Eric J. Roode > Enumeration-0.03 > Enumeration

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NAME ^

Enumeration - Yet Another enumeration class implementation.

VERSION ^

This is version 0.03 of Enumeration, of March 26, 2008.

SYNOPSIS ^

 # Usually you will subclass Enumeration, and others will use your subclass.
 use YourSubClass;
 use YourSubClass ':all';   # import enumeration constants

 # Class methods (used when subclassing; see below)
 __PACKAGE__->set_enumerations( qw(red yellow blue green) );

 # Creation
 $var = new Enumeration (@allowable_values);
 $var = new YourSubClass;
 $var = new YourSubClass($initial_value);

 # Set the value
 $var->set($new_value);        # (note: undef is always allowed)

 # Return the value
 $string = $var->value;        # "YourSubClass::enum_value"
 $string = $var->bare_value;   # "enum_value"
 $string = "$var";             # same as ->value

 # Compare
 $boolean = $var eq $some_value;
 $boolean = $var ne $some_value;
 $boolean = $var->is_any(@list_of_possible_values);
 $boolean = $var->is_none(@list_of_possible_values);

 # Test whether some value is a member of the set
 $boolean = YourSubClass->is_allowable_value($some_value);
 $boolean = $var->is_allowable_value($some_value);

DESCRIPTION ^

This module provides an enumeration class for Perl. For those of you who are not familiar with this concept from other languages, an enumeration is a class whose instantiated objects may only be assigned values that come from a fixed list.

There are two ways of using this module. Typically, you will create a subclass that inherits from Enumeration and which specifies the list of allowable values. This is very simple. Your class module will contain only three lines of code:

 # MyEnumeration.pm
 #
 package MyEnumeration;
 use base 'Enumeration';
 __PACKAGE__->set_enumerations( qw(red yellow blue green) );

Programs will use this class as follows:

 # some_program.pl
 #
 use MyEnumeration;
 # ....
 my $var = new MyEnumeration(MyEnumeration::yellow);
 # or just: $var = new MyEnumeration;

Users of your subclass may choose to have all of your enumeration symbols imported into their namespace. They do this by using the string ':all' on the use line:

 use MyEnumeration ':all';
 # ....
 my $var = new MyEnumeration(yellow);

The other way to use this module is for when you need an ad-hoc enumeration at run-time:

 # some_program.pl
 #
 my $var = new Enumeration qw(whee this is fun);

CLASS METHODS ^

set_enumerations
 __PACKAGE__->set_enumerations(@list_of_values);

If you choose to create an enumeration by subclassing Enumeration (which is the typical way of using this module), your module will need to use this method to indicate which values are legal for objects to hold.

Each of these symbols will be converted into a constant in the namespace of your subclass module. This is to make it easy for your callers to use the enumerations symbolically:

 my $thing = new MySubClass;
 $thing->set(MySubClass::yellow);

Users of your module may choose to import your symbols into their own namespace as well, by using the special symbol ':all' on the use line.

Users may also use string values ('yellow' instead of MySubClass::yellow), but this makes the user's code more susceptible to typos, as the strings will be checked at run-time instead of at compile-time.

Because the values are converted to perl constants (subroutines), it makes sense for you to choose enumeration values that are also syntactically-valid perl symbols. That is, they should contain only alphanumeric and underscore characters, and should not begin with a numeric character. This is not a requirement, just a guideline. It is perfectly valid to use any characters whatsoever; but your users will not be able to use the symbolic form if you don't follow this guideline.

This method always returns a true value, so your module will compile correctly; that is, you do not need the silly "1;" line that modules generally need in order to avoid the common "did not return a true value" error.

is_allowable_value
 $boolean = SomeClass->is_allowable_value(some_value);

Simple boolean test as to whether a given value is in the enumeration list for a given class.

OBJECT METHODS ^

new
 $obj = new YourSubClass;
 $obj = new YourSubClass (initial_value);
 $obj = new Enumeration qw(list of allowable values);

Creates a new Enumeration object. If an ad-hoc list of allowable values is provided, an initial value cannot be specified (so use "set"). If an initial value is provided (to an Enumeration subclass), it must be undef or in the class's list of enumerated values. Otherwise, it will croak.

is_allowable_value
 $boolean = $obj->is_allowable_value(some_value);

Returns true if the value specified is an allowable value for the object to have. (This has nothing to do with the object's current value; it's a test of whether the value passed could be assigned to the object, based on its class's allowable list of values).

set
 $obj->set(new_value);

Sets the enumeration object's value to the specified new value. Croaks if the new value is not allowed for this enumeration.

value
 $str = $obj->value;

Returns the object's current value as a string. This string is the object's class, two colons, and its enumeration value. So it is of the form:

 YourSubClass::your_value
bare_value
 $str = $obj->bare_value;

Returns the object's current value as a string, without the object's class prepended to it.

"" (stringification overload)
 print "Its value is '$obj'\n";

In string context, an enumeration constant is converted to its current value; that is, the same string that "value" would return.

is
 $bool = $obj->is(some_value);
 $bool = $obj->is($another_enum_object);

Compares an enumeration object's current value to the specified value, or to another enumeration object.

If two objects are being compared, they must be of the same class as well as value in order to be considered equal.

If a value is being compared, it must be an allowable value for the object to take on, or else this method will croak.

is_any
 $bool = $obj->is_any (value, another_value, $object, ...);

Returns true if an enumeration object's current value matches any of a given list of possible values.

Croaks if any of the values in the list are not legal values for the object to have.

is_none
 $bool = $obj->is_none (value, another_value, $object, ...);

Returns true if an enumeration object's current value does NOT match ANY of a given list of possible values.

Croaks if any of the values in the list are not legal values for the object to have.

eq
 $boolean = $obj eq some_value;
 $boolean = $obj1 eq $obj2;

Compares the object for equality to a value or another object. The same thing as the "is" method, but easier to use.

ne
 $boolean = $obj ne some_value;
 $boolean = $obj1 ne $obj2;

Compares the object for inequality to a value or another object.

EXAMPLE ^

 # File: Color.pm
 #
 package Color;
 use base 'Enumeration';
 __PACKAGE__->set_enumerations(qw(red yellow blue brown black green white));

 # File: some_program.pl
 #
 use strict;
 use warnings;
 use Color ':all';
 #
 #
 my $color = new Color(red);
 print "Color is currently $color\n";
 #
 $color->set(white);
 print "Color is now $color\n";
 #
 print "I TOLD you it's white!\n" if $color eq white;
 #
 $color->set('purple');   # dies.

EXPORTS ^

None. But if you subclass this module, then people who use your module will have the option to have symbols imported into their namespace.

AUTHOR/COPYRIGHT ^

Copyright (c) 2008 by Eric J. Roode, ROODE -at- cpan -dot- org

All rights reserved.

To avoid my spam filter, please include "Perl", "module", or this module's name in the message's subject line, and/or GPG-sign your message.

This module is copyrighted only to ensure proper attribution of authorship and to ensure that it remains available to all. This module is free, open-source software. This module may be freely used for any purpose, commercial, public, or private, provided that proper credit is given, and that no more-restrictive license is applied to derivative (not dependent) works.

Substantial efforts have been made to ensure that this software meets high quality standards; however, no guarantee can be made that there are no undiscovered bugs, and no warranty is made as to suitability to any given use, including merchantability. Should this module cause your house to burn down, your dog to collapse, your heart-lung machine to fail, your spouse to desert you, or George Bush to be re-elected, I can offer only my sincere sympathy and apologies, and promise to endeavor to improve the software.

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