Jens Rehsack > SQL-Statement > SQL::Statement::Embed

Download:
SQL-Statement-1.405.tar.gz

Annotate this POD

CPAN RT

New  7
Open  8
Stalled  7
View/Report Bugs
Source  

NAME ^

SQL::Statement::Embed - embed a SQL engine in a DBD or module

SYNOPSIS ^

DESCRIPTION ^

SQL::Statement is designed to be easy to embed in other modules and to be especially easy to embed in DBI drivers. It provides a SQL Engine and the other module needs to then provide a data source and a storage mechanism. For example, the DBD::CSV module uses SQL::Statement as an embedded SQL engine by implementing a file-based data source and by using DBI as the user interface. Similarly DBD::Amazon uses SQL::Statement as its SQL engine, provides its own extensions to the supported SQL syntax, and uses on-the-fly searches of Amazon.com as its data source.

SQL::Statement is the basis for at least eight existing DBDs (DBI database drivers). If you have a new data source, you too can create a DBD without having to reinvent the SQL wheel. It is fun and easy so become a DBD author today!

SQL::Statement can be also be embedded without DBI. We will explore that first since developing a DBD uses most of the same methods and techniques.

The role of SQL::Statement subclasses ^

SQL::Statement provides a SQL parsing and execution engine. It neither provides a data source nor storage mechanism other than in-memory tables. The DBI::DBD::SqlEngine contains a subclass of SQL::Statement to abstract from embedding SQL::Statement into a DBD and lets you concentrate on the extensions you need to make. DBD::File extends DBI::DBD::SqlEngine by providing access to file-based storage mechanisms. It is quite possible to use things other than files as data souces, in which case you would not use DBD::File, instead you would replace DBD::File's methods with your own. In the examples below, we use DBD::File, replacing only a few methods.

SQL::Statement provides SQL parsing and evaluation and DBI::DBD::SqlEngine provides DBI integration. The only thing missing is a data source - what we actually want to store and query. As an example suppose we are going to create a subclass called 'Foo' that will provide as a data source the in-memory storage which is used in SQL::RAM to provide the TEMP tables in SQL::Statement, but the rows are stored as a string using a serializer (Storable).

Consider what needs to happen to perform a SELECT query on our 'Foo' data:

 * receive a SQL string
 * parse the SQL string into a request structure
 * open the table(s) specified in the request
 * define column names and positions for the table
 * read rows from the table
 * convert the rows from colon-separated format into perl arrays
 * match the columns and rows against the requested selection criteria
 * return requested rows and columns to the user

To perform operations like INSERT and DELETE, we also need to:

 * convert rows from perl arrays into colon-separated format
 * write rows
 * delete rows

SQL::Statement takes care of all of the SQL parsing and evaluation. DBD::File takes care of file opening, reading, writing, and deleting. So the only things 'Foo' is really responsible for are:

 * define column names and positions for the table
 * convert rows from colon-separated format into perl arrays
 * convert rows from perl arrays into colon-separated format

In SQL::Statement subclasses these responsibilities are assigned to two objects. A ::Statement object is responsible for opening the table by creating new ::Table objects. A ::Table object is responsible for defining the column names and positions, opening data sources, reading, converting, writing and deleting data.

The real work is demzufolge done in the ::Table object, the ::Statement subclass is required to deliver the right ::Table object.

Creating a ::Statement object ^

A subclass of SQL::Statement must provide at least one method called open_table(). The method should open a new Table object and define the table's columns. For our 'Foo' module, here is the complete object definition:

    package Foo;

    package Foo::Statement;
    use DBD::File;
    use base qw(DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::Statement);

    sub open_table {
        my ($self, $sth, $table, $createMode, $lockMode) = @_;

        my $class = ref $self;
        $class =~ s/::Statement/::Table/;

        return $class->new ($sth, $table, $createMode, $lockMode);
    }

Since 'Foo' is an in-memory data source, we subclass SQL::Statement indirectly through DBD::File::Statement. The open_table() method lets DBD::File do the actual table opening. All we do is define the files directory (f_dir), the names of the columns (col_names) and the positions of the columns (col_nums). DBD::File creates and returns a $tbl object. It names that object according to the module that calls it, so in our case the object will be a Foo::Table object.

Creating a ::Table object ^

Table objects are responsible for reading, converting, writing, and deleting data. Since DBD::File provides most of those services, our 'Foo' subclass only needs to define three methods - fetch_row() to read data, push_row() to write data, and push_names() to store column names. We will leave deleting to DBD::File, since deleting a record in the 'Foo' format is the same process as deleting a record in any other simple file-based format. Here is the complete object defintion:

 package Foo::Table;
 use base qw(DBD::File::Table);

 sub fetch_row {
    my($self, $data) = @_;
    my $fieldstr = $self->{fh}->getline;
    return undef unless $fieldstr;
    chomp $fieldstr;
    my @fields   = split /:/,$fieldstr;
    $self->{row} = (@fields ? \@fields : undef);
 }
 sub push_row {
    my($self, $data, $fields) = @_;
    my $str = join ':', map { defined $_ ? $_ : '' } @$fields;
    $self->{fh}->print( $str."\n");
    1;
 }
 sub push_names {}
 1;

The fetch_row() method uses DBD::File's getline() method to physically read a row of data, then we convert it from native colon-separated format into a perl arrayref.

The push_row() method converts from a perl arrayref back to colon-separated format then uses DBD::File's print() method to print it to file.

The push_names method does nothing because it's purpose is to store column names in a file and in our 'Foo' subclass, we are defining the column names ourselves, not storing them in a file.

Trying out our new subclass ^

Here is a script which should create and query a file in our 'Foo' format. It assumes you have saved the Foo, Foo::Statement, and Foo::Table classes shown above into a file called Foo.pm.

 #!perl -w
 use strict;
 use Foo;
 my $parser = SQL::Parser->new();
 $parser->{RaiseError}=1;
 $parser->{PrintError}=0;
 for my $sql(split /\n/,
 "  DROP TABLE IF EXISTS group_id
    CREATE TABLE group_id (username CHAR,uid INT, gid INT)
    INSERT INTO group_id VALUES('joe',1,1)
    INSERT INTO group_id VALUES('sue',2,1)
    INSERT INTO group_id VALUES('bob',3,2)
    SELECT * FROM group_id             "
 ){
    my $stmt = Foo::Statement->new($sql,$parser);
    $stmt->execute;
    next unless $stmt->command eq 'SELECT';
    while (my $row=$stmt->fetch) {
        print "@$row\n";
    }
 }

This is the same script as shown in the section on executing and fetching in SQL::Statement::Structure except that instead of SQL::Statement->new(), we are using Foo::Statement->new(). The other difference is that the execute/fetch example was using in-memory storage while this script is using file-based storage and the 'Foo' format we defined. When you run this script, you will be creating a file called "group_id" and it will contain the specified data in colon-separated format.

Developing a new DBD ^

Moving from a subclass to a DBD

A DBD based on SQL::Statement uses the same two subclasses that are shown above. They should be called DBD::Foo::Statement and DBD::Foo::Table, but would otherwise be identical to the non-DBD subclass illustrated above. To turn it into a full DBD, you have to sublass DBD::File, DBD::File::dr, DBD::File::db, and DBD::File::st. In many cases a simple subclass with few or no methods overridden is sufficient.

Here is a working DBD::Foo:

 package DBD::Foo;
 use base qw(DBD::File);

 package DBD::Foo::dr;
 $DBD::Foo::dr::imp_data_size = 0;
 use base qw(DBD::File::dr);

 package DBD::Foo::db;
 $DBD::Foo::db::imp_data_size = 0;
 use base qw(DBD::File::db);

 package DBD::Foo::st;
 $DBD::Foo::st::imp_data_size = 0;
 use base qw(DBD::File::st);

 package DBD::Foo::Statement;
 use base qw(DBD::File::Statement);

 sub open_table {
     my $self = shift @_;
     my $data = shift @_;
     $data->{Database}->{f_dir} = './';
     my $tbl  = $self->SUPER::open_table($data,@_);
     $tbl->{col_names} = [qw(username uid gid)];
     $tbl->{col_nums}  = {username=>0,uid=>1,gid=>2};
     return $tbl;
 }

 package DBD::Foo::Table;
 use base qw(DBD::File::Table);

 sub fetch_row {
    my($self, $data) = @_;
    my $fieldstr = $self->{fh}->getline;
    return undef unless $fieldstr;
    chomp $fieldstr;
    my @fields   = split /:/,$fieldstr;
    $self->{row} = (@fields ? \@fields : undef);
 }
 sub push_row {
     my($self, $data, $fields) = @_;
     my $str = join ':', map { defined $_ ? $_ : '' } @$fields;
     $self->{fh}->print( $str."\n");
     1;
 }
 sub push_names {}
 1;

A sample script to test our new DBD

Assuming you saved the DBD::Foo shown above as a file called "Foo.pm" in a directory called "DBD", this script will work, so will most other DBI methods such as selectall_arrayref, fetchrow_hashref, etc.

 #!perl -w
 use strict;
 use lib qw(/home/jeff/data/module/lib); # or wherever you stored DBD::Foo
 use DBI;
 my $dbh=DBI->connect('dbi:Foo:');
 $dbh->{RaiseError}=1;
 $dbh->{PrintError}=0;
 for my $sql(split /\n/,
 "  DROP TABLE IF EXISTS group_id
    CREATE TABLE group_id (username CHAR,uid INT, gid INT)
    INSERT INTO group_id VALUES('joe',1,1)
    INSERT INTO group_id VALUES('sue',2,1)
    INSERT INTO group_id VALUES('bob',3,2)
    SELECT * FROM group_id             "
 ){
    my $stmt = $dbh->prepare($sql);
    $stmt->execute;
    next unless $stmt->{NUM_OF_FIELDS};
    while (my $row=$stmt->fetch) {
        print "@$row\n";
    }
 }

Expanding the DBD ^

Now that we have a basic DBD operational, there are several directions for expansion. In the first place, we might want to override some or all of DBD::File::Table to provide alternate means of reading, writing, and deleting from our data source. We might want to override the open_table() method to provide a different means of identifying column names (e.g. reading them from the file itself) or to provide other kinds of metadata. See SQL::Eval for documentation of the API for ::Table objects and see DBD::File for an example subclass.

We might want to create extensions to the SQL syntax specific to our DBD. See the section on extending SQL syntax in SQL::Statement::Syntax.

We might want to provide a completely different kind of data source. See DBD::DBM (whose source code includes documentation on subclassing SQL::Statement and DBD::File), and other DBD::File subclasses such as DBD::CSV.

We might also want to provide a completely different storage mechanism, something not based on files at all. See DBD::Amazon and DBD::AnyData.

And we will almost certainly want to fine-tune the DBI interface, see DBI::DBD.

Getting help with a new DBD ^

The dbi-devATperl.org mailing list should be your first stop in creating a new DBD. Tim Bunce, the author of DBI and many DBD authors hang out there. Tell us what you are planning and we will offer suggestions about similar modules or other people working on similar issues, or on how to proceed.

AUTHOR & COPYRIGHT ^

  Copyright (c) 2005, Jeff Zucker <jzuckerATcpan.org>, all rights reserved.
  Copyright (c) 2010, Jens Rehsack <rehsackATcpan.org>, all rights reserved.

This document may be freely modified and distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.

syntax highlighting: