOGCONFESS 'I cannot accept this, for a whole stack of reasons!';

   # Want to change layout?
   $logger->layout('[%d %p] %m%n');
   # or, equivalently
   $logger->format('[%d %p] %m%n');

   # Want to send the output somewhere else?
   use IO::Handle;
   open my $fh, '>>', '/path/to/new.log';
   $fh->autoflush();
   $logger->fh($fh);

   # Want to handle the output message by yourself?
   my @queue; # all log messages will be put here
   $logger->fh(sub { push @queue, $_[0] });

DESCRIPTION ^

Yes... yet another logging module. Nothing particularly fancy nor original, too, but a single-module implementation of the features I use most from Log::Log4perl for quick things, namely:

There are many, many things that are not included; probably the most notable one is the ability to provide a configuration file.

Why?

I have really nothing against Log::Log4perl, to the point that one of the import options is to check whether Log::Log4perl is installed and use it if possible. I just needed to crunch the plethora of modules down to a single-file module, so that I can embed it easily in scripts I use in machines where I want to reduce my impact as much as possible.

Log Levels

Log::Log4perl::Tiny implements all standard Log::Log4perl's log levels, without the possibility to change them. The correspondent values are available in the following variables (in order of increasing severity or importance):

$TRACE
$DEBUG
$INFO
$WARN
$ERROR
$FATAL

The default log level is $INFO. In addition to the above, the following levels are defined as well:

$OFF

also in Log::Log4perl, useful to turn off all logging except for ALWAYS

$DEAD

not in Log::Log4perl, when the threshold log level is set to this value every log is blocked (even when called from the ALWAYS stealth logger).

You can import these variables using the :levels import facility, or you can use the directly from the Log::Log4perl::Tiny namespace. They are imported automatically if the :easy import option is specified.

Default Log Level

As of version 1.1.0 the default logging level is still $INFO like any previous version, but it is possible to modify this value to $DEAD through the :dead_if_first import key.

This import key is useful to load Log::Log4perl in modules that you want to publish but where you don't want to force the end user to actually use it. In other terms, if you do this:

   package My::Module;
   use Log::Log4perl::Tiny qw( :easy :dead_if_first );

you will import all the functionalities associated to :easy but will silence the logger off unless somewhere else the module is loaded (and imported) without this option. In this way:

Easy Mode Overview

I love Log::Log4perl's easy mode because it lets you set up a sophisticated logging infrastructure with just a few keystrokes:

   use Log::Log4perl qw( :easy );
   Log::Log4perl->easy_init({
      file   => '>>/var/log/something.log',
      layout => '[%d] [%-5P:%-5p] %m%n',
      level  => $INFO,
   });
   INFO 'program started, yay!';

   use Data::Dumper;
   DEBUG 'Some stuff in main package', sub { Dumper(\%main::) };

If you want, you can replicate it with just a change in the first line:

   use Log::Log4perl::Tiny qw( :easy );
   Log::Log4perl->easy_init({
      file   => '>>/var/log/something.log',
      layout => '[%d] [%-5P:%-5p] %m%n',
      level  => $INFO,
   });
   INFO 'program started, yay!';

   use Data::Dumper;
   DEBUG 'Some stuff in main package', sub { Dumper(\%main::) };

Well... yes, I'm invading the Log::Log4perl namespace in order to reduce the needed changes as mush as possible. This is useful when I begin using Log::Log4perl and then realise I want to make a single script with all modules embedded. There is also another reason why I put easy_init() in Log::Log4perl namespace:

   use Log::Log4perl::Tiny qw( :full_or_fake :easy );
   Log::Log4perl->easy_init({
      file   => '>>/var/log/something.log',
      layout => '[%d] [%-5P:%-5p] %m%n',
      level  => $INFO,
   });
   INFO 'program started, yay!';

   use Data::Dumper;
   DEBUG 'Some stuff in main package', sub { Dumper(\%main::) };

With import option full_or_fake, in fact, the module first tries to load Log::Log4perl in the caller's namespace with the provided options (except full_or_fake, of course), returning immediately if it is successful; otherwise, it tries to "fake" Log::Log4perl and installs its own logging functions. In this way, if Log::Log4perl is available it will be used, but you don't have to change anything if it isn't.

