Rutger Vos > Bio-Phylo-0.56 > Bio::Phylo::Forest::TreeRole

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NAME ^

Bio::Phylo::Forest::TreeRole - Extra behaviours for a phylogenetic tree

SYNOPSIS ^

 # some way to get a tree
 use Bio::Phylo::IO;
 my $string = '((A,B),C);';
 my $forest = Bio::Phylo::IO->parse(
    -format => 'newick',
    -string => $string
 );
 my $tree = $forest->first;

 # do something:
 print $tree->calc_imbalance;

 # prints "1"

DESCRIPTION ^

The object models a phylogenetic tree, a container of Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node objects. The tree object inherits from Bio::Phylo::Listable, so look there for more methods.

METHODS ^

CONSTRUCTORS

new()

Tree constructor.

 Type    : Constructor
 Title   : new
 Usage   : my $tree = Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree->new;
 Function: Instantiates a Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Args    : No required arguments.
new_from_bioperl()

Tree constructor from Bio::Tree::TreeI argument.

 Type    : Constructor
 Title   : new_from_bioperl
 Usage   : my $tree = 
           Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree->new_from_bioperl(
               $bptree           
           );
 Function: Instantiates a 
           Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Args    : A tree that implements Bio::Tree::TreeI

QUERIES

get_midpoint()

Gets node that divides tree into two distance-balanced partitions.

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_midpoint
 Usage   : my $midpoint = $tree->get_midpoint;
 Function: Gets node nearest to the middle of the longest path
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node object.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: This algorithm was ported from ETE
get_terminals()

Get terminal nodes.

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_terminals
 Usage   : my @terminals = @{ $tree->get_terminals };
 Function: Retrieves all terminal nodes in
           the Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Returns : An array reference of 
           Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node objects.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: If the tree is valid, this method 
           retrieves the same set of nodes as 
           $node->get_terminals($root). However, 
           because there is no recursion it may 
           be faster. Also, the node method by 
           the same name does not see orphans.
get_internals()

Get internal nodes.

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_internals
 Usage   : my @internals = @{ $tree->get_internals };
 Function: Retrieves all internal nodes 
           in the Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Returns : An array reference of 
           Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node objects.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: If the tree is valid, this method 
           retrieves the same set of nodes as 
           $node->get_internals($root). However, 
           because there is no recursion it may 
           be faster. Also, the node method by 
           the same name does not see orphans.
get_cherries()

Get all cherries, i.e. nodes that have two terminal children

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_cherries
 Usage   : my @cherries = @{ $tree->get_cherries };
 Function: Returns an array ref of cherries
 Returns : ARRAY
 Args    : NONE
get_all_rootings()

Gets a forest of all rooted versions of the invocant tree.

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_all_rootings
 Usage   : my $forest = $tree->get_all_rootings;
 Function: Returns an array ref of cherries
 Returns : Bio::Phylo::Forest object
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: This method assumes the invocant tree has a basal trichotomy.
           "Rooted" trees with a basal bifurcation will give strange
           results.
get_root()

Get root node.

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_root
 Usage   : my $root = $tree->get_root;
 Function: Returns the root node.
 Returns : Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node
 Args    : NONE
get_ntax()

Gets number of tips

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_ntax
 Usage   : my $ntax = $tree->get_ntax;
 Function: Calculates the number of terminal nodes
 Returns : Int
 Args    : NONE
get_tallest_tip()

Retrieves the node furthest from the root.

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_tallest_tip
 Usage   : my $tip = $tree->get_tallest_tip;
 Function: Retrieves the node furthest from the
           root in the current Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree
           object.
 Returns : Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: If the tree has branch lengths, the tallest tip is
           based on root-to-tip path length, else it is based
           on number of nodes to root
get_nodes_for_taxa()

Gets node objects for the supplied taxon objects

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_nodes_for_taxa
 Usage   : my @nodes = @{ $tree->get_nodes_for_taxa(\@taxa) };
 Function: Gets node objects for the supplied taxon objects
 Returns : array ref of Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node objects
 Args    : A reference to an array of Bio::Phylo::Taxa::Taxon objects
           or a Bio::Phylo::Taxa object
get_mrca()

Get most recent common ancestor of argument nodes.

 Type    : Query
 Title   : get_mrca
 Usage   : my $mrca = $tree->get_mrca(\@nodes);
 Function: Retrieves the most recent 
           common ancestor of \@nodes
 Returns : Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node
 Args    : A reference to an array of 
           Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node objects 
           in $tree.

TESTS

is_binary()

Test if tree is bifurcating.

 Type    : Test
 Title   : is_binary
 Usage   : if ( $tree->is_binary ) {
              # do something
           }
 Function: Tests whether the invocant 
           object is bifurcating.
 Returns : BOOLEAN
 Args    : NONE
is_ultrametric()

Test if tree is ultrametric.

 Type    : Test
 Title   : is_ultrametric
 Usage   : if ( $tree->is_ultrametric(0.01) ) {
              # do something
           }
 Function: Tests whether the invocant is 
           ultrametric.
 Returns : BOOLEAN
 Args    : Optional margin between pairwise 
           comparisons (default = 0).
 Comments: The test is done by performing 
           all pairwise comparisons for
           root-to-tip path lengths. Since many 
           programs introduce rounding errors 
           in branch lengths the optional argument is
           available to test TRUE for nearly 
           ultrametric trees. For example, a value 
           of 0.01 indicates that no pairwise
           comparison may differ by more than 1%. 
           Note: behaviour is undefined for 
           negative branch lengths.
is_monophyletic()

Tests if first argument (node array ref) is monophyletic with respect to second argument.

 Type    : Test
 Title   : is_monophyletic
 Usage   : if ( $tree->is_monophyletic(\@tips, $node) ) {
              # do something
           }
 Function: Tests whether the set of \@tips is
           monophyletic w.r.t. $outgroup.
 Returns : BOOLEAN
 Args    : A reference to a list of nodes, and a node.
 Comments: This method is essentially the
           same as 
           &Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node::is_outgroup_of.
is_paraphyletic()
 Type    : Test
 Title   : is_paraphyletic
 Usage   : if ( $tree->is_paraphyletic(\@nodes,$node) ){ }
 Function: Tests whether or not a given set of nodes are paraphyletic
           (representing the full clade) given an outgroup
 Returns : [-1,0,1] , -1 if the group is not monophyletic
                       0 if the group is not paraphyletic
                       1 if the group is paraphyletic
 Args    : Array ref of node objects which are in the tree,
           Outgroup to compare the nodes to
is_clade()

Tests if argument (node array ref) forms a clade.

 Type    : Test
 Title   : is_clade
 Usage   : if ( $tree->is_clade(\@tips) ) {
              # do something
           }
 Function: Tests whether the set of 
           \@tips forms a clade
 Returns : BOOLEAN
 Args    : A reference to an array of Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node objects, or a
           reference to an array of Bio::Phylo::Taxa::Taxon objects, or a
           Bio::Phylo::Taxa object
 Comments:
is_cladogram()

Tests if tree is a cladogram (i.e. no branch lengths)

 Type    : Test
 Title   : is_cladogram
 Usage   : if ( $tree->is_cladogram() ) {
              # do something
           }
 Function: Tests whether the tree is a 
           cladogram (i.e. no branch lengths)
 Returns : BOOLEAN
 Args    : NONE
 Comments:

CALCULATIONS

calc_branch_length_distance()

Calculates the Euclidean branch length distance between two trees.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_branch_length_distance
 Usage   : my $distance = 
           $tree1->calc_branch_length_distance($tree2);
 Function: Calculates the Euclidean branch length distance between two trees
 Returns : SCALAR, number
 Args    : NONE
calc_branch_length_score()

Calculates the squared Euclidean branch length distance between two trees.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_branch_length_score
 Usage   : my $score = 
           $tree1->calc_branch_length_score($tree2);
 Function: Calculates the squared Euclidean branch
           length distance between two trees
 Returns : SCALAR, number
 Args    : NONE
calc_tree_length()

Calculates the sum of all branch lengths.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_tree_length
 Usage   : my $tree_length = 
           $tree->calc_tree_length;
 Function: Calculates the sum of all branch 
           lengths (i.e. the tree length).
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
calc_tree_height()

Calculates the height of the tree.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_tree_height
 Usage   : my $tree_height = 
           $tree->calc_tree_height;
 Function: Calculates the height 
           of the tree.
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: For ultrametric trees this 
           method returns the height, but 
           this is done by averaging over 
           all root-to-tip path lengths, so 
           for additive trees the result 
           should consequently be interpreted
           differently.
calc_number_of_nodes()

Calculates the number of nodes.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_number_of_nodes
 Usage   : my $number_of_nodes = 
           $tree->calc_number_of_nodes;
 Function: Calculates the number of 
           nodes (internals AND terminals).
 Returns : INT
 Args    : NONE
calc_number_of_terminals()

Calculates the number of terminal nodes.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_number_of_terminals
 Usage   : my $number_of_terminals = 
           $tree->calc_number_of_terminals;
 Function: Calculates the number 
           of terminal nodes.
 Returns : INT
 Args    : NONE
calc_number_of_internals()

Calculates the number of internal nodes.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_number_of_internals
 Usage   : my $number_of_internals = 
           $tree->calc_number_of_internals;
 Function: Calculates the number 
           of internal nodes.
 Returns : INT
 Args    : NONE
calc_number_of_cherries()

Calculates the number of cherries, i.e. the number of nodes that subtend exactly two tips. See for applications of this metric: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-5564(99)00060-7

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_number_of_cherries
 Usage   : my $number_of_cherries = 
           $tree->calc_number_of_cherries;
 Function: Calculates the number of cherries
 Returns : INT
 Args    : NONE
calc_total_paths()

Calculates the sum of all root-to-tip path lengths.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_total_paths
 Usage   : my $total_paths = 
           $tree->calc_total_paths;
 Function: Calculates the sum of all 
           root-to-tip path lengths.
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
calc_redundancy()

Calculates the amount of shared (redundant) history on the total.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_redundancy
 Usage   : my $redundancy = 
           $tree->calc_redundancy;
 Function: Calculates the amount of shared 
           (redundant) history on the total.
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: Redundancy is calculated as
 1 / ( treelength - height / ( ntax * height - height ) )
calc_imbalance()

Calculates Colless' coefficient of tree imbalance.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_imbalance
 Usage   : my $imbalance = $tree->calc_imbalance;
 Function: Calculates Colless' coefficient 
           of tree imbalance.
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: As described in Colless, D.H., 1982. 
           The theory and practice of phylogenetic 
           systematics. Systematic Zoology 31(1): 100-104
calc_i2()

Calculates I2 imbalance.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_i2
 Usage   : my $ci2 = $tree->calc_i2;
 Function: Calculates I2 imbalance.
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
 Comments:
calc_gamma()

Calculates the Pybus gamma statistic.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_gamma
 Usage   : my $gamma = $tree->calc_gamma();
 Function: Calculates the Pybus gamma statistic
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: As described in Pybus, O.G. and 
           Harvey, P.H., 2000. Testing
           macro-evolutionary models using 
           incomplete molecular phylogenies. 
           Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267, 2267-2272
calc_fiala_stemminess()

Calculates stemminess measure of Fiala and Sokal (1985).

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_fiala_stemminess
 Usage   : my $fiala_stemminess = 
           $tree->calc_fiala_stemminess;
 Function: Calculates stemminess measure 
           Fiala and Sokal (1985).
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: As described in Fiala, K.L. and 
           R.R. Sokal, 1985. Factors 
           determining the accuracy of 
           cladogram estimation: evaluation 
           using computer simulation. 
           Evolution, 39: 609-622
calc_rohlf_stemminess()

Calculates stemminess measure from Rohlf et al. (1990).

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_rohlf_stemminess
 Usage   : my $rohlf_stemminess = 
           $tree->calc_rohlf_stemminess;
 Function: Calculates stemminess measure 
           from Rohlf et al. (1990).
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: As described in Rohlf, F.J., 
           W.S. Chang, R.R. Sokal, J. Kim, 
           1990. Accuracy of estimated 
           phylogenies: effects of tree 
           topology and evolutionary model. 
           Evolution, 44(6): 1671-1684
calc_resolution()

Calculates tree resolution.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_resolution
 Usage   : my $resolution = 
           $tree->calc_resolution;
 Function: Calculates the number 
           of internal nodes over the
           total number of internal nodes 
           on a fully bifurcating
           tree of the same size.
 Returns : FLOAT
 Args    : NONE
calc_branching_times()

Calculates cumulative branching times.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_branching_times
 Usage   : my $branching_times = 
           $tree->calc_branching_times;
 Function: Returns a two-dimensional array. 
           The first dimension consists of 
           the "records", so that in the 
           second dimension $AoA[$first][0] 
           contains the internal node references, 
           and $AoA[$first][1] the branching 
           time of the internal node. The 
           records are orderered from root to 
           tips by time from the origin.
 Returns : SCALAR[][] or FALSE
 Args    : NONE
calc_waiting_times()

Calculates intervals between splits.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_waiting_times
 Usage   : my $waitings = 
           $tree->calc_waiting_times;
 Function: Returns a two-dimensional array. 
           The first dimension consists of 
           the "records", so that in the 
           second dimension $AoA[$first][0] 
           contains the internal node references, 
           and $AoA[$first][1] the waiting 
           time of the internal node. The 
           records are orderered from root to 
           tips by time from the origin.
 Returns : SCALAR[][] or FALSE
 Args    : NONE
calc_node_ages()

Calculates node ages.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_node_ages
 Usage   : $tree->calc_node_ages;
 Function: Calculates the age of all the nodes in the tree (i.e. the distance
           from the tips) and assigns these to the 'age' slot, such that,
           after calling this method, the age of any one node can be retrieved
           by calling $node->get_generic('age');
 Returns : The invocant
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: This method computes, in a sense, the opposite of
           calc_branching_times: here, we compute the distance from the tips
           (i.e. how long ago the split occurred), whereas calc_branching_times
           calculates the distance from the root.
calc_ltt()

Calculates lineage-through-time data points.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_ltt
 Usage   : my $ltt = $tree->calc_ltt;
 Function: Returns a two-dimensional array. 
           The first dimension consists of the 
           "records", so that in the second 
           dimension $AoA[$first][0] contains 
           the internal node references, and
           $AoA[$first][1] the branching time 
           of the internal node, and $AoA[$first][2] 
           the cumulative number of lineages over
           time. The records are orderered from 
           root to tips by time from the origin.
 Returns : SCALAR[][] or FALSE
 Args    : NONE
calc_symdiff()

Calculates the symmetric difference metric between invocant and argument. This metric is identical to the Robinson-Foulds tree comparison distance. See http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-5564(81)90043-2

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_symdiff
 Usage   : my $symdiff = 
           $tree->calc_symdiff($other_tree);
 Function: Returns the symmetric difference 
           metric between $tree and $other_tree, 
           sensu Penny and Hendy, 1985.
 Returns : SCALAR
 Args    : A Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object
 Comments: Trees in comparison must span 
           the same set of terminal taxa
           or results are meaningless.
calc_fp()

Calculates the Fair Proportion value for each terminal.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_fp
 Usage   : my $fp = $tree->calc_fp();
 Function: Returns the Fair Proportion 
           value for each terminal
 Returns : HASHREF
 Args    : NONE
calc_es()

Calculates the Equal Splits value for each terminal

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_es
 Usage   : my $es = $tree->calc_es();
 Function: Returns the Equal Splits value for each terminal
 Returns : HASHREF
 Args    : NONE
calc_pe()

Calculates the Pendant Edge value for each terminal.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_pe
 Usage   : my $es = $tree->calc_pe();
 Function: Returns the Pendant Edge value for each terminal
 Returns : HASHREF
 Args    : NONE
calc_shapley()

Calculates the Shapley value for each terminal.

 Type    : Calculation
 Title   : calc_shapley
 Usage   : my $es = $tree->calc_shapley();
 Function: Returns the Shapley value for each terminal
 Returns : HASHREF
 Args    : NONE

VISITOR METHODS

The following methods are a - not entirely true-to-form - implementation of the Visitor design pattern: the nodes in a tree are visited, and rather than having an object operate on them, a set of code references is used. This can be used, for example, to serialize a tree to a string format. To create a newick string without branch lengths you would use something like this (there is a more powerful 'to_newick' method, so this is just an example):

 $tree->visit_depth_first(
        '-pre_daughter'   => sub { print '('             },     
        '-post_daughter'  => sub { print ')'             },     
        '-in'             => sub { print shift->get_name },
        '-pre_sister'     => sub { print ','             },     
 );
 print ';';
visit_depth_first()

Visits nodes depth first

 Type    : Visitor method
 Title   : visit_depth_first
 Usage   : $tree->visit_depth_first( -pre => sub{ ... }, -post => sub { ... } );
 Function: Visits nodes in a depth first traversal, executes subs
 Returns : $tree
  Args    : Optional handlers in the order in which they would be executed on an internal node:
                        
                        # first event handler, is executed when node is reached in recursion
                        -pre            => sub { print "pre: ",            shift->get_name, "\n" },

                        # is executed if node has a daughter, but before that daughter is processed
                        -pre_daughter   => sub { print "pre_daughter: ",   shift->get_name, "\n" },
                        
                        # is executed if node has a daughter, after daughter has been processed 
                        -post_daughter  => sub { print "post_daughter: ",  shift->get_name, "\n" },

                        # is executed whether or not node has sisters, if it does have sisters
                        # they're processed first       
                        -in             => sub { print "in: ",             shift->get_name, "\n" },
                        
                        # is executed if node has a sister, before sister is processed
                        -pre_sister     => sub { print "pre_sister: ",     shift->get_name, "\n" },     
                        
                        # is executed if node has a sister, after sister is processed
                        -post_sister    => sub { print "post_sister: ",    shift->get_name, "\n" },                                                     
                        
                        # is executed last                      
                        -post           => sub { print "post: ",           shift->get_name, "\n" },
                        
                        # specifies traversal order, default 'ltr' means first_daugher -> next_sister
                        # traversal, alternate value 'rtl' means last_daughter -> previous_sister traversal
                        -order          => 'ltr', # ltr = left-to-right, 'rtl' = right-to-left
 Comments: 
visit_breadth_first()

Visits nodes breadth first

 Type    : Visitor method
 Title   : visit_breadth_first
 Usage   : $tree->visit_breadth_first( -pre => sub{ ... }, -post => sub { ... } );
 Function: Visits nodes in a breadth first traversal, executes handlers
 Returns : $tree
 Args    : Optional handlers in the order in which they would be executed on an internal node:
                        
                        # first event handler, is executed when node is reached in recursion
                        -pre            => sub { print "pre: ",            shift->get_name, "\n" },
                        
                        # is executed if node has a sister, before sister is processed
                        -pre_sister     => sub { print "pre_sister: ",     shift->get_name, "\n" },     
                        
                        # is executed if node has a sister, after sister is processed
                        -post_sister    => sub { print "post_sister: ",    shift->get_name, "\n" },                     
                        
                        # is executed whether or not node has sisters, if it does have sisters
                        # they're processed first       
                        -in             => sub { print "in: ",             shift->get_name, "\n" },                     
                        
                        # is executed if node has a daughter, but before that daughter is processed
                        -pre_daughter   => sub { print "pre_daughter: ",   shift->get_name, "\n" },
                        
                        # is executed if node has a daughter, after daughter has been processed 
                        -post_daughter  => sub { print "post_daughter: ",  shift->get_name, "\n" },                             
                        
                        # is executed last                      
                        -post           => sub { print "post: ",           shift->get_name, "\n" },
                        
                        # specifies traversal order, default 'ltr' means first_daugher -> next_sister
                        # traversal, alternate value 'rtl' means last_daughter -> previous_sister traversal
                        -order          => 'ltr', # ltr = left-to-right, 'rtl' = right-to-left
 Comments: 
visit_level_order()

Visits nodes in a level order traversal.

 Type    : Visitor method
 Title   : visit_level_order
 Usage   : $tree->visit_level_order( sub{...} );
 Function: Visits nodes in a level order traversal, executes sub
 Returns : $tree
 Args    : A subroutine reference that operates on visited nodes.
 Comments:

TREE MANIPULATION

chronompl()

Modifies branch lengths using the mean path lengths method of Britton et al. (2002). For more about this method, see: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00268-3

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : chronompl
 Usage   : $tree->chronompl;
 Function: Makes tree ultrametric using MPL method
 Returns : The modified, now ultrametric invocant.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: 
grafenbl()

Computes and assigns branch lengths using Grafen's method, which makes node ages proportional to clade size. For more about this method, see: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1989.0106

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : grafenbl
 Usage   : $tree->grafenbl;
 Function: Assigns branch lengths using Grafen's method
 Returns : The modified, now ultrametric invocant.
 Args    : Optional, a power ('rho') to which all node ages are raised
 Comments: 
agetobl()

Converts node ages to branch lengths

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : agetobl
 Usage   : $tree->agetobl;
 Function: Converts node ages to branch lengths
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: This method uses ages as assigned to the generic 'age' slot
           on the nodes in the trees. I.e. for each node in the tree,
           $node->get_generic('age') must return a number
ultrametricize()

Sets all root-to-tip path lengths equal.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : ultrametricize
 Usage   : $tree->ultrametricize;
 Function: Sets all root-to-tip path 
           lengths equal by stretching
           all terminal branches to the 
           height of the tallest node.
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments: This method is analogous to 
           the 'ultrametricize' command
           in Mesquite, i.e. no rate smoothing 
           or anything like that happens, just 
           a lengthening of terminal branches.
scale()

Scales the tree to the specified height.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : scale
 Usage   : $tree->scale($height);
 Function: Scales the tree to the 
           specified height.
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : $height = a numerical value 
           indicating root-to-tip path length.
 Comments: This method uses the 
           $tree->calc_tree_height method, and 
           so for additive trees the *average* 
           root-to-tip path length is scaled to
           $height (i.e. some nodes might be 
           taller than $height, others shorter).
resolve()

Randomly breaks polytomies.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : resolve
 Usage   : $tree->resolve;
 Function: Randomly breaks polytomies by inserting 
           additional internal nodes.
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    :
 Comments:
prune_tips()

Prunes argument nodes from invocant.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : prune_tips
 Usage   : $tree->prune_tips(\@taxa);
 Function: Prunes specified taxa from invocant.
 Returns : A pruned Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Args    : A reference to an array of taxon names, or a taxa block, or a
           reference to an array of taxon objects, or a reference to an
           array of node objects
 Comments:
keep_tips()

Keeps argument nodes from invocant (i.e. prunes all others).

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : keep_tips
 Usage   : $tree->keep_tips(\@taxa);
 Function: Keeps specified taxa from invocant.
 Returns : The pruned Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object.
 Args    : Same as prune_tips, but with inverted meaning
 Comments:
negative_to_zero()

Converts negative branch lengths to zero.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : negative_to_zero
 Usage   : $tree->negative_to_zero;
 Function: Converts negative branch 
           lengths to zero.
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments:
ladderize()

Sorts nodes in ascending (or descending) order of number of children.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : ladderize
 Usage   : $tree->ladderize(1);
 Function: Sorts nodes
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : Optional, a true value to reverse the sort order
sort_tips()

Sorts nodes in (an approximation of) the provided ordering. Given an array reference of taxa, an array reference of name strings or a taxa object, this method attempts to order the tips in the same way. It does this by recursively computing the rank for all internal nodes by taking the average rank of its children. This results in the following orderings:

 (a,b,c,d,e,f); => $tree->sort_tips( [ qw(a c b f d e) ] ) => (a,c,b,f,d,e);
 
 (a,b,(c,d),e,f); => $tree->sort_tips( [ qw(a b e d c f) ] ); => (a,b,(e,(d,c)),f);
 
 ((a,b),((c,d),e),f); => $tree->sort_tips( [ qw(a e d c b f) ] ); => ((e,(d,c)),(a,b),f);

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : sort_tips
 Usage   : $tree->sort_tips($ordering);
 Function: Sorts nodes
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : Required, an array reference (or taxa object) whose ordering to match
exponentiate()

Raises branch lengths to argument.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : exponentiate
 Usage   : $tree->exponentiate($power);
 Function: Raises branch lengths to $power.
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : A $power in any of perl's number formats.
log_transform()

Log argument base transform branch lengths.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : log_transform
 Usage   : $tree->log_transform($base);
 Function: Log $base transforms branch lengths.
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : A $base in any of perl's number formats.
remove_unbranched_internals()

Collapses internal nodes with fewer than 2 children.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : remove_unbranched_internals
 Usage   : $tree->remove_unbranched_internals;
 Function: Collapses internal nodes 
           with fewer than 2 children.
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments:
remove_orphans()

Removes all unconnected nodes.

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : remove_orphans
 Usage   : $tree->remove_orphans;
 Function: Removes all unconnected nodes
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : NONE
 Comments:
deroot()

Collapses one of the children of a basal bifurcation

 Type    : Tree manipulator
 Title   : deroot
 Usage   : $tree->deroot;
 Function: Removes root
 Returns : The modified invocant.
 Args    : Optional: node to collapse
 Comments:

UTILITY METHODS

clone()

Clones invocant.

 Type    : Utility method
 Title   : clone
 Usage   : my $clone = $object->clone;
 Function: Creates a copy of the invocant object.
 Returns : A copy of the invocant.
 Args    : Optional: a hash of code references to 
           override reflection-based getter/setter copying

           my $clone = $object->clone(  
               'set_forest' => sub {
                   my ( $self, $clone ) = @_;
                   for my $forest ( @{ $self->get_forests } ) {
                       $clone->set_forest( $forest );
                   }
               },
               'set_matrix' => sub {
                   my ( $self, $clone ) = @_;
                   for my $matrix ( @{ $self->get_matrices } ) {
                       $clone->set_matrix( $matrix );
                   }
           );

 Comments: Cloning is currently experimental, use with caution.
           It works on the assumption that the output of get_foo
           called on the invocant is to be provided as argument
           to set_foo on the clone - such as 
           $clone->set_name( $self->get_name ). Sometimes this 
           doesn't work, for example where this symmetry doesn't
           exist, or where the return value of get_foo isn't valid
           input for set_foo. If such a copy fails, a warning is 
           emitted. To make sure all relevant attributes are copied
           into the clone, additional code references can be 
           provided, as in the example above. Typically, this is
           done by overrides of this method in child classes.

SERIALIZERS

to_nexus()

Serializes invocant to nexus string.

 Type    : Stringifier
 Title   : to_nexus
 Usage   : my $string = $tree->to_nexus;
 Function: Turns the invocant tree object 
           into a nexus string
 Returns : SCALAR
 Args    : Any arguments that can be passed to Bio::Phylo::Forest::to_nexus
to_newick()

Serializes invocant to newick string.

 Type    : Stringifier
 Title   : to_newick
 Usage   : my $string = $tree->to_newick;
 Function: Turns the invocant tree object 
           into a newick string
 Returns : SCALAR
 Args    : NONE
to_xml()

Serializes invocant to xml.

 Type    : Serializer
 Title   : to_xml
 Usage   : my $xml = $obj->to_xml;
 Function: Turns the invocant object into an XML string.
 Returns : SCALAR
 Args    : NONE
to_svg()

Serializes invocant to SVG.

 Type    : Serializer
 Title   : to_svg
 Usage   : my $svg = $obj->to_svg;
 Function: Turns the invocant object into an SVG string.
 Returns : SCALAR
 Args    : Same args as the Bio::Phylo::Treedrawer constructor
 Notes   : This will only work if you have the SVG module
           from CPAN installed on your system.
to_dom()
 Type    : Serializer
 Title   : to_dom
 Usage   : $tree->to_dom($dom)
 Function: Generates a DOM subtree from the invocant
           and its contained objects
 Returns : an Element object
 Args    : DOM factory object

SEE ALSO ^

There is a mailing list at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/bio-phylo for any user or developer questions and discussions.

Bio::Phylo::Listable

The Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree object inherits from the Bio::Phylo::Listable object, so the methods defined therein also apply to trees.

Bio::Phylo::Manual

Also see the manual: Bio::Phylo::Manual and http://rutgervos.blogspot.com.

CITATION ^

If you use Bio::Phylo in published research, please cite it:

Rutger A Vos, Jason Caravas, Klaas Hartmann, Mark A Jensen and Chase Miller, 2011. Bio::Phylo - phyloinformatic analysis using Perl. BMC Bioinformatics 12:63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-12-63

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