Paul W Bennett > Net-IPAddress-Util > Net::IPAddress::Util

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Module Version: 3.018   Source  

NAME ^

Net::IPAddress::Util - Version-agnostic representation of an IP address

VERSION ^

Version 3.018

SYNOPSIS ^

    use Net::IPAddress::Util qw( IP );

    my $ipv4  = IP('192.168.0.1');
    my $ipv46 = IP('::ffff:192.168.0.1');
    my $ipv6  = IP('fe80::1234:5678:90ab');

    print "$ipv4\n";  # 192.168.0.1
    print "$ipv46\n"; # 192.168.0.1
    print "$ipv6\n";  # fe80::1234:5678:90ab

    print $ipv4->normal_form()  . "\n"; # 00000000000000000000ffffc0a80001
    print $ipv46->normal_form() . "\n"; # 00000000000000000000ffffc0a80001
    print $ipv6->normal_form()  . "\n"; # fe8000000000000000001234567890ab

    for (my $ip = IP('192.168.0.0'); $ip <= IP('192.168.0.255'); $ip++) {
        # do something with $ip
    }

DESCRIPTION ^

The goal of the Net::IPAddress::Util modules is to make IP addresses easy to deal with, regardless of whether they're IPv4 or IPv6, and regardless of the source (and destination) of the data being manipulated. The module Net::IPAddress::Util is for working with individual addresses, Net::IPAddress::Util::Range is for working with individual ranges of addresses, and Net::IPAddress::Util::Collection is for working with collections of addresses and/or ranges.

GLOBAL VARIABLES ^

$Net::IPAddress::Util::DIE_ON_ERROR

Set to a true value to make errors confess(). Set to a false value to make errors cluck(). Defaults to false.

$Net::IPAddress::Util::PROMOTE_N32

Set to a true value to make new() assume that bare 32-bit (or smaller) numbers are supposed to represent IPv4 addresses, and promote them accordingly (i.e. to do implicitly what n32_to_ipv4() does). Set to a false value to make new() treat all bare numbers as 128-bit numbers representing IPv6 addresses. Defaults to false.

EXPORTABLE FUNCTIONS ^

explode_ip

implode_ip

Transform an IP address to and from an array of 128 bits, MSB-first.

common_prefix

Given two bit arrays (as provided by explode_ip), return the truncated bit array of the prefix bits those two arrays have in common.

prefix_mask

Given two bit arrays (as provided by explode_ip), return a truncated bit array of ones of the same length as the shared common_prefix of the two arrays.

ip_pad_prefix

Take a truncated bit array, and right-pad it with zeroes to the appropriate length.

ipv4_mask

Returns a bitmask that can be ANDed against an IP to pull out only the IPv4-relevant bits, that is the N32 portion with the 0xffff appended to its front.

ipv4_flag

Returns a bitmask that can be ORed onto an N32 to make it a proper "IPv4 stored as IPv6" N128.

radix_sort

Given an array of objects, sorts them in ascending order, faster than Perl's built-in sort command.

For those who understand the math, a radix sort is O(N) instead of O(N log N) (the speed of Perl's builtin sort()), but it does discard duplicates, so ymmv. There are also (rare) corner cases in which radix_sort() can chew up so much RAM that it causes paging / swapping, which will slow down the process dramatically.

Also note that this particular radix sort implementation is technically kinda O(48 * N) (even though one would normally ignore a simple multiplier factor), so the break even point is actually nice and low (something close to 4 or more addresses) for it to be worth the setup and teardown costs associated.

COMPATIBILITY API ^

ip2num

num2ip

validaddr

mask

fqdn

These functions are exportable to provide a functionally-identical API to that provided by Net::IPAddress. They will cause warnings to be issued if they are called, to help you in your transition to Net::IPAddress::Util, if indeed that's what you're doing -- and I can't readily imagine any other reason you'd want to export them from here (as opposed to from Net::IPAddress) unless that's indeed what you're doing.

EXPORT TAGS ^

:constr

Exports IP() and n32_to_ipv4(), both useful for creating objects based on arbitrary external data.

:manip

Exports the functions for low-level "bit-twiddling" of addresses. You very probably don't need these unless you're writing your own equivalent of the Net::IPAddress::Util::Range or Net::IPAddress::Util::Collection modules.

:sort

Exports radix_sort(). You only need this if you're dealing with very large arrays of Net::IPAddress::Util objects, and runtime is of critical concern.

:compat

Exports the Compatibility API functions listed above.

:all

Exports all exportable functions.

CONSTRUCTORS ^

new

Create a new Net::IPAddress::Util object, based on a well-formed IPv4 or IPv6 address string (e.g. '192.168.0.1' or 'fe80::1234:5678:90ab'), or based on what is known by this module as the "normal form", a 32-digit hex number (without the leading '0x').

IP

The exportable function IP() is a shortcut for Net::IPAddress::Util->new().

    my $xyzzy = Net::IPAddress::Util->new($foo);
    my $plugh = IP($foo); # Exactly the same thing, but with less typing

n32_to_ipv4

The exportable function n32_to_ipv4() converts an IPv4 address in "N32" format (i.e. a network-order 32-bit number) into an Net::IPAddress::Util object representing the same IPv4 address.

OVERLOADS ^

This module overloads a number of operators (cmp, <=>, &, |, ~, +, -, <<, >>) in hopefully obvious ways.

OBJECT METHODS ^

is_ipv4

Returns true if this object represents an IPv4 address.

ipv4

Returns the dotted-quad representation of this object, or an error if it is not an IPv4 address, for instance '192.168.0.1'.

as_n32

Returns the "N32" representation of this object (that is, a 32-bit number in network order) if this object represents an IPv4 address, or an error if it does not.

as_n128

Returns the "N128" representation of this object (that is, a 128-bit number in network order).

You may supply one optional argument. If this argument is true, the return value will be a Math::BigInt object (allowing quickish and easy math involving two such return values), otherwise (if it is false (the default)), then the N128 number will be returned as a bare string. If your platform can handle math with unsigned 128-bit integers, or if you will not be doing math on the results, then I strongly recommend the latter (default / false) option for performance reasons. In the true-argument case, you're advised to stringify the Math::BigInt math results as soon as is practical for performance reasons -- Math::BigInt is not "CPU free".

ipv6

Returns the canonical IPv6 string representation of this object, for instance 'fe80::1234:5678:90ab' or '::ffff:192.168.0.1'.

ipv6_expanded

Returns the IPv6 string representation of this object, without compressing extraneous zeroes, for instance 'fe80:0000:0000:0000:0000:1234:5678:90ab'.

normal_form

Returns the value of this object as a zero-padded 32-digit hex string, without the leading '0x', suitable (for instance) for storage in a database, or for other purposes where easy, fast sorting is desirable, for instance 'fe8000000000000000001234567890ab'.

'""'

str

as_str

as_string

If this object is an IPv4 address, it stringifies to the result of ipv4, else it stringifies to the result of ipv6.

INTERNAL FUNCTIONS ^

ERROR

Either confess()es or cluck()s the passed string based on the value of $Net::IPAddress::Util::DIE_ON_ERROR, and if possible returns undef.

LICENSE ^

May be redistributed and/or modified under terms of the Artistic License v2.0.

AUTHOR ^

PWBENNETT -- paul(dot)w(dot)bennett(at)gmail.com

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