Easy mode tries to mimic what Log::Log4perl does, or at least the things that (from a purely subjective point of view) are most useful: easy_init() and stealth loggers.

easy_init()

Log::Log4perl::Tiny only supports three options from the big brother:

level

the log level threshold. Logs sent at a higher or equal priority (i.e. at a more important level, or equal) will be printed out, the others will be ignored. The default value is $INFO;

file

a file name where to send the log lines. For compatibility with Log::Log4perl, a 2-arguments open() will be performed, which means you can easily set the opening mode, e.g. >>filename. The default is to send logging messages to STDERR;

layout

the log line layout (it can also be spelled format, they are synonims). The default value is the following:

   [%d] [%5p] %m%n

which means date in brackets, then log level in brackets always using five chars, left-aligned, the log message and a newline.

If you call easy_init() with a single unblessed scalar, it is considered to be the level and it will be set accordingly. Otherwise, you have to pass a hash ref with the keys above.

Stealth Loggers

Stealth loggers are functions that emit a log message at a given severity; they are installed when :easy mode is turned on (see "Easy Mode Overview").

They are named after the corresponding level:

TRACE
DEBUG
INFO
WARN
ERROR
FATAL

Additionally, you get the following logger functions (again, these are in line with Log::Log4perl):

ALWAYS

emit log whatever the configured logging level, apart from $OFF that disables all logging;

LOGWARN

emit log at WARN level and then warn() it;

LOGDIE

emit log at FATAL level, die() and then exit (if die() didn't already exit);

LOGEXIT

emit log at FATAL level and then exit;

LOGCARP

emit log at WARN level and then call Carp::carp();

LOGCLUCK

emit log at WARN level and then call Carp::cluck();

LOGCROAK

emit log at FATAL level and then call Carp::croak();

LOGCONFESS

emit log at FATAL level and then call Carp::confess();

If you want to set the exit code for LOGEXIT above (and LOGDIE as well, in case die() does not exit by itself), you can go "the Log::Log4perl way" and set $Log::Log4perl::LOGEXIT_CODE, or set a code with logexit_code() - but you have to wait to read something about the object-oriented interface before doing this!

There is also one additional stealth function that Log::Log4perl misses but that I think is of the outmoste importance: LOGLEVEL, to set the log level threshold for printing. If you want to be 100% compatible with Log::Log4perl, anyway, you should rather do the following:

   get_logger()->level(...);  # instead of LOGLEVEL(...)

This function does not get imported when you specify :easy, anyway, so you have to import it explicitly. This will help you remembering that you are deviating from Log::Log4perl.

Emitting Logs

To emit a log, you can call any of the stealth logger functions or any of the corresponding log methods. All the parameters that you pass are sent to the output stream as they are, except code references that are first evaluated. This lets you embed costly evaluations (e.g. generate heavy dumps of variabls) inside subroutines, and avoid the cost of evaluation in case the log is filtered out:

   use Data::Dumper;
   LOGLEVEL($INFO); # cut DEBUG and TRACE out
   TRACE 'costly evaluation: ', sub { Dumper($heavy_object) };
   # Dumper() is not actually called because DEBUG level is
   # filtered out

If you use the log() method, the first parameter is the log level, then the others are interpreted as described above.

Log Line Layout

The log line layout sets the contents of a log line. The layout is configured as a printf-like string, with placeholder identifiers that are modeled (with simplifications) after Log::Log4perl's ones:

    %c Category of the logging event.
    %C Fully qualified package (or class) name of the caller
    %d Current date in yyyy/MM/dd hh:mm:ss format
    %F File where the logging event occurred
    %H Hostname
    %l Fully qualified name of the calling method followed by the
       callers source the file name and line number between 
       parentheses.
    %L Line number within the file where the log statement was issued
    %m The message to be logged
    %M Method or function where the logging request was issued
    %n Newline (OS-independent)
    %p Priority of the logging event
    %P pid of the current process
    %r Number of milliseconds elapsed from program start to logging 
       event
    %% A literal percent (%) sign

Notably, both %x (NDC) and %X (MDC) are missing. Moreover, the extended specifier feature with additional info in braces (like %d{HH:mm}) is missing, i.e. the structure of each specifier above is fixed. (Thanks to Log::Tiny for the cool trick of how to handle the printf-like string, which is probably mutuated from Log::Log4perl itself according to the comments).

INTERFACE ^

You have two interfaces at your disposal, the functional one (with all the stealth logger functions) and the object-oriented one (with explicit actions upon a logger object). Choose your preferred option.

Functional Interface

The functional interface sports the following functions (imported automatically when :easy is passed as import option except for LOGLEVEL):

TRACE
DEBUG
INFO
WARN
ERROR
FATAL

stealth logger functions, each emits a log at the corresponding level;

ALWAYS

emit log whatever the configured logging level (except $DEAD);

LOGWARN

emit log at WARN level and then warn() it;

LOGDIE

emit log at FATAL level, die() and then exit (if die() didn't already exit);

LOGEXIT

emit log at FATAL level and then exit;

LOGCARP

emit log at WARN level and then call Carp::carp();

LOGCLUCK

emit log at WARN level and then call Carp::cluck();

LOGCROAK

emit log at FATAL level and then call Carp::croak();

LOGCONFESS

emit log at FATAL level and then call Carp::confess();

LOGLEVEL

(Not in Log::Log4perl) (Not imported with :easy)

set the minimum log level for sending a log message to the output;

Object-Oriented Interface

The functional interface is actually based upon actions on a pre-defined fixed instance of a Log::Log4perl::Tiny object, so you can do the same with a logger object as well:

get_logger

this function gives you the pre-defined logger instance (i.e. the same used by the stealth logger functions described above).

new

if for obscure reasons the default logger isn't what you want, you can get a brand new object! The constructor accepts either a list of key-values or a reference to a hash, supporting the following keys:

format
layout
file
level

see easy_init() and the methods below with the same name

fh

see method fh below

The methods you can call upon the object mimic the functional interface, but with lowercase method names:

trace
debug
info
warn
error
fatal

logging functions, each emits a log at the corresponding level;

is_trace
is_debug
is_info
is_warn
is_error
is_fatal
isTraceEnabled
isDebugEnabled
isInfoEnabled
isWarnEnabled
isErrorEnabled
isFatalEnabled

log level test functions, each returns the status of the corresponding level;

always

emit log whatever the configured logging level;

logwarn

emit log at WARN level (if allowed) and warn() (always);

logdie

emit log at FATAL level, die() and then exit (if die() didn't already exit);

logexit

emit log at FATAL level and then exit;

logcarp

emit log at WARN level and then call Carp::carp();

logcluck

emit log at WARN level and then call Carp::cluck();

logcroak

emit log at FATAL level and then call Carp::croak();

logconfess

emit log at FATAL level and then call Carp::confess();

The main logging function is actually the following:

log

the first parameter is the log level, the rest is the message to log apart from references to subroutines that are first evaluated

Additionally, you have the following accessors:

level

get/set the minimum level for sending messages to the output stream. By default the level is set to $INFO.

fh

get/set the output filehandle.

As an extention over Log::Log4perl, you can also set a reference to a subroutine as a filehandle, in which case it will be called with two parameters: the message that would be print and a reference to the logger object that is calling the sub. For example, if you simply want to collect the log messages without actually outputting them anywhere, you can do this:

   my @messages;
   get_logger()->fh(sub {
      my ($message, $logger) = @_;
      push @messages, $message;
      return;
   });

By default this parameter is set to be equal to STDERR.

format
layout

get/set the line formatting;

logexit_code

get/set the exit code to be used with logexit() (and logdie() as well if die() doesn't exit).

DEPENDENCIES ^

None.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS ^

No bugs have been reported.

Please report any bugs or feature requests through http://rt.cpan.org/

SEE ALSO ^

Log::Log4perl is one of the most useful modules I ever used, go check it!

AUTHOR ^

Flavio Poletti <polettix@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE ^

Copyright (C) 2010-2013 by Flavio Poletti <polettix@cpan.org>.

This module is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the Artistic License 2.0.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

syntax highlighting: